What areLearning Styles? Presented by: Leah Gomes
Discover Your Learning Style There are three basic types of learning styles. The three most common are visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. Each person has different learning preferences and styles that benefit them. To learn, we depend on our senses to process the information around us. Most people tend to use one of their senses more than the others.www.educationcorner.com/learning-styles.html people.usd.edu/~bwjames/tut/learning-style
Visual Learning Style Overview take numerous detailed notes tend to sit in the front often close their eyes to visualize or remember something find something to watch if they are bored like to see what they are learning benefit from illustrations and presentations that use colorpeople.usd.edu/~bwjames/tut/learning-style
Auditory Learning Style Overview sit where they can hear but neednt pay attention to what is happening in front may not coordinate colors or clothes, but can explain why they are wearing what they are wearing and why hum or talk to themselves or others when bored acquire knowledge by reading aloud remember by verbalizing lessons to themselvespeople.usd.edu/~bwjames/tut/learning-style
Kinesthetic Learning Style Overview need to be active and take frequent breaks speak with their hands and with gestures remember what was done, but have difficulty recalling what was said or seen find reasons to tinker or move when bored rely on what they can directly experience or perform enjoy field trips and tasks that involve manipulating materials sit near the door or someplace else where they can easily get up and move around are uncomfortable in classrooms where they lack opportunities for hands-on experiencepeople.usd.edu/~bwjames/tut/learning-style
Overview● Helpful Tips● Time Management● Skills for your Learning Style● Note taking skills● Studying skills● Exam strategies
Helpful Tips● Prepare by skimming ahead o Power-point notes or text● Study by yourself daily o Keep in mind your learning preference● Study regularly with a group/partner o Ask/Answer questions and practice presentations● Ask for help! o Contact faculty (e-mail, voicemail, in person) o Find a local Learning Center
Helpful Tips● Dont Skip Class ● Important for all types of learning styles ● To use class time to cram for other courses is counter-productive Penn State Study: A students miss an average of ½ class per semester C students miss an average of 4 classes per semester
Time Management “Hard work is often the easy work you did not do at the proper time.” – Bernard Meltzer Time management is an important skill for all students because you usually need to juggle many different activities in a very busy life. http://www.timethoughts.com/timemanagement/time-management-college-students.htm
Time Management● Make a schedule – Study time, breaks, personal time● Establish a routine – Work out time, meals, studying● Limit activities while studying – IM, email, television, snacking● Study ahead
Top 10 Tips forTime Management1. Look at the big picture2. Figure out what a week looks like3. Keep your plan in sight4. Make a list5. Be flexible6. Be realistic7. Break down big assignments8. Create your best study conditions9. When studying, use brain-friendly strategies10. Ask for help when you need it
Time ManagementAny plan to schedule time and activities must have at its center a master schedule, that is, a schedule of activities that is fixed. o First, fill in all the required activities, such as classes, drills, and laboratory periods. o Second , add other regular activities, such as part-time jobs, commuting time, sports, and regular meetings. o Third, include sleeping and eating. o With the fixed activities accounted for, the remaining blank spaces on the uncluttered chart are free for use on a weekly or day-by-day basis.
Time ManagementThese are some common time wasters: ● Failure to plan ● Failure to set priorities ● Lack of organization ● Socializing ● Interruptions ● Television / Email / Cell Phones / Facebook ● Excessive recreational activities
Note-Taking“A lecture is a process in which information passes from the notes of the lecturer into the notes of the students without passing through the minds of either.” - Gilstrap and Martin, 1975
Note-TakingFive Important Reasons to Take Notes: 1. It triggers your brain and help you to remember information. 2. It helps get you to concentrate in class. 3. It helps you to prepare for tests. 4. Your notes are often a source of valuable clues for what information the instructor thinks is important 5. Your notes often contain information that cannot be found elsewhere. www.arc.sbc.edu/notes.html
Note-Taking TipsA. Concentrate on the lecture or on the reading materialB. Take notes consistently.C. Take notes selectively. Do NOT try to write down every word.D. Be brief. Write down only the important information.E. Translate ideas into your own words.F. Organize notes into some sort of logical formG. Write legibly. Notes are useless if you cannot read them!H. Don’t be concerned with spelling and grammar. www.arc.sbc.edu/notes.html
Note-Taking Methods… For the Visual Learning Style– Concept maps / diagrams / charts– Use colors, highlighting, underlining, CAPS– Spatial organizing– Leave white space for adding information later– Make drawings in notes– Use symbols to call attention to important words: circle, box or * ! ? ›
Note-Taking Methods… For the Auditory Learning Style– Attend all classes– Ask questions– Verbalize responses– Dictate notes– Note examples or stories
Note-Taking Methods… For the Kinesthetic Learning Style– Be active in class– Write down examples– Relate lecture notes to previously learned material– Participate in class demonstrations
Forms of Note-TakingLinear TablesMind Mapping Flow Chart http://www2.napier.ac.uk/gus/managing_information/note_making.html
The 5 R’s of Note-Taking● Record – During the lecture, record in the main column as manykey facts and ideas as you can● Reduce – As soon after class as possible, summarize these facts &ideas concisely in the Cue column. This clarifies meaning & relationship& strengthens memory.● Recite – Cover the note-taking area & using the Cue column notes,repeat or rewrite the facts & ideas of the lecture. Check.● Reflect – Ask deeper questions: “Whats the significance? How doesthis fit with what I already know? How do I apply this?”● Review – Spend at least 10 minutes a week in quick review of yournotes from each class.
Study Skills“Get over the idea that only children should spend their time studying. Be a student so long as you still have something to learn, and this will mean all your life.” - Henry L. Doherty
Study Groups● Set a regular meeting time● Set ground rules for socialization vs. study● Prepare for the session – read over all materials – create questions for topics●Test each other on all of the previousmaterials, not just the current week
Study GroupsCommon Time Wasters o Lack of clear agenda o Lack of preparation by all members o Getting off track
Where Should I Study?Where you decide to study depends on your learning style: ● If you are a visual learner, you may not want to study where people are constantly walking by. ● If you are an auditory learner, you may not want to study where there is a lot of noise. ● If you are a kinesthetic learner, you may not want to study in a small space where you can’t get up and move around.
Study Methods… For the Visual Learning Style– Draw and redraw concept maps and charts– Find drawings / charts– Organize notes in concept maps– Color code material– Watch class videos– Create flashcards
Study Methods… For the Auditory Learning Style– Recite notes out loud– Dictate notes on tape / CD– Verbalize questions from notes– Answer questions out loud– Teach it to others
Study Methods… For the Kinesthetic Learning Style– Use websites– Pace, exercise, or tap while studying– Draw or practice with others– Draw or write in large print
Memorization● General Memory – remembering the idea without using the exact words of the book or professor – The arts, social sciences, and literature● Verbatim Memory – remembering the identical words by which something is expressed. – Law, dramatics, science, engineering, mathematics, and foreign language
Memorization Strategies ● Chunking – categories & numbers ● Recitation – reading, oral or written ● Association – big picture & connections ● Mnemonics – rhymes and phrases ● Patterning – look for patterns ● Visualization – picture association
Memorization Strategies● Chunking is the oldest method used in memorization. In this method, the items to be memorized are divided into small and easily memorizable chunks or groups.● This method is found to be particularly good for memorizing multi-digit numbers and for committing complicated spellings to memory. – 207-564-6525 – Pis-cat-a-quis
Memorization Strategies ● Recitation is simply saying aloud the ideas that you want to remember. ● Heres how: cover your notes, then recite aloud the covered material. After reciting, expose the notes and check for accuracy. You should not attempt to recite the material word for word; rather your reciting should be in the words and manner that you would ordinarily use if you were explaining the material to a friend. When you can say it, then you know it. (This is why it is best NOT to recite directly from the text.)
Memorization Strategies ● Association - It easier to remember something if we link it to something we already know. Try to relate new information to personal examples as much as possible.
Memorization Strategies ● Mnemonics are methods for remembering information that is otherwise quite difficult to recall. ● A very simple example of a mnemonic is the 30 days hath September rhyme. – Thirty days hath September, April, June, and November. All the rest have thirty-one, except for February which has twenty-eight.
Test-Taking Skills“Forget past mistakes. Forget failures. Forget everything except what youre going to do now and do it.” - William Durant
Test-Taking SkillsIt is best to begin preparing for atest long before the day of a test. Cramming for a test increases your stress. Preparing for a test is whereyour note-taking skills and study skills are going to help you. It takes time and practice to develop good test-taking skills.
Test-Taking SkillsBefore the test:● Go over just the materials you aren’t sure of (not what you already know)● Get enough sleep and eat right● Try going to bed early and getting up early to study.● Exercise, meditate or use stress-reduction techniques● Don’t skip classes!
GeneralTest-Taking Guidelines1. Be Prepared.2. Always arrive early and take a moment to relax.3. Listen to last minute instructions.4. Read the test directions very carefully!5. Plan how you will use the time given.6. Maintain a positive attitude.7. Go with your first impressions.8. Plan to finish early and have time for review.
Test-Taking Methods… For the Visual Learning Style– Recall position of info on the note pages– Draw out diagrams or concept maps before starting test– Practice turning visuals into test questions
Test-Taking Methods… For the Auditory Learning Style– Speak answers to yourself (quietly!)– Spend time in a quiet place recalling answers– Use ear plugs
Test-Taking Methods… For the Kinesthetic Learning Style– Role play the exam situation– Use your hands/body to imitate what you are trying to recall– Get exercise the night before the exam
Test-Taking TipsA Short Answer question requires a shortwritten answer. Coming up with an answer ismuch harder than choosing an answer. – When you are studying, try and figure out what types of things might be covered on the test as a short answer question. – Creating flashcards for vocabulary and other facts is a great way to learn short answers.
Test-Taking TipsMultiple Choice questions may seem easier, butthis is often where you have doubts about youranswer. – Read each questions in its entirety BEFORE glancing over the answer options. Try covering up the answers as you read the question, then answer it in your head before looking at the answers. – Read every answer in its entirety before choosing a final answer. Some answers may be very similar. Make sure you understand what it is saying. – Eliminate answer options that you are 100% sure are incorrect. – Do not choose “All of the Above” or “None of the Above” just because it is an option.
Test-Taking TipsTrue/False questions can be very tricky becausethe statements often have just enough trueinformation in them to make you believe that itis true. – Carefully read the questions! Look for keywords that give you clues to the correct answer. – Look out for words like: Every, only, always, never, sometimes, generally, and usually.
Bottom Line● Read ahead-outline for the big picture● Study daily on your own using your preferred learning style● Group study weekly to check retention● Ask for help EARLY: faculty, peers, tutors, advisors, counseling