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Water management & urban resilience: a talk given at the Resilience 2011 conference
 

Water management & urban resilience: a talk given at the Resilience 2011 conference

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Read the abstract of the talk here:

Read the abstract of the talk here:

http://csid.asu.edu/resilience-2011/program/files/Individual_Papers/pdf/katti.pdf

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Water management & urban resilience: a talk given at the Resilience 2011 conference Water management & urban resilience: a talk given at the Resilience 2011 conference Presentation Transcript

  • Water management and urban resilience: the dynamic interplay between water policy, residential water use, the urban landscape, and plant & bird diversity Madhusudan Katti*, Andrew Jones, Henry Delcore, Derya Ozgoc-Caglar, Tom Holyoke California State University, FresnoResilience 2011 Conference, March 12, 2011 Urban Long-Term Research Area Fresno And Clovis Ecosocial Study
  • Water: a key resource & ecosystem service inany urban Socio-Ecological System (SES)
  • What drives water consumption?
  • What drives water consumption?✤ Sococioeconomic status is positively correlated with levels of resource consumption
  • What drives water consumption?✤ Sococioeconomic status is positively correlated with levels of resource consumption ✤ at individual/household scale as well as larger social units
  • What drives water consumption?✤ Sococioeconomic status is positively correlated with levels of resource consumption ✤ at individual/household scale as well as larger social units✤ As both a good and a service, water is usually priced at a low rate in industrialized and post-industrial countries
  • What drives water consumption?✤ Sococioeconomic status is positively correlated with levels of resource consumption ✤ at individual/household scale as well as larger social units✤ As both a good and a service, water is usually priced at a low rate in industrialized and post-industrial countries ✤ as it is deemed essential to human survival;
  • What drives water consumption?✤ Sococioeconomic status is positively correlated with levels of resource consumption ✤ at individual/household scale as well as larger social units✤ As both a good and a service, water is usually priced at a low rate in industrialized and post-industrial countries ✤ as it is deemed essential to human survival; ✤ and therefore, often priced for delivery of service rather than for the resource itself
  • Water pricing as a regulatory tool?
  • Water pricing as a regulatory tool? ✤ Water pricing may reduce water consumption under certain conditions
  • Water pricing as a regulatory tool? ✤ Water pricing may reduce water consumption under certain conditions ✤ but most municipal water departments avoid water pricing policies that could encourage conservation
  • Water pricing as a regulatory tool? ✤ Water pricing may reduce water consumption under certain conditions ✤ but most municipal water departments avoid water pricing policies that could encourage conservation ✤ The cost of water is negligible for budgetary decision making in most households - particularly true in the US
  • What shapes water consumption?
  • What shapes water consumption?✤ Household consumption of water is shaped & constrained by
  • What shapes water consumption?✤ Household consumption of water is shaped & constrained by ✤ home design (age of house, irrigation technology)
  • What shapes water consumption?✤ Household consumption of water is shaped & constrained by ✤ home design (age of house, irrigation technology) ✤ residential landscape design (type of plants, yard layout)
  • What shapes water consumption?✤ Household consumption of water is shaped & constrained by ✤ home design (age of house, irrigation technology) ✤ residential landscape design (type of plants, yard layout) ✤ status honor gained by conspicuous consumption of resources
  • What shapes water consumption?✤ Household consumption of water is shaped & constrained by ✤ home design (age of house, irrigation technology) ✤ residential landscape design (type of plants, yard layout) ✤ status honor gained by conspicuous consumption of resources ✤ or, by decreased consumption through newer technology and design that may be linked to greater environmental awareness
  • Consequences of human waterconsumption on urban biodiversity
  • Consequences of human waterconsumption on urban biodiversity✤ Patterns of water use by humans shape the urban landscape
  • Consequences of human waterconsumption on urban biodiversity✤ Patterns of water use by humans shape the urban landscape✤ Water availability, irrigation technologies, and human preferences determine urban plant diversity
  • Consequences of human waterconsumption on urban biodiversity✤ Patterns of water use by humans shape the urban landscape✤ Water availability, irrigation technologies, and human preferences determine urban plant diversity ✤ plant diversity is more directly driven by human actions
  • Consequences of human waterconsumption on urban biodiversity✤ Patterns of water use by humans shape the urban landscape✤ Water availability, irrigation technologies, and human preferences determine urban plant diversity ✤ plant diversity is more directly driven by human actions✤ Water availability, plant diversity & cover, landscape structure and heterogeneity drive animal diversity
  • Consequences of human waterconsumption on urban biodiversity✤ Patterns of water use by humans shape the urban landscape✤ Water availability, irrigation technologies, and human preferences determine urban plant diversity ✤ plant diversity is more directly driven by human actions✤ Water availability, plant diversity & cover, landscape structure and heterogeneity drive animal diversity ✤ birds freely choose to inhabit/abandon urban habitats,
  • Consequences of human waterconsumption on urban biodiversity✤ Patterns of water use by humans shape the urban landscape✤ Water availability, irrigation technologies, and human preferences determine urban plant diversity ✤ plant diversity is more directly driven by human actions✤ Water availability, plant diversity & cover, landscape structure and heterogeneity drive animal diversity ✤ birds freely choose to inhabit/abandon urban habitats, ✤ therefore they are good indicators of biodiversity outcomes
  • How much water do we use in theCadillac Desert?
  • How much water do we use in theCadillac Desert?
  • How much water do we use in theCadillac Desert? 300Gallons of water / person / day 250 200 150 100 50 0 Albuquerque Fresno Las Vegas Phoenix Tucson
  • Poverty in Fresno Fresno U.S. % of population below the poverty line 30 24 26.2 18 20.5 12 12.4 6 9.2 0 Families Individuals
  • Household Water Use in Fresno
  • Household Water Use in Fresno ✤ Currently, 51% of city water supply is used residentially
  • Household Water Use in Fresno ✤ Currently, 51% of city water supply is used residentially ✤ 70% of residential water use is for landscape irrigation
  • Household Water Use in Fresno ✤ Currently, 51% of city water supply is used residentially ✤ 70% of residential water use is for landscape irrigation ✤ No meters: water bill is at a flat monthly rate
  • Household Water Use in Fresno ✤ Currently, 51% of city water supply is used residentially ✤ 70% of residential water use is for landscape irrigation ✤ No meters: water bill is at a flat monthly rate ✤ Neighboring Clovis has metered water since 1910
  • Household Water Use in Fresno ✤ Currently, 51% of city water supply is used residentially ✤ 70% of residential water use is for landscape irrigation ✤ No meters: water bill is at a flat monthly rate ✤ Neighboring Clovis has metered water since 1910 ✤ Fresno rejected metering in early 1990s referendum
  • Household Water Use in Fresno ✤ Currently, 51% of city water supply is used residentially ✤ 70% of residential water use is for landscape irrigation ✤ No meters: water bill is at a flat monthly rate ✤ Neighboring Clovis has metered water since 1910 ✤ Fresno rejected metering in early 1990s referendum ✤ Meters now being installed; target date for full implementation of metering: 2013 (we hope...)
  • Experimental opportunity
  • Experimental opportunity✤ The onset of metering in Fresno gives us a “found experiment”
  • Experimental opportunity✤ The onset of metering in Fresno gives us a “found experiment”✤ Clovis provides a “control” as an adjacent city with similar socioeconomics /demographics but >100 yrs of metering
  • Experimental opportunity✤ The onset of metering in Fresno gives us a “found experiment”✤ Clovis provides a “control” as an adjacent city with similar socioeconomics /demographics but >100 yrs of metering✤ We have an opportunity to examine the socioecological dynamics of water use in a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) design.
  • Experimental opportunity✤ The onset of metering in Fresno gives us a “found experiment”✤ Clovis provides a “control” as an adjacent city with similar socioeconomics /demographics but >100 yrs of metering✤ We have an opportunity to examine the socioecological dynamics of water use in a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) design.✤ Currently in the Before phase, establishing baseline data
  • Urban Long-Term Research AreaFresno And Clovis Ecosocial Study
  • External Drivers Socioeconomic / Ecological Political Factors Factors Q5 Biotic Structure Institutional Water use policies, Animal Diversity land use decisions, Disturbance Regimes metering Q4 Q1 Long-term Press Q2 LULC / Plant Global Climate Change Diversity Short-term Pulses Water use and availability Individual Ecosystem Civic-mindedness, Q3 Function identity, socioeconomic water cycles and status dynamics Ecosystem Services water supply, qualitySource for model: Integrative Science for Societyand Environment: A Strategic Research Initiative
  • Main Research Questions
  • Main Research Questions1. How are institutions of governance & individual decisions related to water use & availability in an urban SES?
  • Main Research Questions1. How are institutions of governance & individual decisions related to water use & availability in an urban SES?2. How is water use & availability related to residential landscaping (land-use/land- cover) & plant diversity?
  • Main Research Questions1. How are institutions of governance & individual decisions related to water use & availability in an urban SES?2. How is water use & availability related to residential landscaping (land-use/land- cover) & plant diversity?3. How are institutional & individual factors related to land cover & plant diversity at broader scales?
  • Main Research Questions1. How are institutions of governance & individual decisions related to water use & availability in an urban SES?2. How is water use & availability related to residential landscaping (land-use/land- cover) & plant diversity?3. How are institutional & individual factors related to land cover & plant diversity at broader scales?4. How does land use & plant diversity affect bird diversity in cities?
  • Main Research Questions1. How are institutions of governance & individual decisions related to water use & availability in an urban SES?2. How is water use & availability related to residential landscaping (land-use/land- cover) & plant diversity?3. How are institutional & individual factors related to land cover & plant diversity at broader scales?4. How does land use & plant diversity affect bird diversity in cities?5. More broadly, how do the dynamic interactions & feedback between institutional/individual actors and an ecosystem service (water) affect ecological outcomes (i.e., plant & bird diversity)?
  • Study Area & Sampling DesignFresno Clovis Metropolitan Area Fresno
Bird
Count
Study
Area Madera
County California Clovis Fresno
County Fresno Fresno
County FBC
site
 Censused
in
2008
 Habitat
surveyed
 (N=460) (N=184) in
2008
(N=38)
  • One set of pathways examined
  • One set of pathways examined✤ Irrigation rate will be positively correlated to the socioeconomics of a neighborhood.
  • One set of pathways examined✤ Irrigation rate will be positively correlated to the socioeconomics of a neighborhood.✤ Vegetative cover will be partially correlated with an increase in irrigation.
  • One set of pathways examined✤ Irrigation rate will be positively correlated to the socioeconomics of a neighborhood.✤ Vegetative cover will be partially correlated with an increase in irrigation.✤ Bird species richness will be partially positively correlated with areas containing increased vegetative cover.
  • One set of pathways examined✤ Irrigation rate will be positively correlated to the socioeconomics of a neighborhood.✤ Vegetative cover will be partially correlated with an increase in irrigation.✤ Bird species richness will be partially positively correlated with areas containing increased vegetative cover.✤ Foraging guild richness will be partially correlated to areas of higher irrigation.
  • One set of pathways examined✤ Irrigation rate will be positively correlated to the socioeconomics of a neighborhood.✤ Vegetative cover will be partially correlated with an increase in irrigation.✤ Bird species richness will be partially positively correlated with areas containing increased vegetative cover.✤ Foraging guild richness will be partially correlated to areas of higher irrigation.
  • Bird Species Richness in the FCMA• In 2008• 186 points surveyed by 30 volunteers• 68 bird species recorded• 3,263 total birds• Average species richness per site 5.13 ± 0.16 SE !"#$%&&$ #"$%&&$ "($%&&$ ("!)$%&&$
  • Multivariate drivers of bird diversityModel based inference based on comparison of 56 models. Best model (lowest AICc = 119.67):8 parameters, 3 interaction terms Whole model R2=0.68 (adj. R2=0.52), F(12,25)=4.47, P=0.0008 Source +ve/-ve F-ratio P value Mode of Irrigation * %Population Below Poverty - 8.28 0.008 % Grass Cover * % Population Below Poverty + 7.71 0.01 Mean Grass Height * % Population Below Poverty - 3.16 0.09 Mean Irrigation Score - 3.03 0.09 % Open Canopy + 2.85 0.10 % Building - 2.28 0.14 % Grass + 1.56 0.22 Mean Irrigation * Mode of Irrigation + 1.12 0.29 Mean Grass Height + 1.01 0.32 Mode of Irrigation - 0.75 0.45 % Population below Poverty - 0.50 0.48
  • Poverty, irrigation, & bird diversity
  • Poverty, irrigation, & bird diversity✤ Residential irrigation decreased significantly with increased % poverty.
  • Poverty, irrigation, & bird diversity✤ Residential irrigation decreased significantly with increased % poverty.✤ Species Diversity: Multivariate results indicate that poverty has strong indirect effects on bird species diversity through intermediate variables including irrigation, % grass, % open canopy, and mean grass height.
  • Poverty, irrigation, & bird diversity✤ Residential irrigation decreased significantly with increased % poverty.✤ Species Diversity: Multivariate results indicate that poverty has strong indirect effects on bird species diversity through intermediate variables including irrigation, % grass, % open canopy, and mean grass height.✤ Guild Diversity: Poverty and Irrigation significantly affects bird guild diversity. Multivariate results show that both poverty and irrigation have strong effects on bird guild diversity through intermediate variables including mean grass height and % grass.
  • Other pathwaysbeing studied✤ Same sampling scheme as FBC✤ Tree Diversity and Cover survey (in progress)✤ Social Survey of individual households (mailed this week!)✤ Interviews of institutional actors (key policy makers & implementers in city govt; summer 2011)✤ Land Use Land Cover (LULC) analysis (preliminary)
  • It takes a village to study the city...✤ Paying the bills: ✤ National Science Foundation & U.S. Forest Service (ULTRA-Ex Award # 0949036) ✤ CSU Fresno: Provost, College of Science and Mathematics, Division of Graduate Studies ✤ Robert and Norma Craig Foundation ✤ Fresno Audubon Society✤ Tucson Bird Count, NiJeL for database management✤ Graduate students: Bradley Schleder, Seth Reid City of Fresno, City of Clovis, Fresno County NiJeL!✤✤ Citizen Scientists of the Fresno Bird Count!