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The Cell

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    The Cell The Cell Presentation Transcript

    • The Organelles of the Cell A scientific production by Leah- Marie Duran
    • The Cell The cell is the basic structure of all living things all organisms are composed of one or more cells the cell is the basic unit of structure and organization of organisms all cells come from preexisting cells
    • Cell Membrane • The Cell Membrane is the flexible boundary between the cell and its environment that has the job of allowing a steady supply of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids and lipids to come into the cell no matter what external conditions are
    • Cell Wall •the cell wall forms an inflexible barrier around the cell that protects the cell and gives it support •it is a fairly rigid structure located outside the plasma membrane that provides additional support and protection
    • The Nucleus the nucleus is the center of the cell the nucleus is the leader of eukaryotic cells because it contains the directions to make proteins every part of the cell depends on proteins the nucleus controls the activity of the cell’s organelles it is the “brain” of the cell
    • Nucleolus • a prominent organelle within the nucleus which makes ribosomes • it is not surrounded by a membrane • it assembles ribosomes
    • Cytoplasm •the cytoplasm is the clear, gelatinous fluid inside the cell •for proteins to be made, ribosomes must leave the nucleus and enter the cytoplasm •the blueprints contained in DNA must be translated into RNA to enter the cytoplasm
    • Ribosomes •ribosomes are the sites where the cell produces proteins according to thee directions of DNA •they are not bound by a membrane, but are simple structures made of RNA and protein
    • Rough and Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum • the endoplasmic reticulum is an organelle in eukaryotic cells that is the site or cellular of chemical reactions, and is arranged in a series of highly folded membranes in the cytoplasm • The rough endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes attached on its surface and carry out the function of protein synthesis • the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is an area of the endoplasmic reticulum that is not studded with ribosomes. it is involved in numerous biochemical activities, including the production and storage of lipids
    • Golgi Apparatus • the Golgi Apparatus is a flattened stack of tubular membranes that modifies proteins • it sorts the proteins into packages and packs them into membrane- bound structures called vesicles to be sent to the right destination
    • Vacuoles • vacuoles are a membrane bound compartments for temporary storage of materials • a sac is used to store food, enzymes and other materials needed by the cell • animal cells usually do not have vacuoles, and they do they are very small • plant cells have very large vacuoles
    • Lysosomes • Lysosome are organelles that contain digestive enzymes • the membrane around lysosomes prevents digestive enzymes inside from destroying the cell
    • Chloroplasts ★ chloroplasts are cell organelles that capture light energy and convert it into chemical energy ★ chloroplasts are the heart generator, located in the cells of green plants and some protists
    • Plastids a group of plant organelles used for storage some store starches or lipids, some contain pigments chloroplasts belong to a group of plant organelles called plastids
    • Mitochondria • mitochondria is a membrane bound organelles in plant and animal cells that transform energy for the cell • they have an outer membrane and a highly folded inner membrane
    • Cytoskeleton a support structure of the cell within the cytoplasm made of microtubules and microfilaments
    • Microtubules and Microfilaments • microtubules are thin, hollow cylinders made of protein • they maintain the shape of the cell with the help of microfilaments • they are part of the cytoskeleton • microfilaments are smaller, solid, protein fibers • they are the smallest part of the cytoskeleton that maintains the shape of the cell with the
    • Centrioles centrioles are organelles found in the cells of animals and mostly protists they occur in pairs and are made up of microtubules they play an important part in cell division
    • Cilia and Flagella ✦ cilia are short, numerous projections that look like hairs, with a motion similar to that of oars of a boat ✦ flagella are larger projections that move with a whip- like motion. a cell usually has 1 or 2 flagella. in unicellular organisms, cilia and flagella are a major means of locomotion