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    自行車訓練聖經 自行車訓練聖經 Document Transcript

    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 1 COMMITMENT 第 1 章 承诺 Chapter 1 COMMITMENT 第1章 承诺 At the base of the climb, which was 12 kilometers 这是一段 12 公里长的上坡,在山脚下,我开始 long, I started to look around and saw Ullrich, 环顾四周并看到乌尔里希,潘塔尼,维廉切,里 Pantani, Virenque, Riis, Escartin, and Jimenez – all 斯,斯卡丁及希门尼斯 ―― 全都是总排名前 10 in the top 10 of the general classification – and then 位的高手 ―― 还有我。我没掉队!我是第一次 me. I was hanging, I was there with these guys for the first time. 跟这一帮人骑在一起。 -- BOBBY JULICH, commenting on the moment ――BOBBY JULICH,在 1997 年的环法赛中,当 in the 1997 Tour de France when he realized he 他意识到自己有机会争夺名次时的评论 was a contender Talk is cheap. It’s easy to have big dreams and 嘴巴说说是毫不费力的。在比赛前拥有一个 set high goals before the racing starts. But the 大梦及设定很高的目标也很简单。但是真正 true test of a commitment to better racing 对所承诺的更好比赛成绩的考验,不是靠 results is not in the talking, but in the doing. It 说,而是靠做。它并不是从这个赛季的第一 doesn’t start with the first race of the season – it’s all the things you do today to get stronger, 场比赛开始 ―― 它是你现在所做的所有使 faster, and more enduring. Real commitment 你变得更强壮,更快,耐力更好的所有事 means 365 days a year and 24 hours a day. 情。真正的承诺体现在一年 365 天和一天 24 小时。 Talk to the best riders you know, Ask 和你知道的最好的车手交谈,听听他们 them about commitment. Once you probe past 关于承诺的看法。 过滤掉那些“噢,什 all of the “aw, shucks” stuff, you’ll discover 么!”之类的废话后,你会发现骑自行车在 how big a role cycling plays in their lives. The 他们的生活中是扮演着多大的一个角色。他 better they are, the more you’ll hear about life revolving around the sport. The most common 们越出色,你就会听到越多围绕运动的生活 remark will be that each day is arranged around 方式。最普遍的评论是每天的生活围绕着训 training. It’s a rare champion who fits in 练来安排。几乎没有哪个冠军没有计划地训 workouts randomly. 练出来的。 Racing to your potential cannot be an on- 要想在比赛中发挥出所有身体潜能,就 again, off-again endeavor. It’s a full-time 不能三天打鱼,两天晒网。这是个永久性的 commitment – a passion. Excellence requires 承诺 ―― 是一种热情。卓越需要每天都按 living, breathing, eating, and sleeping cycling 计划生活,呼吸,吃饭,睡觉及骑车。 every day. Literally. The greater the commitment, the more life 承诺越大,生命就会越集中在训练的三 is centered around the basic three factors of 项基本要素上 ―― 吃饭,睡觉及高强度训 training – eating, sleeping, and working out. 练。吃东西可以为训练补充体力,也可以补 Eating fuels the body for training and speeds 充消耗掉的能量和营养储备从而加速恢复。 recovery by replacing depleted energy and nutrient stores. Sleeping and working out have 睡眠及高强度训练的协同作用能够提高身体 a synergistic effect on fitness: Each can cause 素质:它们都能引起从脑垂体腺分泌生长激 the release of growth hormone from the 素。生长激素能加度恢复,再造肌肉,并且 pituitary gland. Growth hormone speeds 分解脂肪。如果每日训练两次,午睡一次, recovery, rebuilds muscles, and breaks down 那么这个车手就能每天获得四次分泌生长激 body fat. By training twice daily and taking a 素的机会,从而较快地达到更高水平的身体 nap, the dedicated rider gets four hits of growth 素质。 hormone daily resulting in higher levels of 1
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 1 COMMITMENT 第 1 章 承诺 fitness sooner. In the final analysis, greater fitness is what 归根到底,更好的身体素质是我们的共 we’re all after. It’s the product of three 同目标。它有三种成分:生理压力,休息, ingredients: stress, rest, and fuel. Table 1.1 和补给。 表 1.1 说明训练,睡眠,及吃饭如 illustrates how training, sleeping, and eating 何在你的日常生活中建立。 can be built into your day. 每日训练两次 每日训练一次 工作日 非工作日 工作日 非工作日 6:00 AM 起床 起床 起床 起床 :30 训练 1 吃饭 训练 1 吃饭 7:00 | 拉伸运动 | 拉伸运动 :30 | 个人事务 | 个人事务 8:00 吃饭 | 吃饭 | :30 淋浴 训练 1 淋浴 训练 1 9:00 工作 | 工作 | :30 | | | | 10:00 | | | | :30 | 吃饭 | | 11:00 | 淋浴 | | :30 吃饭 午睡 | 吃饭 12:00 PM 午睡 拉伸运动 吃饭 淋浴 :30 工作 个人事务 午睡 午睡 1:00 | 吃饭 工作 个人事务 :30 | 个人事务 | | 2:00 | | | | :30 | 训练 2 | | 3:00 吃饭 | 吃饭 吃饭 :30 工作 | 工作 个人事务 4:00 | | | | :30 | 吃饭 | | 5:00 下班 淋浴 下班 | :30 训练 2 小睡 个人事务 | 6:00 | 拉伸运动 | | :30 吃饭 个人事务 吃饭 吃饭 7:00 淋浴 | 个人事务 个人事务 :30 个人事务 吃饭 | | 8:00 | 个人事务 | | :30 吃饭 | | | 9:00 就寝 就寝 就寝 就寝 Table 1.1 Suggested Daily routines 表 1.1 建议的每天日常生活 This kind of commitment may not be for 你的承诺可能并不适合你。实际上,从 you. In fact, there comes a point at which each 我们每个人最终都必须面对并搞清楚哪些是 of us had to check our “want to” against our “想要做”的事,而哪些是“不得不做” “have to”. Jobs, families, and other 的。工作,家庭以及其他责任不能因为运动 responsibilities can’t be forsaken for sport. Even the pros must consider other aspects of 而被遗弃,即使是那些专业运动员也必须考 life. Those elements that contribute to making 虑到生活的其他方面。这些让你成为伟大车 2
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 1 COMMITMENT 第 1 章 承诺 you a great cyclist may detract from your being 手的因素可能会使你无法成为一个好的雇 a great employee, mother, father, or spouse, 员,母亲,父亲或者配偶。实际上,你必须 Realistically, there have to be limits to passion; 适当控制骑车的热情;否则用不了多久我们 otherwise we’d soon alienate everyone who 就会疏远所有那些不象我们同样狂热的人, wasn’t equally zealous and be reduced to slobbering zombies. 并退化成不近人情的怪人。 Change 改变 What can you do to improve your fitness and 为了改善身体素质和比赛成绩你能做些什么 race performances? The first thing is to make 呢?第一个事情是在你的生活中做点小的改 small changes in your life. Balance can be hard 变。平衡可能很难获得,但是日常活动中朝 to achieve, but remolding daily activities by 10 着骑得更好的方向改变百分之十并不会没花 percent in the direction of better cycling doesn’t take much and can bring noticeable 费多少时间,却能带来显著的改进。比如每 improvement. How about committing to hitting 晚提早 30 分钟睡觉的承诺如何,这样你就 the sack thirty minutes earlier each night so 能获得更多的休息?另一项能带来健康饮食 that you’re more rested? Another small daily 习惯的小改变是:你能否每天少吃百分之十 change that could bring better results in 的垃圾食品,而代之以真正的食物呢?你吃 healthier eating. Could you cut out 10 percent 进你嘴里的东西就是未来六个月里身体用来 of the junk food every day, replacing it with 重造和替换每个肌肉细胞的原料。你希望你 wholesome foods? What you put in your mouth 的肌肉是由炸薯片,奶油卷和爆米花组成的 is the stuff the body used to completely rebuild and replace each muscle cell every six months. 吗?或者是由水果,蔬菜和瘦肉所制成的 Do you want muscles made from potato chips, 呢?所有这些你能改变吗? Twinkies, and pop; or from fruits, vegetables, and lean meat? What can you change? The Cyclist’s Training Bible can help you 《自行车训练圣经》能帮助你作一些会 make some small changes that will bring big 带来大结果的小改变。但是哪些才是成功所 results. But what are the most important 需要的最重要的改变呢?是什么使冠军成为 changes needed for success? What makes a 一名冠军呢? champion a champion? Attributes of Champions 冠军的属性 Successful athletes and coaches ask two 在寻求运动技能巅峰的过程中,成功的运动 questions in their quest for peak athletic 员和教练会问两个问题: performance: • What does science say? • 科学是怎么说的? • How do champions train? • 冠军是如何训练的? Much of this book is based on answers to 这本书的大部分是基于第一个问题的答 the first question, but the second is not less 案, 但是第二个问题并不是不重要,顶级运 important. Often the top athletes are ahead of 动员往往会走在科学前面,然后大家才知道 science when it comes to knowing what works 什么方法有效,什么方法无效。运动科学家 3
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 1 COMMITMENT 第 1 章 承诺 and what doesn’t. Exercise scientists become 之所以对训练的某些方面有兴趣,是因为它 interested in some aspect of training because it 们似乎对某些运动员有效。他们的研究只是 seems to work for some athletes. Their studies 用于确定为什么它会有效。 are designed to determine why it’s beneficial. If we eliminate their individual abilities 如果我们排除他们个别的能力并且把剩 and boil the remainder down to the most basic 余的部分归纳成最基本的要素,也就是那些 elements, what is left are the attributes that 使冠军们成功的特性。我相信总共有六种这 bring success to the champions. I believe there 样的特性:能力,动力,机会,任务,支持 are six such attributes: ability, motivation, opportunity, mission, support system, and 系统和方向。 direction. Ability 能力 Genetics have a lot to do with achievement in 遗传学与运动成绩有许多的关联。明显的例 sport. There are some obvious examples: Tall 子包括:身材高大的篮球运动员,体型巨大 basketball players, huge sumo wrestler, small 的相扑选手,身材矮小的赛马骑手,还有长 jockeys, and long-armed swimmers are but a 臂的游泳选手但并不多见。这样的运动员天 few. Such athletes were born with at least one of the physical traits necessary to succeed in 生具有至少一样生理特质,这种特质是他们 their chosen sport. 选择的运动项目获得成功所需要的。 What are the physical traits common to 大部分顶尖的自行车车手所共同具有的 most of those who are at the pinnacle of 生理特质是什么呢?最明显的是强壮有力的 cycling? The most obvious are strong, powerful 双腿和高的携氧能力(VO2max)。还有其它一 legs and a high aerobic capacity (VO2max). 些不十分明显的生理特质。为了爬坡,肌肉 There are other physical traits that aren’t quite as obvious. In order to climb hills, muscular 的力量是另一种关键特性。我们不太容易看 power is another key trait. We can’t see power 出骑手的力量,因为它不象长长的手臂或壮 in a rider in the same way we can see body 实的身体那样明显。有其他生理学特性来定 mass or long arms. There are other 义他们的骑行能力,包括乳酸阈值和运动效 physiological traits that define ability in 率(详细信息参见第 3 章)。这些因素部分 cycling; including lactate threshold and 程度上由遗传决定,但是也可能通过训练来 economy (see Chapter 3 for details). These are 加以改善。 somewhat determined by genetics, but they may also be improved by training. So how much natural ability do you have? 那么你有多少天生的能力呢?你离你的 How close are you to reaching your potential? 潜能还有多远呢?没有人能肯定地回答。最 No one can say for sure. The best indicator 好的指标或许是在你过去的训练中你是如何 may be how you’ve done in the sport in the 做的。平庸的训练产生好的训练结果通常表 past relative to your training. Good results combined with mediocre training usually 示潜能并未被开发。极好的训练却有糟糕结 indicate untapped potential. Excellent training 果也一样是潜能有待启发。 with poor results is also revealing of potential. If you are new to the sport with less than 如果你是只有不到三年的比赛经验的新 three years of racing, your results may not tell 手,你的成果可能无法告诉多少你的能力和 4
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 1 COMMITMENT 第 1 章 承诺 you much about your ability and potential. In 潜能。在最初的三年有许多细胞级的变化在 the first three years there are a lot of changes 发生 ―― 这些改变终将显示出一个骑手的 happening at the cellular level – changes that 能力。这表明即使一个新手表现得很成功, will eventually reveal a rider’s ability. This 他或者她也可能无法继续保持优势地位。其 means that even if someone new to the sport is successful, he or she may not continue to 他初学者可能终将赶上并超越这些最成功的 dominate. Other beginners may eventually 新手。这经常是由于人体对训练作出反应的 catch up to and surpass the most successful 速度不同所造成的。 novices. This is often due to the different rates at which the human body responds to training. Some people are “fast responders” and 有些人是“快速反应者”,而其它的人 others are “slow responders”. Fast responders 则是“慢速反应者”。由于一些未知的原 gain fitness quickly because, for some 因,快速反应者的细胞能迅速改变,从而可 unknown reason, their cells are capable of 以很快地改善身体体质。而其它人则需要花 changing rapidly. Others take much longer, perhaps years, to realize the same gains. The 较长的时间,或许几年,才能获得相同的成 problem for slow responders is that they often 果。慢速反应者的问题是他们常常在收获训 give up before reaping the benefits of training. 练成果之前就放弃了。 图 1.1 展示了反应曲 Figure 1.1 illustrates the response curve. 线。 Figure 1.1 Theoretical bell-shaped curve indicating 图 1.1 理论上的铃状曲线,表示对给定训练刺激 level of response to a given training 的反应水平 stimulus Motivation 动力 The highly motivated cyclist has a passion 高度积极的自行车骑手都有一种运动的 for the sport. Passion is generally evident in 热情。热情一般反映在骑车的时间上,对自 how much time is devoted to riding, caring for 行车的关心上, 读与自行车有关的书和杂 the bike, reading books and magazines about 志,同其他骑手交往,甚至只是想到运动。 cycling, associating with other riders, and simply thinking about the sport. 5
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 1 COMMITMENT 第 1 章 承诺 Those who are passionate about the sport 这些热爱运动人也经常养成很好的“骑 also frequently have a well-developed work 品”。他们相信只有艰苦的锻炼才会产生好 ethic. They believe that hard training is what 的结果。在某种程度上这是一种值得拥有的 produces good results. Up to a point that is a 品质,因为成功真的需要训练的持续性,但 valuable trait to have, as success does indeed demand consistency in training. The problem is 问题在于骑车的热情结合太强的“骑品”有 that combination of passion for cycling and a 时会导致过度的自我强迫的训练。这些骑手 strong work ethic sometimes leads to 已经无法让自己停下来了。如果哪天不骑 obsessive-compulsive training. These riders 车,他们就会有负罪感。对这些运动员来 just can’t stop riding. If they do, their sense of 说,训练中断 ―― 比如受伤,商务旅行, guilt can become overwhelming. For such 或度假 ―― 都会破坏他们的情绪。因为他 athletes, training interruptions – such as 们的训练模式可能要被打断,但训练热情却 injuries, business trips, or vacations – are 仍然高涨。 emotionally devastating. This is because their training pattern may be disrupted, but their obsessive motivation is still intact. This obsessive-compulsive trait is most 过度自我强迫的特征在新骑手中特别常 common in riders who are new to the sport. 见。他们觉得这项运动被他们发现得太晚 They believe that they discovered the sport too 了,所以需要加倍训练来赶超其他骑手。他 late in life and need to catch up with others by 们还害怕一旦停止训练,哪怕就几天,也可 training a lot. They also fear that if they stop training for even a few days that they may 能会使他们退回到原先的那种未锻炼时的状 revert back to their former, unfit selves. No 态,却没有想到过度训练的阴影会在头三年 wonder overtraining is rampant among those in 训练中一直都笼罩在他们头上。 their first three years of racing. Regardless of when in life you started or 不管你从多大年纪开始这项运动,也不 how burning your desire is to be good, it’s 管如何来燃烧你的欲望,最重要的是你要把 critical that you view excellence in athletics as 运动生涯中的辉煌看做一段旅程,而不是终 a journey, not a destination. You will never 点。你永远不会达到让你完全满意的运动能 arrive at the point where you are fully satisfied with your performance. That’s the nature of 力和状态,这就是高度积极的人的天性。所 highly motivated people. So obsessive- 以靠过度的自我强迫训练来达到比赛能力的 compulsive training in order to achieve racing 涅槃 ―― 然后你就可功成身退 ―― 完全是 nirvana – where you can finally back off – is 个幻想。一但你认识到这些并有了一个长期 not going to happen. Once you realize this and 的训练目标,那么被过度训练,力竭和生病 take a long-term approach to training, your 所压垮的可能性就小多了,你就能更持久地 break-downs from overtraining, burnout, and 坚持训练从而获得更好的比赛能力。而且如 illness will diminish, allowing you to achieve 果不可避免地发生暂时性的能力退步的话, training with greater consistency and better race performances. You will also experience 你的精神压力和挫折感也会小一些。 less mental anguish and frustration when the inevitable setbacks occur. Cycling is a life-long sport to be enjoyed 骑车是一生的运动,也会给你一生的快 for what it brings to your life – superb fitness, 乐 ―― 超人的身体素质,极棒的身体,快 excellent health, enjoyable times, and good 乐的时光,以及很好的朋友,所以不要把它 friends. It is not an opponent to be subdued and 当作要压倒和征服的对手。 conquered. 6
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 1 COMMITMENT 第 1 章 承诺 Opportunity 机会 The chances are great that the best potential 世界上最具潜质的运动员很可能是那些身体 athlete in the world is an overweight, sedentary 超重,不喜欢活动的老烟鬼,这个天生就应 smoker. Right now, sitting in front of a 该是自行车世界冠军并划时代地统治这项运 television somewhere is this person born to be 动的人,现在就坐在世界的某个角落里看电 the world champion in cycling and to dominate the sport as no one ever has. At birth he was 视呢。从出生的那天起,上帝就给了他最好 blessed with a huge aerobic capacity and all of 的摄氧能力,以及其它为了成功所必备的身 the other physiological ingredients necessary 体条件。可问题是他从来没有机会发现自己 for success. The problem is that he never had 的能力,即使有一天他想这样做也不行。也 the opportunity to discover his ability, even 许他天生贫穷,被迫早早地工作来养家糊 though the motivation may have been there at 口;也许他生活在战乱频仍的国家,保住性 one time. Maybe he was born into poverty and 命已属不易;或者也许他从来就不关心骑车 forced to work at an early age to help feed the 运动,而是醉心于足球或者弹钢琴什么的。 family. Maybe he lives in a war-ravaged corner of the world where staying alive is the number 因为机会女神不肯光顾,所以我们永远也无 one priority. Or perhaps cycling just never 法知道他到底能够做出多大的成就。 caught his attention and he instead found success in soccer or piano playing. We’ll never know what he could have been because the opportunity never presented itself. The lack of opportunity need not be so 当然,做为一个骑手你的成长过程中也 extreme to hold back your growth as a cyclist, 许不会遇到这么极端的坏运气。但如果下列 however. If any of the following are missing, 的条件无法满足的话,要想充分发挥你的潜 your opportunity to realize full potential may 力也许就会困难一些: be compromised: • A network of roads to ride on • 适合骑行的公路网 • Terrain variety – flats and hills • 多样的地形 ―― 平路和山峰 • Adequate nutrition • 充足的营养 • Good equipment • 好的装备 • Coaching • 教练指导 • Training partners • 训练伙伴 • Weight-room equipment • 健身房设备 • Time to train • 训练时间的保证 • Available races • 能够参加的比赛 • A low-stress environment • 生活压力较小的环境 • Supportive family and friends • 家人和朋友的支持 This list could go on and on – there are 这个清单还可以一直拉下去 ―― 还有 many environmental elements that contribute to 很多环境因素会影响你完全发挥骑车的潜 your overall opportunity to achieve your 能。你越是渴望变得优秀,这些因素就会显 potential in cycling. The greater your desire to 得越重要,你也就越有必要改变生活方式和 excel, the more important it becomes to mold your lifestyle and environment to match your 环境来适应你的雄心壮志。 aspirations. 7
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 1 COMMITMENT 第 1 章 承诺 Mission 使命感 When you think of champions such as Merckx, 当你想到那些冠军们,Merckx,Hinault, Hinault, LeMond, or Armstrong, what comes to LeMond,以及 Armstrong 的时候,首先跳入 mind? More than likely, it is winning the Tour 脑海的是什么?很有可能是他们赢得了环法 de France. Why do you think of that? Probably 大赛。为什么你会想到这些呢?也许是因为 because these athletes had a passion for winning the Tour that was, and is, evident for 这些运动员都有一种赢得大赛的激情,并且 all to see. Their motivation to succeed was 已经证明给了所有的人。很少有人有他们这 exceptional. They were willing to make any 样强的争取胜利的动机。他们愿意付出任何 sacrifice, to ride any number of miles, to do 牺牲,无论骑多远的路程,无论做什么样的 any workouts deemed beneficial to achieving 训练,只要这样做对达成目标是有利的。在 the goal. Approaching the peaks of their 他们努力接近事业的顶峰的过程中,骑自行 careers, riding was highly important in their 车在他们的生活中是最最重要的,而其他的 lives. Everything else became just the details of 一切事情都变成生活中的细节。 life. What you can learn from these champions 你能从冠军们那里能学习到的是:动机 is that motivation and dedication are paramount 和投入是达成梦想的最高原则:梦越大,使 to achieving your dreams: The greater the 命就越多。这本书或其他任何人都不能帮助 dreams, the bigger the mission. Neither this 你去选择梦想,或变得更投入。只有靠你自 book nor anyone else can help you choose dreams and become more dedicated. Only you 己去做到。我只能告诉你,无论怎样,失去 can do that. I can tell you, however, that 了热情和使命感,你将永远只是混在大集团 without passion, without a mission, you’ll 军中的普通车手而已。 always be just another rider in the peloton. Support System 支持系统 The greatest rider with the biggest dreams will 如果没有支持系统――周围那些坚定相信你 never become a champion without a support 的使命并帮助你实践的人 ―― 的支持,即 system – others who also believe in the mission 使有再大梦想的伟大车手也绝不能成为冠 and are committed to it. Surrounding 军。围绕在冠军周围的是家庭,朋友,队 champions are family, friends, teammates, director, coaches, soigneurs, and mechanics, all 友,车队经理,教练,助理和机械师,所有 of whom are there to help the champion attain 这些人都在那里帮助冠军去实现他或她的梦 his or her dream. The rider becomes immersed 想。车手会沉浸在一种“我们能做到“的氛 in the we-can-do-it attitude. The mission is no 围之中。他的使命已不再是他个人的事 ―― longer singular – it becomes a group effort. 它已经变成一种团体的努力。一旦能做到这 Once this is achieved, success is 90 percent 些,那么你几乎已经成功了百分之九十了。 assured. Do you have a support system? Do those 你有一个支持系统吗?那些在你周围的 around you even know what your goals, let 人可曾知道你的目标,更别提你的梦想了? alone your dreams, are? Is there a mentor or 可有一位良师或挚友来分享你的挑战和梦想 close friend with whom to share your 吗?再说一次,这本书不能帮助你建立一个 challenges and vision? Again, this book can’t 8
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 1 COMMITMENT 第 1 章 承诺 help you develop a support system. Only you 支持系统。只有你自己能做得到。支持系统 can do that. Support systems start with you 的建立是从你帮助别人,或许队友,实现他 offering to help others, perhaps teammates, 们最高的目标时开始的。相互支持是有感染 attain their highest goals. Support is 力的,去帮助别人吧。 contagious. Give yours to someone else. Direction 方向 Champions don’t train aimlessly. They also 冠军是不会无目标的训练的。他们也不会盲 don’t blindly follow another rider’s training 目地遵循别人的训练计划。他们明白胜利与 plan. They understand that the difference 失败之间的差别往往只有猫的胡须那样细 between winning and losing is often as slight as 微。他们知道他们的训练不能毫无计划或靠 a cat’s whisker. They know their training can’t be haphazard or left to chance. Merely having a 运气。哪怕拥有一个详细的计划也能增加一 detailed plan provides confidence. It’s the final, 些自信。 它只是追求梦想的拼图中最后,也 and smallest, piece in the quest for the dream. 是最小的一片拼板。但如果没有计划,冠军 Without a plan, the champion never makes it to 将永远无法站上领奖台。 the victory stand. This is where The Cyclist’s Training Bible 这就是自行车训练圣经能帮助你的地 can help you. While this book offers the reader 方。虽然这本书介绍给读者的方法是个性化 individualized, results-oriented, and scientific 的,以结果为导向的,和科学的,但遵循这 methods, following its program won’t 个程序不能保证一定成功。不过如果你已经 guarantee success. But if you already have some ability, the opportunity has presented 具备一些能力,也得到一些机遇,还有一项 itself, a mission is well-defined, and the 明确的任务,支持系统也到位了,那你差不 support system is in place, you’re practically 多就快成功了。这或许就是最后的决定性的 there. This just may be the final and decisive 一环。 element. 9
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 Chapter 2 SMART 第2章 聪明地训练 TRAINING You can’t train luck. 你不可能靠运气训练。 -- EDDIE BORYSEWICZ ――EDDIE BORYSEWICZ Renowned Polish-American cycling coach 著名的美籍波兰裔自行车教练 Why is it that some start their cycling career 为什么有些人在他们的自行车运动生涯刚开 with little sign of physical talent and years later 始时没表现出什么运动天赋,但几年之后就 reach the pinnacle of the sport as elite amateurs 达到了巅峰状态成为业余精英或职业选手? or pros? Why are there others who excel at an 为什么其它一些早期时相当杰出的人,在实 early age, fizzle, and eventually drop out of the sport before realizing their full potential? 现他们的全部潜能之前,就宣告失败,并且 最终退出这项运动? Those who persevere probably had talent 这些能坚持到底的人,或许从始至终就 all along, but it wasn’t immediately evident. 拥有这种天赋,只是并没有马上表现出来而 More than likely, the young athlete had a 已。极可能的是,年轻运动员有父母,教练 parent, coach, or mentor concerned about the 或者导师的长期关心,他们也许想让手中的 long term. They probably wanted to see their protégé in full bloom, so they brought the “小花”完全绽放,因此他们指导运动员时 athlete along slowly and deliberately. 缓慢而谨慎。 The successful athlete’s workouts may not 成功的运动员,他们的训练或许不是最 have been the most scientific, but a sensible 科学的,但却有一种从他或她的运动生涯早 training philosophy was established early in his 期就已确立了的合理的训练哲学。相反的, or her career. In contrast, the young cyclist who 那些没有成为资深骑手的年轻人因为父母或 failed to make it as a senior may have been driven too hard by a parent or coach whose 教练的过度要求而失败了,虽然他们的初衷 intentions were good, but whose techniques left 是好的,但是他们采取的方法不够令人满 something to be desired. 意。 When I begin to train athletes, I start by 当我开始训练运动员之前,我总是先彻 getting to know them fairly well – but it still 底地了解他们 ――这需要花费数周的时间才 takes weeks to determine exactly how they 能确信如何训练他们。在制定一套有效的训 should train. There are many individual factors 练计划过程中,必须考虑许多个人的因素。 to consider in developing an effective training program. A few of these factors are: 这些因素包括: • Years of experience in the sport • 从事这项运动有几年的经验 • Age and maturational level • 年龄和成熟的程度 • How training had progressed in the long • 过去很长时期里如何进行训练的 term • 最近的训练计划 • Most recent training program • 个人的长处和弱点 • Personal strengths and weaknesses • 当地的地形和天气状况 • Local terrain and weather conditions • 重要比赛日程 • Schedule of important races • 最重要比赛的细节:时长,地形,竞争 • Details of the most important races: duration, terrain, competition, previous 对手,往届成绩 results • 最近和现在的健康状况 1
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 • Recent and current health status • 生活压力(比如,工作方面,家庭方 • Lifestyle stress (work and family issues, 面) for example) The list could go on and on. There are 这个清单还可以更长。我或其他人可以 simply too many unknowns for me or anyone 给你一些如何最好地准备比赛的建议,但我 else to advise you on how best to prepare for 们有太多不了解的关于你的事情。归根结 competition. After all, right now no one knows 底,你是最了解你自己的人,只有你才配做 you as well as you do. Only you can make such decisions. All that is needed are the tools. 这样的决定。你需要的只是工具。这就是我 That’s why I wrote The Cyclist’s Training 写这本书的原因 ―― 这样你就能更好地给 Bible – so that you might do a better job of 自己当教练了。 self-coaching. Systematic Training 系统化训练 This book is about systematic and methodical 本书主张系统化循序渐进地训练。有些骑手 training. Some riders think of that as boring 觉得这很无趣,宁愿依靠本能训练。他们喜 and would rather work out spontaneously. They 欢根据屁股是否还愿意坐在车座上来决定如 prefer to train by the seats of their pants – no 何训练 ―― 没有计划,不用预先安排,最 planning, no forethought, and minimal structure. I won’t deny that it is possible to 简单的结构。我承认没有高度结构化的系统 become a good rider without a highly 和方法也有可能成为优秀骑手,我就认识不 structured system and method. I have known 少这样练出来的车手。但我也注意到同样是 many who have been successful with such an 这些人,当他们决定从事最高级别的竞争 approach. But I’ve also noticed that when these 时,他们往往都会增加他们训练的结构性。 same athletes decide to compete at the highest 结构化系统和方法对达到竞技高峰状态非常 levels, they nearly always increase the structure 重要,因为这种高峰状态不是碰巧发生的。 of their training. Structured systems and methods are critical for achieving peak performance. It won’t happen haphazardly. But it should also be pointed out that the 但同时也要指出,本书介绍的系统和方 system and methods described in this book are 法不是达到巅峰竞技状态的唯一方法。有很 not the only ones that will produce peak racing 多有效的训练系统,也有同样多的优秀教练 performance. There are many systems that 和顶尖运动员。没有一种所谓“正确的”方 work; there are as many as there are coaches and elite athletes. There is no one “right” way – 法 ―― 没有一种系统能保证让所有人都能 no system that will guarantee success for 成功。 everyone. There are also no secrets. You won’t find 另外也没有什么所谓“秘诀”。没有什 any magic workouts, miracle diet supplements, 么神奇的训练课,奇迹般效果的补给品,或 or all-purpose periodization schemes. 通用的周期性训练计划。本书讲的所有东西 Everything in this book is already known and 都是至少被一些骑手知晓并使用过的。教 used by at least some cyclists. No coach, athlete, or scientist has a winning secret – at 练,运动员和科学家都没有什么秘诀 ―― least not one that is legal. Many have 至少没有合法的秘诀。但很多人都有一个有 developed effective systems, however. 效的训练系统。有效的训练系统有广阔的综 2
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 Effective training systems are marked by 合的组成部分,而不仅仅是训练课的集合。 comprehensively integrated components. They 有效计划的各个组成部分相互咬合,就象一 are not merely collections of workouts. All of 个复杂拼图的拼板一样。另外,在这背后还 the parts of effective programs fit together 有一个潜在的基本原理成为把各个部分连接 neatly, like the pieces of a complex jigsaw puzzle. Furthermore, there is an underlying 起来的纽带。一个不错的计划的各个部分都 philosophy that ties the parts together. All 是建立在这个原理基础上的。 aspects of a sound program are based on this philosophy. The Overtraining Phenomenon 过度训练现象 Is there a relationship between fatigue and 疲劳和速度之间有联系吗?有没有研究证 speed? Are there studies showing that if a rider 明,如果一个骑手在训练中非常的累并且经 gets really tired in training and does that often 常这样,他或她是否会骑得更快?长期地拖 enough, he or she will get faster? Does starting 着疲惫的双腿开始训练是否会在某种程度上 workouts with chronically tired legs somehow improve power and other aspects of race 增强力量或其他方面的身体素质? fitness? I pose these questions because so many 我提出这些问题是因为有太多的运动员 athletes tell me that there’s no improvement 跟我说除非他们在训练时始终感到有点迟 unless they feel at least a little sluggish all the 钝,否则就觉到训练毫无效果。但我问这些 time. But when I ask these same athletes why 运动员为什么还要训练时,回答总是:“为 they train the answer is always, “To get faster for racing.” Chronic fatigue is a strange way to 了比赛时更快”。慢性疲劳能使你骑得更 get faster. 快?真是太奇怪了。 Recently I did a Web search of the sports 最近我对体育科学杂志坐了一次网上调 science journals to see if any research has 查,想了解是否有研究表明疲劳和运动能力 found a positive relationship between fatigue 之间是否有积极的联系。在我所收到的全部 and athletic performance. Of the 2,036 studies I 2,036 项研究中,没有一项显示如果运动员 came across on these subjects, not a single one showed that an athlete performed better if he or 经常感到疲劳的话,他的运动能力能变地更 she got tired often enough. 好。 All of this leads me to believe that athletes 这些证据使我确信运动员让自己保持长 who keep themselves chronically tired and leg 期的疲累及双腿疲劳一定是犯了错误。或许 weary must be making a mistake. Either that or 他们有训练的秘密。但是我保持怀疑。他们 they have a training secret. But I doubt it. More 过度训练的原因可能是一种过度发展的骑行 that likely the reason for their excessive training is a combination of an overly 心态和强迫性的行为所结合。 developed work ethic and obsessive- compulsive behavior. In fact, there are a few athletes I have been 实际上,确实有一些运动员,由于上述 unable to train for this reason. When I allow 理由而使得我无法训练他们。当我为了进行 them to rest in order to go into a hard workout 下一个高强度训练而要求他们休息恢复的时 fresh, they interpret the lack of fatigue as a loss 候,他们却把身体不太疲劳解读为身体素质 3
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 of fitness and become paranoid. After a few 降低,因而变成了妄想狂。他们会自行加码 episodes of their putting in “extra” intervals, 搞些额外的间歇训练,或多骑几公里,几小 miles, hours, and workouts, we part company. 时。这样搞过几次之后,我们之间就不再来 My purpose in coaching is not to help 往了。我的辅导目的不是为了帮助那些有良 otherwise well-intentioned athletes keep their addiction going. I’d like to see them race faster, 好意愿的运动员继续他们的迷思,我喜欢看 not just be more tired. 见他们比赛时更快,而不是更疲倦。 On the other hand, I have trained many 另一方面,我曾经训练过许多各种运动 athletes in a variety of sports on a program of 项目的运动员,我制定的训练量往往比他们 less training than they were accustomed to. It’s 所习惯的训练量还低。当完全实施了实际的 amazing to see what they can accomplish once 训练目的后,他们所能达成的结果是非常令 they fully commit to their actual training purpose – to get faster. When riders go into 人吃惊的 ―― 变得更快速。当骑手们在进 hard workouts feeling fresh and snappy the 行艰苦的训练时仍感觉新鲜爽快时,他们会 speeds and power produced are exceptional. As 爆发出意想不到的速度和力量。这时肌肉, a result, the muscles, nervous system, 神经系统,心血管系统和供能系统都在适当 cardiovascular system, and energy systems are 压力下达到最佳状态。现在给他们几天的时 all optimally stressed. Once they have a few 间恢复来适应新的变化,然后再次进行相同 more days of recovery to allow for adaptation, 的训练。你猜怎么着 ―― 他们甚至比以前 we do it again. And guess what – they are even 更快了。 faster. Philosophy 训练哲学 The philosophy of training proposed in “The 《自行车训练圣经》所提出的训练哲学似乎 cyclist’s Training Bible” may seem unusual. I 不太寻常。但是我发现,如果它的原理被确 have found however, that if it is followed, 实遵循,运动员真的会进步的。我的训练哲 serious athletes improve. Here is my training 学就是:一个运动员应该为获得可持续的进 philosophy: An athlete should do the least amount of properly timed, specific training that 步而进行最少量里程数的,精心计划的和特 brings continual improvement. 定的训练。 The idea of limiting training is a scary 有节制训练的想法对某些人来说太可怕 thought for some. Many cyclists have become 了。许多骑手已经习惯于过度训练,并把这 accustomed to overtraining that is seems a 当做一种常态。这些选手象吸毒者一样沉迷 normal state. These racers are no less addicted 于这种状态。和瘾君子一样,长期过度训练 than drug users. As is the case with a drug addict, the chronically over trained athlete is 的运动员没法变得更出色,但是就是没有办 not getting any better but still can’t convince 法去说服自己做一些改变。 himself or herself to change. Read the philosophy statement again. 再读一遍我的训练哲学。注意了,如果 Notice that it doesn’t “train with the least 它不是以“以最少里程数来训练”,那另一 amount of miles.” Another way to state it might 种陈述方式,或许就是“聪明的善用你的训 be “use your training time wisely.” For those of 练时间”。对于有全职的工作,配偶,孩 us with full-time jobs, spouses, children, a home to maintain, and other responsibilities, 子,维系一个家庭和许许多多的责任的我们 using training time wisely is more than a 来说,善用训练时间不止是为了训练,而是 4
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 philosophy; it’s a necessity. 生活必需的。 What this means is that there are times 这就是说:进行较大量的训练是正确 when it’s right to do higher volume training, 的,但不一定要达到可能的最大量。这通常 but not necessarily the highest possible. This is 发生在训练的基础期(一般的准备阶段)。但 usually in the Base (general preparation) period 同时有时候大量的训练并不聪明,而是应该 of training. There are also times when high volume is not wise, but faster, more race- 把重点放在更快的速度,更多的针对比赛的 specific training is right. These are the Build 训练上。这发生在发展期和高峰期(特殊的准 and Peak (specific preparation) periods. 备项目)。 (周期在第 7 章中有解释.) (Periods are explained in Chapter 7.) While it seems so simple, there are many 看上去似乎如此简单,但却有很多人无 who can’t seem to get it right. They put in lots 法正确的实施它。比如,当他们应该设法提 of miles when they should be trying to get 高速度时,他们却增加许多骑行的里程数。 faster. And when they should be building a 或者当他们应该建立身体素质基础时,他们 base of general fitness, they’re going fast – usually in group hammer sessions. 却骑的非常的快 ―― 通常发生在团队训练 的时候。 So what do you use to gauge your 因此你如何来评估你的进步呢?―― 以 progress – how tired you are or how fast you 你有多累或是以你有多快?如果是前者的话 are? If it’s the former you’re doomed to a 你将注定要成为一个二流车手。一旦你能领 career of less-than-stellar racing. Once you 悟到疲劳会阻碍你的速度并且做出必要的改 figure out that fatigue gets in the way of getting faster and you make the necessary changes, 变,你将开始起飞。 you’ll be flying. The 10 commandments of 训练“十诫” Training To help you better understand this training 为了帮助你更好理解我的训练哲学,我将它 philosophy I have broken it down into the “10 细分为下列的训练“十诫”。通过把这些指 Commandments of Training.” By incorporating 导方针融入你的思想及训练中,你将学会如 each of these guidelines into your thinking and 何遵循这些原理并且从你投入的时间中获得 training, you’ll be following this philosophy and getting a better return on your time 更多的回报。不管你的年龄或者经验如何, invested. Your results will also improve 你都会获得进步。 regardless of your age or experience. Commandment 1 – Train Moderately 诫律 1 ―― 适度地训练 Your body had limits when it comes to 对于耐力,速度和力量,你的身体是有极限 endurance, speed, and strength. Don’t try too 的。不要经常去尝试达到这些极限。恰恰相 often to find them. Instead, train within those 反,在大部分的时间里你要在这些极限内训 limits most of the time. Finish most workout 练。在大多数的高强度训练完成后,你都应 feeling like you could have done more. It may 该感觉好像还有余地尚未发挥。这可能意味 5
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 mean stopping a session earlier than planned. 着比计划中的训练周期更早地停止――这没 That’s okay. Do not always try to finish 关系,不要总是训练到力竭。 exhausted. Muscles will only contract forcefully a 肌肉在强力收缩一定次数之后将无法再 certain number of times before they refuse to 继续强力收缩。当糖原――体内储存的碳水 pull hard again. When glycogen, the body’s 化合物能量――慢慢耗尽时,无论多强的意 storage form of carbohydrate energy, begins go 志力都无法补充身体所缺乏的能量的。减速 run low, no amount of willpower can fuel the body. Slowing down is the only option. If such 是唯一的选择。如果频繁且长期地接近这种 limits are approached frequently and over a 身体极限,身体将很难适应这种压力,于是 long enough period of time, the body’s ability 就会需要更多的时间来恢复,这样训练的连 to adapt is exceeded, recovery is greatly 贯性将会被打断。 delayed, and training consistency is interrupted. The biggest mistake of most athletes is to 大多数运动员所犯的最大错误就是:在 make the easy days too hard, so when it comes 该轻松的时候太刻苦,结果到真正的刻苦训 time for a hard training day, they can’t go hard 练日来临时,他们又无法达到所要求的强 enough. This leads to mediocre training, 度。这将导致平庸的训练,身体素质和成 fitness, and performance. The higher your fitness lever, the greater the difference between 绩。你的身体素质越高,在刻苦日和轻松日 the intensities of hard and easy days. 的训练强度的差别就越明显。 Many cyclists also think that pushing hard 很多骑手也都认为不停地逼迫自己锻炼 all the time will make them tough. They 能够变得更强壮。他们相信意志力和坚强的 believe that willpower and strength of character 个性能战胜自然并且加速身体细胞的改变。 can overcome nature and speed up their body’s 千万别去尝试――答案几乎不可能是更刻苦 cellular changes. Don’t try it – more hard training is seldom the answer. An organism 的训练。生物体最适应的是压力慢慢地提高 adapts best when stresses are slightly increased. 的状况。这就是为什么你会经常听到这样的 That’s why you’ve often heard the admonition 警告:那就是周与周之间增加的训练量不能 to increase training volume by no more than 10 超过百分之十――即使这个增量对某些人来 percent from week to week. Even this may be 说也可能太高了。 high for some. By progressing carefully, especially with 小心地慢慢加码 ―― 尤其是在强度 intensity, you’ll gradually get stronger and 上 ―― 能使你逐渐变得更强壮,并且空出 there will be time and energy for other pursuits 时间和体力去追求生活中其他乐趣。与总是 in life. An athlete who enjoys training will get 在过度训练的边缘上挣扎的人相比,享受训 far more benefits from it than one who is always on the edge of overtraining. 练的运动员能获得更多的回报。 The self-coached cyclist must learn to 自我指导的骑手必须学会客观地思考, think objectively and unemotionally. It should 不能感情用事。这就好比有两个“你”―― be as if you are two people – one is the rider 一个是“骑手”的你,而另一个则是“教 and the other is the coach. The coach must be 练”的你。“教练”必须负责任:当“骑 in charge. When the rider says, “Do More,” the coach should question whether that’s wise. 手”说“再多骑一些”时,“教练”要质疑 Doubt is a good enough reason to discontinue 这么做是否明智。怀疑是让训练停下来的好 the session. When it doubt – leave it out. 理由。当怀疑产生时 ―― 就停止吧。 6
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 Do every workout conservatively, but with 每次高强度训练时都以自信的态度有所 a cocky attitude. When the coach stops the hill 保留。当教练在适当的时间要求停止爬坡训 repeats as just the right time, and the rider says, 练,而骑手说“我还能再来几次” 时,这种 “I could have done more,” stopping is not a 停止不是失败――而是一种胜利。 loss – It’s a victory. Commandment 2 – Train consistently 诫律 2 ―― 连贯地训练 The human body thrives on routine. Develop a 人体在重复性的训练中逐渐茁壮,所以需要 training pattern that stays mostly the same from 制定一种在周与周之间内容大致相同的训练 week to week – regular activity brings positive 模式――因为有规律的活动会带来正面的改 change. This does not mean do the same 变。这并不说每天或每周都做相同的训练, workout every day, week after week. Variety also promotes growth. Later in this book you’ll 变化也能带来提升。在本书以后章节中你会 see that there are actually slight changes being 看到:实际上在整个训练年度中贯穿着细微 made throughout the training year. Some of the 的变化,有些改变似乎微不足道。你或许无 changes are seemingly minor. You may not 法察觉它们,比如在基础期每周训练中增加 even be aware of them, as when an extra hour 一小时的训练时间。 is added to the training week during the base- building period. Breaks in consistency usually result from 训练的连贯性被打破,通常是因为无法 not following the Moderation Commandment. 遵守“适度训练”的诫律。过分高强度的训 Overdoing a workout or week of training is 练或训练周可能会引起过度的疲劳,生病, likely to cause excessive fatigue, illness, 力竭或者受伤。身体素质是不会停滞的―― burnout, or injury. Fitness is not stagnant – you’re either getting better or getting worse all 你要么变得更强,要么变得更弱。经常错过 the time. Frequently missing workouts mean a 高强度训练代表体能的退步。这并不是意味 loss of fitness. This doesn’t mean, however, 着,你必须在生病时照样做高强度训练。经 you should work out when ill. There are times 常休息是必要的。例如,当下列情况发生时 when breaks are necessary. For example, what 你会如何选择: choice do you typically make when you: • Feel tired, but have a hard workout • 感到疲倦,但按计划却要做高强度训 planned? 练? • Are afraid of losing fitness while taking • 按计划休息但却害怕会引起身体素质退 time off even though you feel wasted? 步,即使你感到这是浪费时间? • Believe your competition is putting in more • 相信你的竞争对手正投入比你更多的训 training time than you? 练时间? • Feel like your training partners are riding too fast? • 感到你的训练伙伴怎么骑得这么快? • Sense there is only one interval left in you? • 间隔训练时感觉怎么还没到最后一次间 • Think you could do more, but aren’t sure? 隔啊? • Have a “bad” race? • 感觉还能骑更久,但又不确定? • Seem to have hit a plateau or even lost • 比赛感觉太糟了? fitness? • 遭遇低谷期甚至身体体质降低? If your personal philosophy is “more is 如果你的训练哲学是“多多益善”,那么你 better,” you will answer there questions 7
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 differently than if it is “do the least amount of 对以上问题的回答将会与那些持“通过最少 properly timed, specific training that brings 量里程数的,精心计划的和特定的训练来达 continual improvement.” Do you see the 到持续的进步”的人大相径庭。你看到这种 difference? 差别了吗? This is not to say that you shouldn’t do 这并不是说你不应该去做艰苦的高强度 hard workouts or that it isn’t necessary to push 锻炼,或者偶尔达到体能的极限并体验极度 the limits on occasion and experience fatigue as 的疲劳。很显然,如果你的目标是接近你骑 a result. It’s obvious that if coming close to 行能力的极限,那么你必须经常面对并战胜 your riding potential is your goal, then you must often face and conquer training 训练的挑战。问题是你不知道什么时候该退 challenges. The problem arises when you don’t 却,什么时候该休息,什么时候该调整计 know when to back off, when to rest, and when 划。“多多益善”将不可避免地导致力竭、 to do less than planned. The inevitable 过度训练、生病和受伤,由此而导致的长期 consequences of “more is better” are burnout, 或频繁的停训又进一步导致身体素质变差, overtraining, illness, and injury. Extended or 而重建身体素质又必须回到前期的,较低级 frequent downtime due to such problems 别的训练阶段。所以吃过这种苦头并总结出 inevitably results in a loss of fitness and the 规律的车手很少会运动过程中冲击他们的潜 need to rebuild by returning to previous, lower levels of training. Riders who experience these 能极限了。 problems with some regularity seldom achieve their potential in the sport. Training consistently, not extremely, is the 连贯地,而不是极端地训练,是通往你 route to the highest possible fitness and your 的最好身体素质和终极比赛状态的大道。而 ultimate racing performances. The key to 连贯性的关键是适度和休息。这或许不是你 consistency is moderation and rest. That may 想从本书中看到的有关训练的内容,但是请 not be what your want to hear about in a book on training, but read on to better understand 继续阅读并体会为什么连贯性能使你骑得更 how consistency will make you faster. 快。 Commandment 3 – Get adequate Rest 诫律 3 ――充分地休息 It’s during rest that the body adapts to the 身体只有通过休息才能适应训练的压力并且 stresses of training and grows stronger. 变得更强壮。没有休息就没有进步。当训练 Without rest there’s no improvement. As the 的强度增加时,对休息的需要也就更殷切。 stress of training increases, the need for rest 大多数的车手都只是口头上赞成这条诫律; also accumulates. Most cyclists pay lip service to this commandment; they understand it 理智上接受,但感情上不接受。这是一条被 intellectually, but not emotionally. It is the 违反地最广泛的指导方针。没有足够的休 most widely violated guideline. You will not 息,你将无法进步。 improve without adequate rest. What’s the first aspect of daily life most 因为时间所迫和为了配合训练的需要, athletes cut back on when they are pressed for 大多数运动员会优先削减哪一部分的日常生 time and feel the need to fit in a workout? The 活时间呢?答案就是睡眠。他们提早起床或 answer is sleep. They get up earlier or go to 者很晚才睡觉,从而为每天的行程中塞进更 bed later in order to wedge more into each day. 多的东西。 8
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 The problem with this way of “creating” 这种“节约”时间的办法的问题是它减 time is that it compromises recovery and 少了恢复和适应的时间。只有在休息尤其是 adaptation. It’s during rest, especially sleep, 睡觉时,身体才会自行修补并且变得更强 when the body mends and grows stronger. 壮,睡觉时人体才会分泌生长激素。如果睡 While we sleep, human growth hormone is released in spurts. If our time spent snoozing is 觉或打盹的时间被缩短了,我们将花更长的 shortened, it takes us longer to recover and our 时间去恢复,这样训练的连贯性就会受影 consistency in training suffers. Glycogen stores 响;如果高强度训练之间的休息期糖原无法 aren’t fully replenished between workouts, 充分补充,经常这样就会导致耐力水平的衰 leading to decayed endurance performance 退;如果损坏的细胞需要更长的时间复原, over several days. Damaged cells take longer to 这就提高运动伤害及生病的风险;如果不理 heal, raising the risk of injury and illness. If the 会睡眠时间的缩短而依旧保持高训练量,过 training workload remains high despite 度训练就将成为一种真正的威胁,力竭也会 decreased sleep time, overtraining becomes a real threat. Burnout is waiting just around the 正在附近等着你。大多数运动员每天需要 7 corner. Most athletes need seven to ten hours of 到 10 个小时的睡眠。对专业运动员来说, sleep daily. Professionals, with few other 相比于训练的不同要求,在睡眠方面几乎没 demands on their time than training, usually 有什么区别,一般来说会通过包括打盹,午 include naps to get their daily dose. The rest of 睡等方式来达到每天要求的睡眠时间,我们 us need to get to bed early every night. The 则需要每天早点上床。你的年纪越小,你就 younger you are, the more rest you need. Junior 需要越多的休息。年轻的车手每天应该睡眠 riders should be sleeping nine to ten hours 九到十个小时。 daily. Refer back to Table 1.1, Suggested Daily 参考前面的表 1.1 对日常活动的建议, routines, to determine a daily schedule that will 确定一张能保证你每天得到足够休息的日程 ensure you get adequate rest every day. Until 表。在你建立这张日程表之前,你都不是在 you establish a schedule, you’re not really 真正地训练 ―― 而只是在玩车。 training – you’re playing on a bike. AND TO ALL A GOOD NIGHT 愿所有的人做个好梦 Quality of sleep may be improved by: 睡眠的质量可通过下列方式改善: • Going to bed at a regular time every night, • 每天晚上在规定的时间上床睡觉,包括在比 including the night before races 赛的前一晚 • Darkening the room in the last hour before • 在就寝前一个小时把房间变暗,并通过阅读 bedtime and narrowing your focus by reading 或轻声交谈来缩小你的注意力 or engaging in light conversation • 睡房要黑暗,通风良好,温度最好在摄氏 16 • Sleeping in a dark, well-ventilated room that is 60 to 64 degrees Fahrenheit (16 to 18 degrees 度到 18 度之间。 Celsius) • 在睡前洗个温水澡 • Taking a warm bath before bed • 逐步地收缩和放松肌肉,以达到全身性的放 • Progressively contracting and relaxing muscles 松 to induce total body relaxation • 在上床睡觉前几个小时,避免喝咖啡和茶之 • Avoiding stimulants such as coffee and tea in 类刺激性的饮料 the last several hours before going to bed • 睡觉前禁止喝酒(干扰睡眠模式) • Restricting alcohol (which interferes with sleep patterns) prior to retiring Sidebar 2.1 工具栏 2.1 9
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 Commandment 4 – Train with a plan 诫律 4――有计划地训练 This is fundamental to improvement in almost 这几乎是生活中任何改变现状的努力的基 any endeavor of life, yet few self-trained 础,然而自我训练的运动员却很少去做。我 athletes do it. Sometimes I find riders who use 常常发现有骑手从杂志上找到个看上去不错 a sound plan from a magazine, but as soon as a 的训练计划然后照着实施,但当问题出现 new issue comes out, they abandon the old plan and take up a new one. Most people will 时,他们就放弃原来的计划转而实施另一个 improve if they follow a plan – any plan. It can 新的计划。其实不管是什么计划,只要始终 be of poor design, yet still work. Just don’t 贯彻如一,大多数人都会获得进步。这个计 change it. 划可能设计很糟糕,但它仍然有效,只是千 万别变来变去。 This book is all about planning. In Part 4 这本书讲的全是计划。在第 4 部分你将 you will learn about annual training plans and 学到年度训练计划和每周例行训练。这一部 weekly scheduling routines. This is the section 分是你年复一年地为下个赛季制定计划时都 you will come back to year after year as you 需要复习和参照的。 plan for the next season. Realize that all plans can be changed. 你必须意识到所有的计划都是活的,你 Yours will not be chiseled into stone. It takes 的计划也一样不是板上钉钉。训练计划必须 some flexibility to cope with the many factors 包含一些弹性以应付众多的妨碍因素。这些 that will get in your way. These may include a 可能包括重感冒,加班,意外的旅行,或者 bad cold, overtime at work, unexpected travel, or a visit from Aunt Jeanne. I have yet to coach 亲戚的拜访。我所训练过的运动员没有一个 an athlete who didn’t have something interfere 能够不受任何事情的干扰来完成计划的。期 with the plan. Expect it, but don’t be upset. 待归期待,但是不要失望。顺势而为并且调 Roll with the punches and change the plan to fit 整计划以适应新的形势。 the new situation. Commandment 5 – Train with Groups 诫律 5――不要经常跟团队训练 Infrequently There’s a real advantage to working out with 有时与别人一起训练确实有好处。团队骑行 others – sometimes. Pack riding develops 可以锻炼控车技术,还能体验比赛时的感 handling skills, provides experience with race 觉,时间也过得飞快。但如果经常这样的 dynamics and makes the time go faster. But all 话,团队会让你总是骑得太快,而这时你也 too often, the group will cause you to ride fast when you would be best served by a slow, easy 许最需要慢速的,轻松的恢复性骑行。而另 recovery ride. At other times, you will need to 外一些时候,你也许需要骑比团队所确定的 go longer or shorter than what the group 里程数更长或者更短的距离。团队式的训练 decides to ride. Group workouts too often 经常在最不合适的时候把训练变成计划外的 degenerate into unstructured races at the most 比赛。 inopportune times. For the winter base-building period, find a 在冬天的基础期,找一个车速舒适的团 group that rides at a comfortable pace. During 队一起骑。在春天的发展期,与那些在比赛 the spring intensity-building period, ride with a 中能挑战你的骑行速度的团队一起骑。聪明 group that will challenge you to ride fast, just 10
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 as when racing. Smart and structured group 且有组织的车队是很难找的。你可能需要为 rides are hard to find. You may need to create 此建立你自己的圈子。离那些大团队远点, your own. Stay away from big packs that take 他们占据整个道路并且很不安全。你只是想 over the road and are unsafe. You want to get 骑的更快而不是想找死。当团队能帮助你时 faster, not get killed. Use groups when they can help you. Otherwise, avoid them. 才使用他们,否则的话就避开他们。 Commandment 6 – Plan to peak 诫律 6―― 有计划地到达高峰期 Your season plan should bring you to your 你的赛季计划应该让你在最重要的赛事时达 peak for the most important events. I call these 到高峰期。我称之为“A”级赛事。“B” “A” races. The “B” races are important too, but 级赛事也很重要,但是你用不着为了这些赛 you will not taper and peak for these, just rest 事调整训练量从而让自己达到高峰期,在赛 for three to four days before. “C” races are tune-ups to get you ready for the A and B 前休息 3-4 天即可。而“C”级赛事则只是 races. A smart rider will use these low-priority 为“A”和“B”级赛事调整最佳状态的一 races for experience, or to practice pacing, or 些插曲,聪明的骑手会利用这些低优先级比 as a time trial to gauge fitness. If all races are 赛来积累经验,练习节奏,或者把它当作评 A-lever priority, don’t expect much for season 估体质的一次个人计时赛。如果把所有的赛 results. 事都视为“A”级,那就别指望赛季能有好 成绩了。 This book will show you how to peak for 这本书将告诉你如何在一个赛季中为 A A races two or more times in a season. Each 级赛事达到两次或更多次高峰期。每次高峰 peak may last for up to a couple of weeks. You 期大约可持续几个星期。在两个高峰期之间 will still race between peaks, but the emphasis 的阶段你仍可以比赛,但重点放在重建耐 will be on re-establishing endurance, force, and speed skills to prepare for the next peak. 力,力量和速度技巧上,从而为下一个高峰 期作好准备。 Commandment 7 – Improve Weaknesses 诫律 7――改进弱项 What do riders with great endurance, but not 一个拥有极佳耐力但速度不快的骑手,最常 much speed, do the most of? You guessed it – 做的什么?你猜对了――是耐力训练。爬坡 endurance work. What do good climbers like to 好手最喜欢做什么?毫无悬念,他们喜欢爬 do? Not surprisingly, they like to train in the 山。大多数骑手在他们已经很强的强项上花 hills. Most cyclists spend too much time working on what they’re already good at. 了太多时间。那么什么才是你最弱的弱项? What’s your weakest area? Ask your training 如果你还不知道就问一下你的队友,我敢打 partners if you don’t know. I’ll bet they do. 赌他们一定知道。然后你就要在这些弱项上 Then spend more time on that area. The 多花些时间。《自行车训练圣经》会帮助你 cyclist’s Training Bible will help identify your 找出弱项并且教你怎样改进它们。了解你的 weaknesses and teach you how to improve 限制因素是让你在比赛中成功的关键,所以 them. Understanding your “limiters” is critical 请特别留意书中关于这方面的内容。 to your success in racing. Pay close attention whenever you run across that term here. 11
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 Commandment 8 – Trust Your Training 诫律 8――相信你的训练 Few of us trust our training when it comes time 每当比赛临近时,很少有人对自己的训练有 to race. There’s a great fear as the big race 自信。当大型比赛临近时,我们就感到还有 approaches that we haven’t done enough, so we 很多事没做好的巨大恐惧,然后就拼命训练 train right up to race day. I’ve seen people the 直到比赛那天。我看到过有人在一场重要比 day before an important race go out for a long ride or compete in a hard race because they 赛的前一天出去做长距离骑行,或参加一场 think it will help. It takes 10 to 21 days of 艰苦的比赛,因为他们觉得这样对比赛有帮 reduced workload for the human body to be 助。人体需要 10 到 21 天的逐渐降低训练量 fully ready to race, depending on how long and 的过程来为比赛完全做好准备,具体时间取 hard the training has been. Cut back before the 决于训练的时间及强度。在大赛前减少训练 big races, and you’ll do better. Trust me. 量,肯定对你有好处。相信我。 Commandment 9 – Listen to Your body 诫律 9――听从你的身体 In the early 1990s after the fall of the Berlin 20 世纪 90 年代初,在柏林墙倒塌之后,我 Wall, I attended a talk by the former head of 参加了一次与东德体育学院的前领导的会 the East German Sports Institute. After 谈。他承认东德运动员确实使用过违禁药 conceding that East German athletes had 物,但他认为这只是造就他们惊人的成功的 indeed used illegal drugs, which he felt was a minor aspect of their remarkable success, he 次要方面。他接着解释了他所认定的收获大 went on to explain what he saw as the real 批奥运会奖牌的真正原因。他描述了那些杰 reason for their great number of Olympic 出运动员在宿舍中的生活规律。每天早上, medals. He described how elite athletes lived 运动员与一组专家会面 ――例如一名运动项 regulated lives in dormitories. Every morning, 目的教练,一位生理学家,一位医生或者护 each athlete met with a group of experts – an 士,再加一个运动心理学家。这个小组检查 event coach, a physiologist, a doctor or nurse, 运动员的状态是否适合当天的训练,并根据 and a sports psychologist, for example. The 情况对训练计划做必要的调整。实际上,他 group checked the athlete’s readiness to train that day and made adjustments as necessary to 们是倾听运动员的身体正在说什么。运动员 the schedule. In effect, they were listening to 只训练到他们当天的身体所能经受得住的强 what the athlete’s body was saying. The athlete 度,仅此而已。 trained only to the level they could tolerate that day. Nothing more. It could be nice if each of us could afford 如果我们每个人都能负担得起这样的照 such attention. We can’t, so we must learn to 料,那该多好啊。为其不能,所以我们必须 listen to our bodies for ourselves. If you listen 学会倾听自己的身体。如果你听从了身体所 to what the body is saying, you’ll train smarter 说的话,你的训练会变得更聪明并且会让你 and get faster. Cyclists who train smart always beat athletes who train hard. The cyclist’s 骑得更快。聪明训练的骑手总是能击败埋头 Training Bible will teach you how to hear what 苦练的骑手。《自行车训练圣经》会教你怎 your body is saying every day – and train 样倾听你的身体――以及如何聪明地训练。 smart. 12
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 Commandment 10 – Commit to Goals 诫律 10――对目标的承诺 If you want to race father, faster, and stronger 如果你想要在这个赛季的比赛中骑得更远, this season you need to train differently and 更快,更有力,那么你也许需要改变训练方 may even need to make changes in you 式甚至于改变生活方式。有什么可能阻止你 lifestyle. What could be holding you back? Is it 呢?睡眠不足吗?那么也许你可以更早一点 too little sleep? Maybe you need to go to bed earlier. Or perhaps you eat too much junk food. 上床睡觉;或者也许你吃了太多垃圾食品? You may benefit from putting in more time in 或许在这个冬季,你可以在健身房投入更多 the weight room during the winter to build 的时间从而练就更强的肌肉力量。或许你的 greater force. Maybe your training partners are 训练伙伴正在拖你的后腿? holding you back. After you set your goals in a later chapter, 在以后章节里,当你确定目标之后,重 take a look at them and determine how they 温一下并且确定他们怎样与你的生活方式和 relate to your lifestyle and training. Determine 训练相关联。如果这些变化是必须的,要确 that if change is needed, you can do it. Only 信你能做的到。只有你自己能控制你的比 you can control how well you race. It’s time to put up. 赛。是付诸实施的时候了。 Striving for peak performance is a 24- 为达到运动能力的高峰所作的努力是件 hour-a-day, 365-day-a-year task. Racing at the 每天 24 个小时,每年 365 天的任务。在尽 highest possible level demands a full-time 可能高水平的赛事中比赛需要全天候的承 commitment that is not just training-related. 诺,而不只是与训练相关的事。目标越高, The higher the goals, the more life must revolve around eating, sleeping, and working 日常生活就越多地以吃,睡,和高强度训练 out. Eating nutritious food fuels the body for 为中心。吃营养丰富的食物能够补充身体在 training and helps speed recovery by 训练中损耗的能量和营养储备,并为建立更 replenishing depletes energy and nutrient stores 强壮的身体组织提供原料,从而帮助身体快 and by providing the building blocks for a 速恢复。睡眠与高强度训练有机结合能够提 stronger body. Sleeping and working out have 高身体素质。 a synergistic effect on fitness. Every day you have lifestyle choices to 每天你都面临关于饮食,睡眠及其他生 make about diet, sleep, and other physical and 理和精神活动的生活方式的选择,你所做的 mental activities. The decisions you make, 这些选择,多半是不加思索的,但都会对你 often without even thinking, will impact how 的骑行能力产生影响。 well you ride. A fully committed rider is a student of the 一个对承诺完全负责的骑手总是在学习 sport. Read everything you can get your hands 运动方面的知识。阅读所有能拿到手的东 on. Talk with coaches, trainers, athletes, 西,与教练,训练师,运动员,机械师,比 mechanics, race officials, sales-people, and 赛官员,推销商以及所有可能拥有独特观点 anyone else who may have a unique perspective. Ask questions, but be a bit 的人交谈。虚心请教,但都保持一点怀疑。 skeptical. If you’re to grow as an athlete, 如果你要成为一名运动员,变化是必须的, change is necessary. Other knowledgeable 这些有见地的人们经常是你变化的来源。 people are often the sources for this change. 13
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 Training to improve includes keeping a 在训练中保持一本训练日志,记录高强 training log. Record workout details, 度训练的细节,努力的感受,身体压力的信 perceptions of effort, stress signals, race results 号,比赛结果和分析,身体素质增加或者减 and analyses, signs of increasing or decreasing 退的迹象,装备的改变,以及其它所有对每 fitness, equipment changes, and anything else that describes your daily experience. It may all 日经历的描述。在将来这些记录都可能会派 prove helpful down the road. Most athletes also 上用场的。很多运动员都发现保持训练日志 find that keeping a log provides them with a 能帮助他们更敏锐地抓住训练重点,并更迅 sharper training focus and more rapid growth 速地对准他们的目标来发展。 toward their goals. Each of us has a comfortable level of 我们每个人对承诺都有合适的实现程 commitment. There are times when we need to 度。有时候我们需要把我们“想要做的”和 check our “want to” against our “have to.” “必须做的”相对照。工作,家庭和其他责 Jobs, families, and other responsibilities cannot 任不能因为骑车而被放弃,激情必须有所节 be forsaken just to ride a bike. Passion must be restrained or we’ll quickly alienate others who 制,否则我们很快就会疏远那些不具有同样 aren’t equally zealous – we will become 热忱的人们――我们将变成“只知骑车的傻 “cycling bums.” 子”。 14
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 3 THE SCIENCE OF TRAINING 第 3 章 科学地训练 Chapter 3 THE SCIENCE of 第 3 章 科学地训练 TRAINING Having all the sports knowledge in the world, having 掌握目前所知所有运动科学知识,拥有这个世界上 all the best coaches, having all the best equipment, will 最好的教练,配备最好的器械,是否能为你赢得一 that win a gold medal for you? No. But not having all 枚金牌?当然不能。但若没有上述元素的话,你注 that can lose it for you. 定失去这枚金牌。 -- CHRIS CARMICHAEL ――CHRIS CARMICHAEL It was not until the 1960s that the study of 直到 20 世纪 60 年代,运动研究才作为一门科 exercise as a science became wide-spread and not 学学科开始广泛传播,并从 70 年代开始显著 until the 1970s before it began to significantly 改变了严肃车手们的训练方式。在 80 年代, change the way serious cyclists trained. In the 运动科学研究取得了巨大突破。在这十年中我 1980s, exercise science made a quantum leap. We learned more about the human athlete in those ten 们对人类运动员的了解超过了之前的 80 年的 years than in the previous eighty. 总和。 The earliest scientists learned more from 早年的科学家更多的是研究顶级运动员的 studying the methods of top athletes than they did 训练方法,而不是躲在他们的象牙塔里做独立 from independent study in their ivory towers. 研究。直在今天仍就如此,穿白大褂的学者想 That is still the case today; the people in white lab 获取一个解释:为什么有些运动员成功了,而 coats seek an explanation for why some athletes succeed and others do not. 有些却失败了。 Even in the early days, riders learned 即便在很早的时候,车手们已经从试验和 through trial and error that they couldn’t develop 失败中得出结论,他们无法同时发展最大耐力 both maximal endurance and maximal power 和最大力量。教练们和运动员们发现,先建立 simultaneously. Coaches and athletes found that 有氧耐力基础,然后增加快速骑行,这样他们 by first establishing an aerobic endurance base and later by adding faster riding, they could come 可以在适当时候达到高峰状态。这种训练方法 into top form at the right time. This method of 常常是被天气所左右的。比如冬天需要进行长 training was often imposed on them by the 距离的慢速骑行,而夏天则倾向于快速骑行。 weather. Winter made long, cosy rides a necessary, while summer favored faster riding. Since those leather shoe and wool jersey 从使用真皮鞋和羊毛衫的时代至今,我们 days, we’ve learned a lot from the best athletes, 从那些最好的运动员,教练和科学家们那里学 coaches, and scientists. It’s been a long and 到了很多。这是个漫长而崎岖的路。全系列的 winding road. The entire range of training 训练要素 ―― 包括营养,恢复,力量,心 elements, including nutrition, recovery, strength, mental skills, fitness measurement, and workouts, 智,体质测量,和训练课 ―― 都得到了深度 has been explored and greatly refined. Still, many 拓展和极大的改进。然而,仍有很多运动员好 athletes continue to train as if it were 1912. They 象还生活在 1912 年一样。他们日复一日无计 go out the door day after day with no plan, 划的训练,随心所欲地决定如何骑车。当然他 deciding as the ride develops what they will do. 们中还是有些人成功的,但他们是否能做的更 Some are successful despite their backward ways. 好呢?很有可能。如果你采取本书中所述的某 Could they do better? Probably. Will you improve 些更科学的训练方法,会否获取进步呢?我相 if you adopt a more scientific way of training as 信你会的。 described in this book? I believe you will. 1
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 3 THE SCIENCE OF TRAINING 第 3 章 科学地训练 I hope to help you reach toward your 我希望能利用目前最新训练知识来帮助你 potential by taking advantage of the most recent 达到你最大的潜能。这些知识是从专题研究, training knowledge available. This knowledge has 以及从顶级自行车运动员和教练们和其他项目 been gleaned from research studies, from the 诸如游泳、赛跑、划船和铁人三项等运动的训 training methods of top cyclists and coaches, and from athletes and coaches in other sports such as 练方法中收集获得。有些已经毫无疑问的得到 swimming, running, rowing, and triathlon. Some 了验证,但大多数仍停留在理论阶段。你需要 of it is proven beyond doubt, but much is still 确定如何将这些理论应用于你及你的训练中。 theory. You need to determine how everything 甚至那些已经很完善并得到验证的方法也不一 applies to you and your training. Even well- 定适用于你的特定的环境背景。有些东西对他 established and proven practices may not be 人起作用,但不一定适用于你。 applicable given your unique set of circumstances. Some things may not work for you although they do for others. Before getting scientific, I want to explain a 在进入科学训练前,我想先解释一些自行 few basics about training for cycling. These may 车训练的基础知识。这些都是非常基本的,甚 be so elementary that they seem evident, but I’ll 至显而易见的知识,但我会描述一遍以防有人 describe them just in case. 不知道。 No one starts out at the top. Many of those 没人一开始就是顶级的。大多数顶级运动 who get there make it because they are more 员成功的原因是他们比普通人更有耐心。训练 patient than others. Training has a cumulative 成果是年复一年地积累的。只要方法得当,通 effect from year to year. If done correctly, a 过时间的累积,车手们应该可以看到自身的进 cyclist should see improvement over time. Don’t expect miracles overnight. 步,但不要指望奇迹会一夕出现。 Physical and psychological breaks from 训练期间的生理和心理休息是正常和必须 training are normal and necessary. No one can 的。没人能按一个永不间断的步伐一直训练且 improve at an uninterrupted pace forever. If you 不断进步。如果你不在你的训练计划中设立休 don’t build rest and recovery into your training 息和恢复,你的身体会迫使你这么做。不管你 plan, your body will force you to. It doesn’t matter how mentally strong you are: You need 意志多么顽强,你也需要在训练期间经常休 frequent breaks from training. 息。 If you’re new to cycling, the most important 如果你是个新手,你能做的最重要的事情 thing you can do is ride consistently and steadily 就是长期地,稳定地骑行一年。不要去关注本 for a year. Don’t be concerned about all of the 书叙述的所有详细资料,直到你已经至少骑了 detail stuff this book will describe until you’ve 一个赛季。然后你才可以在训练中加入一些好 put at least one season under your belt. Then you can begin to plug in the finer elements of training. 的训练要素。 Physiology and Fitness 生理学和身体素质 How can we measure physical fitness? Science 我们如何测定身体素质?目前科学研究已发现 has discovered three of its most basic components 了三种组成身体素质的基本指标 ―― 有氧代 – aerobic capacity, lactate threshold, and 谢能力,乳酸阈值和运动效率。顶级骑手在这 economy. The top riders have excellent values for 三项生理指标上都非常出色。 all three physiological traits. 2
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 3 THE SCIENCE OF TRAINING 第 3 章 科学地训练 Aerobic Capacity 有氧代谢能力 Aerobic capacity is a measure of the amount of 有氧代谢能力是测试在竭尽全力的耐力测验中 oxygen the body can consume during all-out 身体能消耗的最大氧气量。也被称为 VO2max endurance exercise. It is also referred to as (最大摄氧量)—— 你的身体为产生动能所 VO2max – the maximal volume of oxygen your 能消耗的最大氧气量。VO2max 可在实验室通过 body can process to produce movement. VO2max can be measured in the lab during a “graded” test 分级测试法测量。在测试中,运动员戴上测量 in which the athlete, wearing a device that 摄氧量的设备,每隔数分钟增加一点运动强 measures oxygen uptake, increases the intensity 度,一直到无法继续增加强度为止。VO2max 以 of exercise every few minutes until exhaustion. 每分钟每公斤体重消耗的氧气量来表示 VO2max is expressed in terms of milliliters of (ml/kg/min)。世界级男性骑手的最大摄氧 oxygen used per kilogram of body weight per 量大概在 70+到 80+ml/kg/min 的范围内。 minute (ml/kg/min). World-class male riders 相比之下,一般的好动的男大学生的代表性测 usually produce numbers in the 70- to 80- 试结果是在 40+到 50+ml/kg/min 的范围。 ml/kg/min range. By comparison, normally active male college students typically test in the range of 女性的有氧代谢能力平均比男性低大约 10%。 40- to 50-ml/kg/min. On average, women’s aerobic capacities are about 10 percent lower than men’s. Aerobic capacity is largely determined by 有氧代谢能力很大程度上取决于遗传,并 genetics and is limited by such physiological 受如心脏大小、心率、每搏输出量、血红素数 factors as heart size, heart rate, heart stroke 量、有氧代谢酶浓度、线粒体密度和肌肉纤维 volume, blood hemoglobin content, aerobic 种类等身体因素的限制。但通过训练,仍可在 enzyme concentrations, mitochondrial density, and muscle fiber type. It is, however, trainable to 一定程度提高。比较典型就是,一些经过良好 a certain extent. Typically, in otherwise well- 训练的运动员,在经过 6 到 8 周的高强度训练 trained athletes, it takes six to eight weeks of 后能够极大地提高他们的 VO2max 的峰值水 high-intensity training to significantly elevate 平。 VO2max peak values. As we get older, aerobic capacity usually 随着我们年龄的增长,对久坐人群来说, drops by as much as 1 percent per year after age 在 25 岁后通常有氧代谢能力每年下降 1%。对 25 in sedentary people. For those who train 那些认真训练的人,尤其是经常参加高强度训 seriously, especially by regularly including high- 练和比赛的人来说,这个下降的比例会小很 intensity workouts, the loss will be far smaller and may not occur until they are well into their 多,并且直到他们 30 多岁或更晚时才会发 thirties or even later. 生。 Lactate Threshold 乳酸阈值 Aerobic capacity is not a good predictor of 有氧代谢能力不能很好地预测耐力水平。假如 endurance performance. If all of the riders in a 所有参加比赛的骑手都测试了他们的有氧代谢 race category were tested for aerobic capacity, the 能力的话,那么比赛的结果与他们的 VO2max race finishing results would not necessarily 测试值不见得有关联。VO2max 测试值最高的运 correlate to their VO2max test values. The 3
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 3 THE SCIENCE OF TRAINING 第 3 章 科学地训练 athletes with the highest VO2max values would 动员的比赛排名不一定就会好。但能维持 not necessarily finish high in the rankings. But the VO2max 的摄氧水平所持续的时间值就是一个很 highest value of VO2max that one can maintain 好的比赛能力的指标。这个可维持的比较高的 for an extended period of time is a good predictor 值就反应了乳酸阈值水平。 of racing capacity. This sustainable high value is a reflection of the lactate threshold. Lactate threshold, sometimes called 乳酸阈值,有时被称为“无氧阈值”,反 “anaerobic threshold,” is the level of exercise 应了一种运动强度水平,超过该运动强度时乳 intensity above which lactate begins to rapidly 酸开始迅速在血液里堆积。此时,新陈代谢方 accumulate in the blood. At this point metabolism 式迅速地从燃烧脂肪和氧气供能转换为依靠糖 rapidly shifts from dependence on the combustion of fat and oxygen in the production of energy to 元——碳水化合物在身体中的储存形式――来 dependence on glycogen – the storage form of 供能。这个阈值占 VO2max 的百分比越高,在 carbohydrates. The higher this threshold is as a 一定时间内运动员骑得就越快。当乳酸堆积达 percentage of VO2max, the faster the athlete can 到一个足够高的水平时,运动员只能被迫慢下 ride for an extended period of time, as in a race. 来以便将血液中的乳酸清理出去。 Once lactate threshold reaches a high enough level, there is no option but to slow down in order to clear it from the blood. Sedentary individuals experience lactate 久坐人群的乳酸阈值大概为 VO2max 的 40- thresholds at 40 to 50 percent of VO2max. In 50%。受训的运动员,乳酸阈值可达到 VO2max trained athletes, the lactate threshold typically 的 80-90%。假设两个骑手 A 和 B,他们的有氧 occurs at 80 to 90 percent of VO2max. So it is 代谢能力一样,但骑手 A 的乳酸阈值为 90%, obvious that if two riders have the same aerobic capacity, but rider A’s lactate threshold is 90 而骑手 B 为 80%,那么很明显,骑手 A 应该能 percent and B’s is 80 percent, then A should be 够维持一个较高的平均速度。这样,在个人对 able to maintain a higher average velocity and has 决式的比赛中 A 就有相当大的体能优势(除非 quite a physiological advantage in a head-to-head 骑手 B 能足够聪明地靠降低风阻来保护自己, endurance race (unless rider B is smart enough to 并有很好的冲刺能力) protect himself from the wind and has a great sprint). Compared with aerobic capacity, lactate 与有氧代谢能力相比,乳酸阈值可更多地 threshold is highly trainable. Much of the training 通过训练提高。本书内详述的许多训练方法都 detailed in this book is intended to elevate the 诣在提高乳酸阈值。 lactate threshold. Economy 运动效率 Compared with recreational riders, elite cyclists 与“骑游派”骑士相比,精英车手在保持一个 use less oxygen to hold a given, steady, 特定的、稳定的、较高的速度时,消耗较少氧 submaximal velocity. The elite riders are using 气。精英骑手用较少氧气来产生同样多的能量 less energy to produce the same power output. 输出。这有点类似于汽车的耗油率。想买车的 This is similar to automobile fuel efficiency ratings that tell prospective buyers which cars are 人都会看各种车型的百公里油耗的排名,从而 gas guzzlers. Using less fuel to produce the same 了解哪部车耗油最厉害。如果能用较少的消耗 amount of power is an obvious advantage in 输出同样的能量,在竞赛中就会是很明显的优 competition. 势。 4
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 3 THE SCIENCE OF TRAINING 第 3 章 科学地训练 Studies reveal that an endurance athlete’s 研究表明,如果做到以下几点,耐力运动 economy improves if he or she: 员的运动效率可达到改善: • Has a high percentage of slow-twitch muscle • 拥有较高比例的慢肌纤维(很大程度上由 fibers (largely genetic) 遗传决定) • Has a low body mass (weight to height • 拥有较轻的身重(身高和体重的比例) relationship) • 精神压力较轻 • Has low psychological stress • 恰当使用较轻的,风阻较小的装备 • Uses light and aerodynamic equipment that • 减少在高速骑行时身体的正面挡风面积 fits properly • 去除无用的,费力的动作 • Limits body frontal area exposed to the wind at higher velocities • Eliminates useless and energy-wasting movements Fatigue negatively impacts economy as 疲劳对运动效率有消极影响,会迫使那些 muscles that are not normally called upon are 通常使用不到的肌肉来承担负荷。这也是在重 recruited to carry the load. That’s just one reason 要赛事前需要好好休息的一个原因。在一场比 why it’s critical to go into important races well 赛临近结束时,当运动效率由于疲劳开始降低 rested. Near the end of a race, when economy deteriorates due to fatigue, you may sense that 时,你可能会感觉你的踩踏技术和操控技巧越 your pedaling and technical handling skills are 来越不中用了。比赛时间越长,运动效率对比 “getting sloppy.” The longer the race is, the more 赛结果的影响也越大。 critical economy becomes in determining the outcome. Just as with lactate threshold, economy is 与乳酸阈值一样,运动效率也是可以训练 highly trainable. Not only does it improve by 提高的。它不但可通过增加耐力的各个方面来 increasing all aspects of endurance, but it also 得到改善,还会随着你车上技术的提高而提 rises as you refine bike skills. This is why I 高。这也是我为什么强调冬训期间的踏频训练 emphasize drill work for pedaling in the winter training months and a commitment to improving 和每年计划投入时间来提高技巧的原因。 skills year-round. Perspective 笔者观点 前面的讨论,可能会让人觉得身体素质很容易 The preceding discussion probably makes it 改善,以及身体素质或许能用来预测甚至产生 sound as if fitness can be easily quantified, and, 顶级运动员。幸运的是,事实并不是这样。假 perhaps, used to predict or even produce top athletes. Fortunately, that’s not the case. The best 如世上最好的科学家和一群体质最棒的骑手一 scientists in the world can take a group of the 起进入一间梦幻级的实验室,试图通过测试, most fit cyclists into a state-of-the-art lab, test, 督促,激励,测量和分析这些人,然后预言他 poke, prod, measure, and analyze them, then 们在比赛中将能如何如何 —— 结果一定是悲 predict how they will do in a race – and fail 惨的失败。实验室不是真实的赛场,在那里有 miserably. Labs are not the real world of racing, 很多科学领域外的变数是无法量化的。 where many variables beyond the ken of science escape quantification. 5
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 3 THE SCIENCE OF TRAINING 第 3 章 科学地训练 Training Stress 训练压力 There are five terms used repeatedly in this book 在本书中,当涉及训练引起的压力时有 5 个术 that relate to the stresses applied in training; it is 语被反复提到,理解这些术语非常重要。在整 important to understand these terms. By carefully 个赛季中,通过小心地改变高强度训练的频 changing workout frequency, duration, and 率,持续时间和强度,身体原先的舒适状态被 intensity throughout the season, the body’s comfortable state is disturbed, forcing it to adapt 打破,并迫使它调适到一个新的状态。其中包 with the positive changes we call “fitness”. This 括我们渴望改变的东西 ―― 被称为“身体素 manipulation has to do with volume and 质”。我们需要和训练量及训练负荷联系起来 workload. Let’s briefly examine each of these 操作,下面让我们简单地解释一下这些术语。 terms. Frequency 训练频率 This refers to how often training sessions are 这是指每隔多少时间进行一次训练。新车手可 done. Novice riders may work out three to five 能每周进行三到五次训练,就能感觉到身体素 times a week and experience a rapid change in 质突飞猛进,也许在短期内就能获取 10%- fitness, perhaps in the range of 10- to 20-percent 20%的进步。有经验的骑手训练地更频繁,常 improvement in a short period of time. Experienced cyclists train with greater frequency, 常在一年的某段时间里每天训练两次。一个为 often doing two workouts a day at certain times of 奥运会备战的选手可能每周训练 12 到 15 次, the year. An Olympic hopeful might work out 但如此高的训练频率可能只产生 1%的身体素 twelve to fifteen times in a week, but such high 质改善,因为这些运动员已经非常接近他们的 frequency may only produce a 1-percent gain in 身体潜能了。 fitness, since these athletes are already so close to their potential. Studies have found that training three to five 研究发现,相比于投入的时间,每周训练 times a week brings the greatest gain for the time 3 到 5 次获得的收益最高,如再投入更多的训 invested, and that additional workouts have 练时间,其回报将逐渐减少。然而,如果你的 diminishing returns. If you are trying to realize 目标是激发你的比赛潜能,那么这些很少的回 your racing potential, however, those small gains are worth it since the competition will be quite 报也是很有价值的,因为在比赛中,竞争对手 close in ability. 之间的实力非常接近。 Should a novice try to train at the same high 当一个新手尝试做与那些有经验的骑手一 level as the more experienced rider, he or she may 样的高级别训练时,他或她可能会因为过度训 actually see a decrease in fitness due to 练而导致事实上的体质衰退。如果一个老手按 overtraining. If the experienced rider trains for a 一个新手的低级别的训练时间来训练时,同样 substantial length of time at the novice’s low level, there will also be a loss of fitness because 会由于训练压力不足而导致体质衰退 —— 因 of undertraining – the frequency is too low. 为频率太低。 The frequency at which you work out is 你的训练频率应该由你的身体目前的适应 dependent on what your body is currently adapted 性来决定。比如,即使你是个有经验的骑手, to. For example, even if you’re an experienced 6
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 3 THE SCIENCE OF TRAINING 第 3 章 科学地训练 rider but have not trained for several weeks, it’s 但已经有数周未训练了,那么,你最好还是从 best to start with a lower frequency and gradually 较低的训练频率开始,然后逐渐增加频率。 increase it. Duration 持续时间 Training sessions may vary considerably in 每次训练的时间跨度都可能有所不同。有些训 length. Some last several hours in order to 练会持续数小时以改进有氧耐力,而有些则持 improve aerobic endurance. Others are short to 续较短时间从而达到较高的强度或为了促进恢 allow for higher efforts or to promote recovery. 复。和频率一样,训练持续时间取决于个人经 Just as with frequency, workout duration is determined by experience level, with seasoned 验的水平。经验最丰富的骑手训练持续时间最 riders doing the longest sessions. Duration may 长。训练持续长度可用时间或所骑里程来表 be measured in time or in distance covered. The 示。本书《自行车训练圣经》所指的训练持续 Cyclist’s Training Bible bases training sessions 长度用时间表示。 on time. The appropriate time for long rides is largely 长途骑行的合适的持续时间很大程度上取 determined by the anticipated duration of your 决于你预计的比赛长度。一般来说,最长的训 races. Typically, the longest workouts are about 练持续时间和运动员将要参加的比赛的最长持 the same duration as the longest race the athlete 续长度一样或略长一点。在赛季早期,高强度 will compete in or slightly longer. Early in the season, the higher-intensity workouts are done on 训练一般持续长度较短;但随着赛季的临近, lower-duration days, but as the racing season 训练会越来越艰苦,表现在持续时间和训练强 approaches, harder workouts incorporate both 度同时提高。这能让身体为比赛压力做好准 long duration and high intensity. This prepares 备。 the body for the stresses of racing. Intensity, Volume and Workload 强度,训练量和训练负荷 Frequency and duration are easy to quantify, so 频率和持续时间很容易量化,所以运动员在描 athletes often refer to them in describing their 述他们的训练规划时常引用这两项。例如,他 training program. They may, for example, say 们可能会说,上个星期他们骑行了 7 次,总骑 that they rode seven times last week for a total of 行时间为 14 个小时。实际上这只说明了他们 fourteen hours. This actually only describes a portion of their training – the portion called 训练的一个部分 —— 所谓“训练量”的那部 “volume”. Volume is the combination of 分。训练量是频率和持续时间的组合,它确实 frequency and duration and it does, indeed, 反映了运动员训练的大致情况。但训练量还不 provide an idea of what an athlete’s training is 能完全描述训练的压力。 like. But volume is an incomplete description of the stress of training. A better summary of one’s training is 对训练的更好概括是“训练负荷”,这是 “workload”, defined as the combination of 训练量和训练强度的组合。通过了解骑手的训 volume and intensity. By also knowing how hard 练时的困难程度——每次训练所付出的努力和 the rider trained – how much effort or power went 输出功率——我们就能更完整地定义训练压力 into each workout – the stress magnitude is more completely defined. The problem for the average 的量级。一般水平的骑手会遇到这样的问题, 7
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 3 THE SCIENCE OF TRAINING 第 3 章 科学地训练 rider is that it’s difficult to quantify intensity in 即训练强度无法象频率和持续时间一样量化。 the same way that frequency and duration are 解决这个问题的一个方法是,在每次训练科目 quantified. One way to do this is to assign an 结束后为其设定一个平均努力程度,用数值 1 average exertion level to each training session -10 来分级,1 表示非常容易,10 表示竭尽 when it is completed, using a 1 to 10 scale with 1 being extremely easy and 10 an all-out race effort. 全力。把努力程度乘以每个训练项目的持续时 By multiplying the number of minutes of the 间(分钟数),训练负荷就被充分量化了。 session by the exertion level, the workload is adequately quantified. For example, let’s say you rode for sixty 举个例子,你骑了 60 分钟,包括从热 minutes including a warm-up, several high- 身,到数个高强度的重复爬坡,以及冷却身 intensity hill repeats, and a cool-down. Assume 体。假定你为这个训练科目设定的平均努力程 that you assigned an average effort level of 7 to 度为 7,那么你的训练负荷就可表示为 420(7 this entire session. Your workload might then be expressed as 420 (7*60). ×60)。 To determine weekly workload, which 为了测定每周的训练负荷,其中包括多次 includes frequency, add up the daily workload 训练,我们只需将每天的训练负荷相加即可。 values. By comparing the workloads for a number 通过比较某段时间内每周的训练负荷,你就可 of weeks, you can see how the stress experienced 以了解训练压力对身体的改变。 by the body changes. Training intensity is the stressor that athletes 训练强度是一种经常被运动员误解的刺激 most often get wrong. They ride a little too 源。在需要慢慢骑的时候,他们骑得太快,结 intensely when they should be taking it easy and, 果是,在需要进行高强度训练时他们的身体已 as a consequence, are slightly tired when a high- 经有点疲劳了。这样一来所有的训练都趋向平 intensity workout is needed. All training therefore shifts toward mediocrity as the easy rides become 庸,因为低强度训练时强度不低而高强度训练 too hard and the hard rides too easy. For most 时强度又不够。对大多数骑手来说,正确安排 cyclists, getting the intensity right is the key to 训练强度,是让他们的能力更上一层楼的关 moving up to the next level of performance. 键。在第四章中将详细叙述这一复杂话题。 Chapter 4 offers greater detail on this complex issue. Volume versus Intensity 训练量 vs. 训练强度 Which is more important – volume or intensity? 训练量和训练强度,二者哪个更重要?在骑手 Given the finite amounts of physical resources 有限的体力允许的范围内,他或她应该尽可能 available to the rider, should he or she get in as 骑地更远些呢,还是应该骑较少距离但强度高 many miles as possible, or ride fewer miles with high intensity? 些? The answers to such questions depend on the 上述问题的回答,取决于骑手对这项运动 rider’s level of experience in the sports. Those 的经验水平。对那些新骑手来说,只要骑车频 new to cycling will improve rapidly merely by 率和训练时间多一些,就能得到快速的提高。 riding frequently and with relatively high 但随着骑手经验的增加——和身体素质的提 durations. As the rider becomes more experienced 高——训练量的增加对运动能力的影响越来越 – and fit – increases in volume have less and less 小,这时强调训练强度就变地很重要了。 impact on performance and variations in training intensity become critical. 8
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 3 THE SCIENCE OF TRAINING 第 3 章 科学地训练 Fatigue 疲劳 Were it not for fatigue we would all be 要不是因为疲劳,我们都会成为冠军。骑多久 champions. How quickly and to what extent we 后会觉得累,有多累,这都是我们的身体素质 experience fatigue is a great determiner of our 水平的重要限定因素 —— 也是训练的最主要 fitness level – it is a primary reason for training. 原因。最优秀的运动员就是那些最能够抵御疲 The fittest athletes are those who can best resist its slowing effects. 劳的人。 There are several causes of fatigue, but the 引起疲劳的原因有很多,但骑手最关心的 ones the cyclist is most concerned with are: 是: • Lactate accumulation • 乳酸堆积 • Glycogen depletion • 糖元耗尽 • Muscle failure • 肌肉失效 A sound training program improves fitness by 合理的训练,通过联系这些因素来给身体施 stressing the body’s systems associated with these 压,以此改善身体素质。以下我们来逐个简单 causes of fatigue. Let’s briefly examine each. 了解一下。 Lactate Accumulation 乳酸堆积 Energy for pedaling the bike comes largely from 踩自行车所需的能量,主要来自两种能源 — two sources – fat and carbohydrates. The body’s — 脂肪和碳水化合物。贮存在体内的碳水化 storage form of carbohydrates is called 合物被称为“糖元”,当糖元分解产生能量 “glycogen”. As glycogen is broken down to 时,在做功的肌肉细胞内便出现了乳酸。乳酸 produce energy, lactic acid appears in the working muscle cells. The lactic acid gradually 慢慢地从细胞渗透到周围的体液内,然后又被 seeps out of the cells and into the surrounding 吸收进血液里。当乳酸离开细胞时,会释放出 body fluids, where it is picked up in the 氢离子,变成所谓的“乳酸盐”。当乳酸盐的 bloodstream. As it leaves the cells, hydrogen ions 浓度高到一定程度时,它的酸性会降低肌肉细 are released and the resulting salt is called 胞的收缩能力,导致骑手慢下来。 “lactate”. If the concentration of lactate becomes great enough, its acidic nature reduces the ability of the muscle cells to contract, causing the rider to slow down. Lactate is always present in the blood as the 乳酸盐在血液里一直存在,只要身体需要 body uses carbohydrates along with fat for fuel at 消耗碳水化合物和脂肪来供应各级努力程度的 all levels of exertion – including the exertion 活动所需要的能量 —— 包括你阅读本页内 involved in reading this page. But during 容。但是在运动中,随着糖元消耗的增加,血 exercise, as the use of glycogen increases, there is a concurrent rise in blood lactate levels. At low 液中的乳酸盐水平也相应增加。在乳酸盐浓度 levels the body has no trouble removing and 较低时,身体可以毫无困难地消除和存储这些 buffering the acid. But as the intensity of exercise 酸。但随着训练强度从有氧(呼吸轻快)转为 shifts from aerobic (light breathing) to anaerobic 无氧(呼吸粗重),乳酸盐最终会达到某个非 (labored breathing), the lactate eventually reaches 常高的浓度水平,以致于身体消除它的速度再 9
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 3 THE SCIENCE OF TRAINING 第 3 章 科学地训练 so great a level that the body is no longer able to 也跟不上它产生的速度。那些堆积的乳酸盐导 remove it at the same rate it is produced. The 致短期的疲劳。现在骑手唯一能做的便是减 resulting lactate accumulation causes short-term 速,从而降低乳酸盐的产生,以便使身体消除 fatigue. The only way the rider can deal with it 乳酸盐的速度能够跟上来。 now is to slow down so lactate production is decreased and the body can catch up. This type of fatigue occurs during brief but 这种类型的疲劳出现在短促但强度极高的 extremely high-intensity efforts such as long 运动环节,比如长冲刺、摆脱大部队和爬坡。 sprints, bridging to a break or climbing a hill. 因此,增加身体消除和容纳乳酸盐能力的方法 Thus, the way to improve your body’s ability to 便是靠短时间的间歇训练来模拟这样的比赛情 clear and buffer lactate is by doing short-duration interval workouts that replicate these race 况。 conditions. Depletion of Glycogen 糖原耗尽 Fat is the primary source of fuel for every ride 脂肪是供给你每次骑行的主要能量来源,但随 you do, but as the intensity of the ride varies, the 着骑行强度的改变,碳水化合物所供应的能量 contribution of carbohydrates to energy demand 也相应地增加或降低。图 3.1 展示了这种变 rises and falls considerably. Figure 3.1 illustrates 化。 this shift. Carbohydrates are stored in the muscles and 碳水化合物以糖原的形式贮存在肌肉和肝 liver as glycogen and in the blood as glucose. A 脏内,以血糖的形式存储在血液内。一个营养 well-nourished athlete has about 1,500 to 2,000 良好的运动员贮存的糖元和血糖大约有 1500 kilocalories of glycogen and glucose packed -2000 千卡,根据体型和身体素质状况略有 away, depending on body size and fitness level. That’s not much energy. Most of this, about 75 不同。这些能量不算多,其中大部分,大约 percent, is in the muscles. 75%,存储在肌肉里。 The problem is that when glycogen and 当糖元和血糖储备过低时问题就来了,运 glucose stores run low, exercise slows 动不得不相应地放慢,因为现在身体必须主要 considerably, since the body must now rely 依靠脂肪来供能了,如图 3.1 所示。我们称之 primarily on fat for fuel, as shown in Figure 3.1. 为“糖原耗尽”。 This is called “bonking”. A 2.5-hour race may have an energy cost of 一个 2.5 小时的比赛需要消耗大约 3000 3,000 kilocalories, with perhaps half of that 千卡的能量,其中大约一半来自于碳水化合 coming from carbohydrate sources. If the rider 物。如果比赛开始的时候骑手身体存储的糖原 starts with a low level of glycogen on board and 水平较低,而在比赛中也没有补充碳水化合 these carbohydrate calories are not replaced during the race, he or she may be forced to 物,那么他或她有可能被迫放弃比赛。如果骑 abandon the race. The same sorry results may also 手的运动效率不高,或有氧代谢能力不足时, occur if the rider pedals the bike uneconomically 同样会发生这样遗憾的结果。 or if general aerobic fitness is poor. Research reveals that a well-trained athlete is 研究表明,一个良好训练的运动员比起一 capable of storing greater amounts of 个没受过训练的人,能储存更多的碳水化合 carbohydrates while using it more sparingly than 物,并且能更经济地消耗它们。你所习惯的饮 10
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 3 THE SCIENCE OF TRAINING 第 3 章 科学地训练 an untrained person. The diet you habitually eat 食也决定了你能吸收多少能量,以及多久后才 also determines how much fuel is socked away 被耗光。本书 16 章将更详细地讨论之。 and how rapidly it is used up. This is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 16. Figure 3.1 Relative contribution of fat and 图 3.1 脂肪与碳水化合物(糖原和血糖)在三 carbohydrate (glycogen and glucose) to 种不同有氧能力水平下供能的相对比 exercise fuel at three levels of aerobic 例。 capacity (VO2max). Muscle Failure 肌肉失效 Exactly what causes the cyclist’s working 目前仍然搞不清楚,在一个长而艰苦的比赛临 muscles to fail to contract forcefully near the end 近结束时,骑手的做功肌肉为什么会无法强制 of a long and grueling race is unknown. It is 收缩。这可能和神经与肌肉之间连接点的化学 probably related to chemical failure at the point of 反应失效有关,或者是中枢神经系统为防止肌 connection between the nerve and the muscle, or by a protective mechanism in the central nervous 肉损伤所做出的保护性机制。 system intended to prevent muscle damage. High-intensity training may help to fortify 高强度训练能够训练神经系统征召更多肌 the body against muscle failure by training the 肉参加耐力运动,从而帮助身体增强抵抗肌肉 nervous system to recruit more muscles for 失效的能力。进行高强度间歇训练更多地使用 endurance activity. Working out at high intensity, 快收缩肌,而长时间的慢速骑行更多地使用慢 as when doing intervals, involves more fast- twitch muscles than riding long and slow, which 收缩肌。快收缩肌只有在运动强度达到到慢收 favors slow-twitch muscles. Fast-twitch muscles 缩肌无法满足要求时才会被使用。如果快收缩 are not called upon until the effort becomes so 肌常被用来帮助慢收缩肌完成以耐力为主的运 great that the slow-twitch muscles can no longer 动,比如间歇训练时,它们便开始拥有一些慢 handle the effort. As fast twitchers are recruited to 收缩肌的特性。这对耐力型运动员来说很有好 support the slow twitchers during what is 处。 basically an endurance activity, such as intervals, they begin to take on some of the slow-twitch 11
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 3 THE SCIENCE OF TRAINING 第 3 章 科学地训练 characteristics. This is of great benefit to the endurance athlete. Principles of Training 训练原则 The principles upon which periodization training 周期性训练基于的原则是个性化,阶段性进 is based are individualization, progression, 步,过载和确切性。请多多包涵,这些名词听 overload and specificity. Bear with me here as 上去有些学术化和理论化。充分理解这些原则 these may sound somewhat scientific and 将使你成为更好的车手 —— 一个可以聪明地 theoretical. Understanding the principles will make you a better cyclist – one capable of smart 自我训练的人。 self-coaching. Individualization 个性化 The capacity of an athlete to handle a given 每个运动员都有独特的方式处理给定的运动负 workload is unique. Each athlete can be 荷。每个运动员都可被视为受三类因素影响的 considered an ecosystem influenced by three 生态系统 —— 社会文化因素,生物学因素和 categories of factors – sociocultural, biological, 心理学因素。这三类因素中的每一项都可能阻 and psychological. Each of these categories has the potential to impede or promote improvement. 碍或促进你的进步。 Sociocultural factors such as lagging career 社会文化因素,比如职业生涯不顺利,经 progression, economic pressure, and poor 济压力,和糟糕的人际关系,都会在精神和生 interpersonal relationships often undercut how 理上消耗掉不少本可用于训练的时间和精力。 much time and energy, both mental and physical, 生物学因素的例子,包括过敏,对药物的使用 is available for training. Examples of biological factors are allergies, use of drugs, and inadequate 以及营养不足。这些因素会限制个人进行成功 nutrition. These factors may restrict the 的训练所需的体能。心理学因素可能是最容易 individual’s physical ability to train successfully. 被忽视,但却最有可能降低训练成效的因素。 Psychological factors are perhaps the most 最典型的例子如:害怕失败,自尊心不足,和 overlooked, yet the most likely to compromise the 对他人不切实际的期望。 benefits of training. Some examples are fear of failure, low self-esteem, and the unreasonable expectations of others. In addition, some athletes are “fast 另外,有些运动员是“快速反应者”,而 responders” while others are “slow responders”. 有些是“慢速反应者”。这就意味着,如果你 This means that if you and a teammate do exactly 和你的队友以完全相同的方式进行同样的训 the same training in precisely the same way, you 练,但你可能无法在指定比赛中达到其他人的 probably won’t reach a common level of fitness by a given race. Being a slow or fast responder is 身体素质水平。你是快速反应者还是慢速反应 probably genetic – you may have inherited a body 者主要由遗传决定——你的身体生来就按它自 that changes at a given rate. Generally, four to 己的节奏来适应变化。一般来说,指定类型的 eight weeks of a given type of training are 训练要表现明显的效果,需要进行至少 4 到 8 necessary to show significant results. While you 周时间。由于你不能改变身体的反应速度,你 can’t change how quickly your body responds, 可以学习根据你独特的个性来设计训练计划。 you can learn to design your training program 12
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 3 THE SCIENCE OF TRAINING 第 3 章 科学地训练 around your unique characteristics. The bottom line is that you cannot simply do 底线是你不能简单地模仿其他人所做的 what others are doing and expect to get the same 事,并冀望能获取同样的收益 —— 或哪怕一 benefits – or any benefits at all. What is an easy 点点收益。 对某个骑手来说很轻松的训练, day for one rider may be race effort for another. 对另一个人来说可能需要比赛级的努力才能完 Chapter 5 and 6 will address the issue of individualizing training to fit your unique set of 成。本书第 5 和第 6 章讲述了如何根据你特定 abilities. 的能力来制定个性化的训练。 Progression 阶段性进步 Have you ever done a workout so hard that you 你有没有做过这样高强度的训练,以致于在接 were sore for days afterward and did not have the 下来的几天中,肌肉一直酸疼,甚至连轻松骑 energy to even ride easily? We’ve all done that. 行都无法做?我们都有这样的经历。这样的训 Such a workout violated the progression 练违背了阶段性进步的原则。身体素质并没有 principle. The body didn’t get stronger, it lost fitness. The workout caused you to waste two 因此变得强壮,反而下降了。这种训练浪费了 very precious resources: time and energy. 你的两项宝贵资源:时间和精力。 The workload must be gradually increased, 运动负荷必须慢慢增加,并在其中安插一 with intermittent periods of rest and recovery, as 些的休息和恢复期,因为运动员得为赛季里最 the athlete focuses fitness for the most important 重要的比赛积累体能。训练压力必须比身体所 races of the season. The stresses must be greater 习惯处理的稍大一些。运动负荷,尤其是强度 than the body is accustomed to handling. The workloads, especially the intensity component, 部分,要一点一点的增加,通常为 5-15%。 are increased in small increments, usually of 5 to 这样骑手就可以避免训练过度和受伤,同时也 15 percent. This allows the cyclist to avoid 保持足够的压力让身体适应。运动负荷的增加 overtraining and injury, yet provides enough 很大程度上是取决于个人,尤其是涉及强度 stress to allow adaptation to occur. Workload 时。本书第 5 和第 6 章将指点你走过迷津, increases are largely individual matters, 阶段性地建立比赛所需的身体素质。 especially with regard to intensity. Chapter 5 and 6 will guide you through the maze of building race fitness progressively. Overload 过载 The object of training is to cause the body to 训练的目的是为了引导身体产生积极的改变, positively change in order to better manage the 以便能更好地适应比赛时的身体压力。为了给 physiological stresses of racing. In order to stress 身体压力,就必须施加目前身体素质状态不适 the body, it must be presented with a load that 应的训练负荷。这样的负荷会引起疲劳,疲劳 challenges its current state of fitness. Such a load will cause fatigue, followed by recovery and 恢复后,最终将达到一个更高的身体素质水 eventually a greater level of fitness known as 平,这被称为“过量补偿”(参看图 3.2)。 “over-compensation” (see Figure 3.2) 13
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 3 THE SCIENCE OF TRAINING 第 3 章 科学地训练 Figure 3.2 Overcompensation resulting from a training 图 3.2 训练过载引起的过量补偿 overload Top-level performance is the result of years 顶级的运动能力,是多年来周密计划的过 of well-planned overload resulting in adaptation. 载训练经身体适应后的累积结果。这种最优化 This optimum training repeatedly places 的训练反复对运动员施加定量的压力。如果训 measured stresses on the athlete. If the workloads 练负荷定量正确,略大于身体所习惯的级别, are of the right magnitude, slightly more than the body can handle, adaptation occurs and fitness 身体的适应性将发挥作用并使身体素质稳步提 steadily improves. 高。 It important to note that overload happens 需要强调的是:过载发生在训练中,而适 during workouts, but adaptation occurs during 应发生在休息时。身体素质的潜能,乍一看是 rest. It is as if the potential for fitness is produced 由训练产生的,但实际上是在训练后的休息阶 by training, but the realization of fitness occurs 段实现的。如果你老是缩短你的休息时间,那 during subsequent rest. If you repeatedly short- change your rest, the body will not continue to 么,身体将无法继续进步,从而导致身体素质 improve. You’ll actually lose fitness. This is 的损失。这就是“训练过度”。我见过的自我 called “overtraining”. The biggest mistake I see 指导的运动员犯的最大错误,就是忽视身体对 self-coached athletes make is disregarding their 休息的需要。聪明的运动员知道何时该放弃训 need for rest. Smart athletes know when to 练,早早休息,何时该降低训练量。简而言 abandon a workout early. They know when to do 之,他们理解并听从他们的身体。你必须学习 less instead of more. In short, they understand and 这种能力。在第 15 章,我将教你一些技巧, listen to their bodies. You must learn to do the 来帮助你改进这种能力。 same. In Chapter 15, I’ll teach you some techniques to help you refine this skill. If the load of training is decreased for 如果在一段时期内训练负荷降低,身体便 extended periods, the body adapts to lower levels 会自适应并降格到较低的身体素质水平。我们 of fitness. We call this “being out of shape”. But 称之为“走样”。不过一旦一个骑手达到了一 once a rider has reached optimal fitness, it can be 个理想的身体素质状态,便可通过不太频繁, maintained with infrequent, but regular and judiciously spaced stress allowing for increased 但有规律的,仔细规定的训练压力来维持,在 recovery between hard workouts. 高难度训练之间可以有较长的恢复期。 14
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 3 THE SCIENCE OF TRAINING 第 3 章 科学地训练 Specificity 确切性 According to this principle, the stresses applied in 根据这一原则,在训练中施加的压力应和比赛 training must be similar to the stresses expected 中预计的压力相似。有时训练负荷必须包括一 in racing. Sometimes the workload must include 个长而稳定的距离。而其他时间,需要进行高 long, steady distance. At others, brief bouts of 强度的每回合时间较短的间歇训练以促使身体 high intensity are required to bring the needed changes. Riding slow all the time is just as wrong 的改变。总是做慢速骑行和一直进行高强度训 as always going hard. In Chapter 6, I’ll teach you 练都是错误的。在第 6 章,我将教你怎么分析 how to isolate the various stresses required in 公路赛中需要的各种压力,以及如何将它们融 road races and show you how to blend them into a 入训练计划中。 comprehensive program. 15
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 4 INTENSITY 第 4 章 强度 Chapter 4 INTENSITY 第4章 强度 Every time I suffer I’ a better man because of it. m 每次受苦的经历都使我成为更棒的人。 -- LANCE ARMSTRONG ――LANCE ARMSTRONG Recreational Cyclists generally believe that the 休闲派的车手一般认为他们骑得距离越长,比 more miles they ride the better they will race, 赛时的表现就会越好,至于应该怎么骑就不管 regardless of what they do with those miles. To 那么多了。从某种程度上说这也没错,因为对 some extent they are right, as there does seem to 任何一个车手来说,的确存在这么一个骑行里 be a threshold of miles or hours that a given athlete must ride in order to boost fitness to a 程和时间的门槛,只有达到这个门槛后才能获 sufficient level to race well. But once beyond that 得比赛所需级别的身体素质。但是跨过这个门 threshold, adding more miles has less benefit than 槛之后,增加更多的骑行里程所获得的好处却 increasing the intensity. It's not how many miles, 远不如增加强度效果好。所以说关键不在于骑 but what you do with the miles that counts most. 多远,而在于怎么骑。 Of the three elements of training – 训练三要素――训练频度,持续时间和 frequency, duration, and intensity –the most 强度――其中最需要搞清楚的就是强度。但说 important element to get right is intensity. Oddly 也奇怪,车手们最容易搞错的也是强度。很多 enough, this is the part cyclists all too often get 的训练课都在需要轻松的时候太大强度,而到 wrong. Most train too intensely when they should be going easy. Then when it's time to go fast they 了需要骑快的时候又因为太疲劳了而无法冲击 are a little too tired to push their limits. As a 其生理极限。结果是他们的训练变得稀松平 result, all of their training becomes moderate. 常,而比赛也是一样:待在大部队里面直到无 They race the same way: Stay with the pack until 法跟住领骑集团,接着他们竞争名次的希望完 it's time to put the hammer down. Then they're off 全破灭,但自己也莫名其妙这一切是怎么发生 the back wondering how they got there. 的。 In the context of this chapter, intensity refers 在本章中,强度的定义是在训练中模拟 to the effort or power output that closely 你准备参加的 A 级赛事所需要的功率输出及 simulates that of the A-priority events for which 其费力程度。对于公路赛或者绕圈赛来说强度 you are training. For a road race or criterium this 的范围可能比较广泛,包括跟上快速队伍时所 may be a wide variety of intensities including steady efforts near lactate threshold while in a 需的接近乳酸极限阈值的稳定出力,追上前面 fast-traveling group, aerobic capacity intensities 队伍时所需的持续几分钟的有氧范围的出力, for several minutes while chasing down a break, 或者冲刺时的竭尽全力的强度。对于计时赛, or an all-out intensity for sprinting. For a time 百英里赛或者超长马拉松赛来说,强度定义的 trial, century ride, or ultra-marathon the intensity 范围会窄很多。为了制定出好的训练计划,你 will be much more narrowly defined. The 必须精确地定义为达到颠峰状态所需要的强 intensity necessary to produce peak fitness must 度。 be well defined in order to create a sound training program. Developing peak fitness is like building a 塑造颠峰状态的过程有点象造房子。房 house. The most important part of the house is its 子最重要的部分是地基。如果地基不稳房子就 foundation. Without a solid foundation the house 会下沉,墙会裂开,也就无法住人了。如果地 will settle, walls will crack, and it will have little 基建得好,房子就会很稳固。为比赛所做的训 value. If the foundation is constructed well, the house will be solid and last a long time. The same 练也是同样道理。轻松骑行的里程数是坚实的 can be said of training to race. A solid foundation 地基,你必须先完成这些,然后才能做进一步 1
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 4 INTENSITY 第 4 章 强度 built on a base of easy miles is necessary before 的练习――如间歇训练,重复爬坡,快速的小 the finish work –intervals, hill repeats, and fast 组骑行。如果地基已经完全建好了,进行模拟 group rides –is added. But once the foundation is 比赛强度的训练能带给你额外收获;但是如果 well established, workouts that mimic the 地基还不牢就太早地开始这样强度的训练的 intensities expected in the race pay dividends. Do these same intense workouts too soon and your 话,你的房子就会倒塌。 house will shift and crack. Another training comparison that has stood 另一说法把训练比喻成金字塔的建造。 the test of time is that of a pyramid. The broader 金字塔的底边越大(轻松的有氧训练),顶尖 the base of the pyramid (easy aerobic training), 就可以造地越高(比赛时更快的速度)。 the higher the peak will be (fast racing speed). The c is that high-intensity training needs to 总的来说,高强度训练需要有目的有计 be undertaken with thought and planning in order 划地安排从而在合适的时间达到高峰状态。安 to peak at the right times of the year. Too much, 排地太多或太早都使你无法在比赛中保持高峰 too soon and you won't be able to maintain the 状态,若太少太迟的话会让你失去竞争力。 fitness. Too little, too late and you're off the back. Learn to apply the intensity concepts in this 从本章中学会强度的概念以及如何运 chapter and you'll avoid overtraining and 用,你就能避免过度训练或训练不足;你也会 undertraining; your racing fitness will be high 在合适的时候达到比赛所需的颠峰状态。 when the time is right. Measuring Intensity 测量强度 What's going on inside a cyclist's body during a 在比赛或训练中车手们的身体里到底发生了什 race or workout? How does a rider know to go 么?在计时赛中他们怎么知道何时该加速何时 faster or back off during a time trial? Is a workout 该放慢呢?这次训练是太累了还是太轻松了? too hard or too easy? How is it possible to finish 怎样才能在最后冲刺之前留出足够的体力呢? with enough left for a sprint? The answers to these and other questions 对这些问题的回答都可归结为密切监视 come down to keeping close tabs on your use of 你是怎样使用能量的。通过测量强度,并对比 energy. By measuring intensity and comparing 你的身体在训练和比赛中提供给你的信息,你 the information with what you have learned about 就能在诸如突围,顶风或爬坡等新情况发生时 your body in training and racing, you can make decisions as new situations such as breakaways, 做出正确决定。今天的科技已经能够让运动员 head winds, and hills occur. Today’ technology s 快速准确地测量强度了。 allows an athlete to measure intensity quickly and accurately. The oldest, and still one of the best, gross 最古老,也是最有效的综合测量强度的 indicators of intensity is perceived effort. An 方法之一是个人感知发挥。一个经验丰富的车 experienced cyclist is able to judge his or her 手能够通过对他或她的身体工作状态的主观感 intensity quite accurately by taking a subjective 受,非常精确地判断出骑行的强度。这是通过 survey of the entire body at work. This is a skill honed by years of riding, making mistakes, and 年积月累的骑行,犯错误以及对身体素质变化 relearning as fitness changes. 的再认识逐渐磨砺出的一种技能。 2
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 4 INTENSITY 第 4 章 强度 Perceived exertion is quantifiable using the 个人感知发挥可以参考 Borg 分级表来量 Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale (see 化(见表 4.1),科学家经常使用这个个人感 Table 4.1) and is frequently used by scientists to 知发挥度分级表来确定运动员的出力级别,简 determine at what level an athlete is working. 称 RPE。有些运动员对 RPE 使用得如此娴 Some athletes are so good at using a Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) that in a laboratory 熟,以至于在实验室的递增出力试验中他们能 graduated-effort test they can pinpoint their 够仅凭感觉精确地指出他们的乳酸盐极限阈 lactate threshold precisely just from feel. 值。 There are two other ways of measuring 除此之外还有两种测量强度的方法,都 intensity that are related more or less to specific 和某些身体系统有或多或少的联系。心率与心 systems of the body. Heart rate is closely aligned 血管系统的监测紧密相关,而测量功率紧密关 with monitoring of the cardiovascular system, 系到肌肉系统驱动踏板的能力。下面我们将看 while power measurement relates closely to the ability of the muscular system to drive the pedals. 到这些方法是如何测量在训练和比赛中的强度 Let's see how these and other methods can be 的。 utilized in measuring training and racing intensity. 目标 等级 出力程度的感觉 恢复 6 恢复 7 非常非常轻松 恢复 8 恢复 9 非常轻松 有氧运动 10 有氧运动 11 还算轻松 有氧运动 12 快速骑行 13 有点费力 快速骑行 14 接近乳酸阈值骑行 15 费力 接近乳酸阈值骑行 16 超出乳酸阈值骑行 17 非常辛苦 培养有氧能力 18 培养有氧能力 19 非常非常辛苦 培养有氧能力 20 Table 4.1 Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale 表 4.1 Borg 的个人感知发挥度分级表 Systems 系统 The body is made up of several interconnected 构成身体的几个系统,例如能量供应系统,心 and mutually beneficial systems, such as the 血管系统,神经系统之间是内部耦合和相互作 energy production, cardiovascular, and nervous 用的。不管采用什么方法来测试强度,你也只 systems. Regardless of what method of intensity 是通过一个很小的窗口窥探到身体系统的一角 measurement is used, you’ taking a peek into re the body through a small systems window, but 而已。但是因为系统之间的相互关联关系,你 since the systems are linked, you can draw 可以据此推测整个身体的状况,只要你拥有足 3
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 4 INTENSITY 第 4 章 强度 conclusions about the entire body once you have 够的经验和知识。本章我所介绍的都是知识部 experience and knowledge. I'll help you with the 分的内容,而经验部分你需要通过对本章内容 knowledge part in this chapter; you'll need to 的实践来获得。以下列举的是那些我们现在可 acquire the experience by using what you learn 以在骑车运动中窥测到的身体系统,以及测量 here. The systems we can presently use to peek into the body while out on the road and the 的指示器: measurable indicator of each are:  Energy production system –lactate  能量供应系统――乳酸盐  Muscular system –power  肌肉系统――功率  Cardiovascular system –heart rate  心血管系统――心率 Energy Production System 能量供应系统 The metabolic system provides fuel to muscles in 代谢系统以碳水化合物,脂肪和蛋白质的形式 the form of carbohydrates, fat, and protein. 为肌肉提供燃料。这些燃料在肌肉内部被转化 Within the muscle, these fuels are converted to a 为可被使用的能量形式,即三磷酸腺苷 usable energy form called adenosine triphosphate (ATP)。无论是有氧或无氧方式的供能都是 (ATP). This process happens either aerobically or anaerobically. 如此的过程。 Aerobic energy production occurs while you 在你轻松骑行时发生的是有氧供能过 are riding easily. It relies primarily on fat and to a 程。该过程主要靠脂肪以及少量的碳水化合物 lesser extent on carbohydrates for fuel and uses 供能并把这些燃料转化成 ATP。你骑得越 oxygen in the process of converting fuel to ATP. 慢,脂肪供能的比例就越大,碳水化合物消耗 The slower you go, the greater the reliance on fat and the more carbohydrates are spared. As the 得也越少。随着你骑行节奏的提高,供能方式 pace of your ride increases, there is a gradual 就慢慢地从由脂肪供能向碳水化合物供能过 shifting away from fat and toward carbohydrate 渡。当出力级别达到 RPE15-17 级时,氧气 as the fuel of choice. At high efforts, around 15 to 供应将无法满足代谢需求,于是你开始用无氧 17 RPE, oxygen delivery no longer keeps up with 方式制造 ATP,即所谓的无氧运动方式。 the demand, and you begin producing ATP anaerobically, meaning "without oxygen." Anaerobic exercise relies heavily on 无氧运动几乎完全依赖碳水化合物作为 carbohydrates for fuel. As carbohydrates are 燃料,并且在转化成 ATP 的过程中同时产生 converted to ATP, a by-product called lactic acid 一种叫做乳酸的副产品。乳酸进入肌肉组织以 is released into the muscle. This causes the 后,就造成我们所熟知的感觉,即在奋力骑行 familiar burning and heavy-legged sensations you've experienced while riding hard. As lactic 时感到的灼痛和大腿沉重感。乳酸从肌肉细胞 acid seeps through the muscle cell walls into the 内渗透出来进入血液后,它会释放一个氢离子 bloodstream, it gives off a hydrogen molecule and 变成乳酸盐。乳酸盐在血液中的堆积程度可以 becomes lactate. Lactate accumulates in the blood 通过在手指和耳垂采集血液样本的方式来测 and can be measured by raking a sample from the 量。实验室使用的测量单位是毫摩尔每公升 finger or earlobe. The unit of measurement used (mmol/L)。 in labs is millimoles per liter, expressed as mmol/L. Since carbohydrates are in use during both 在以上两种供能方式中都需要使用碳水 of these types of energy production, to a lesser 化合物,不过在有氧运动时使用得少些,而在 4
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 4 INTENSITY 第 4 章 强度 extent in aerobic and more so anaerobically, lactic 无氧运动时使用得多一些,并且都会产生乳 acid is always being produced. Even while you 酸。即使是你在阅读本书时,你的肌肉同样会 are reading this book, your muscles are producing 产生一定量的可以被测量到的乳酸。 measurable amounts of lactic acid. By measuring lactate, an athlete, or more 通过使用仪器和技术测量乳酸盐,在一 than likely his or her coach, could determine – 定程度上运动员或者他的教练就能够确定一些 with some degree of accuracy depending on skill 有关身体素质的重要指标,比如: level and equipment used –several key aspects of fitness, such as:  Lactate threshold. As previously described,  乳酸盐极限阈值:前面曾经说过,这是指 this is the level of exertion at which 某种出力级别,在这样的强度下代谢系统 metabolism shifts from aerobic to anaerobic 从有氧方式转换到无氧方式,表现为乳酸 marked by lactate being produced so rapidly 盐的大量快速的产生以至于身体无法继续 that the body can't keep up with its removal. 这种程度的运动。乳酸盐也会因此而在血 Lactate thus accumulates in the blood. I often explain lactate threshold using an analogy. If 液中堆积。我经常用一个比喻来解释乳酸 I slowly pour water into a paper cup that has a 盐极限阈值。当我慢慢地向一个底部有孔 hole in the bottom the water will run out as 的纸杯子里倒水时,水流出的速度和我倒 fast as I pour it in. This is what happens to 水的速度差不多。这就象出力程度较低时 lactate in the blood at low levels of exertion. 乳酸盐在血液中发生的情况。随着我倒水 If I pour faster, there comes a point when the 速度加快到某个程度时,杯子里的水就会 water begins to accumulate despite the fact 堆积起来虽然这时仍有不少水从底部流走 that some is still leaking out through the hole. 了。这就象出力程度较高以至达到乳酸盐 This is similar to the lactate threshold point that is achieved at higher levels of exertion. 极限阈值时的情况。乳酸盐极限阈值是个 Lactate threshold is an important concept that 贯穿本书的非常重要的概念。 will be used throughout this book.  训练区间:训练和比赛的强度可以基于乳  Training zones. Training and racing 酸盐水平来定义(见表 4.2)。 intensities may be determined based on  生理结构的进步:在不会堆积高水平的乳 lactate levels (see Table 4.2). 酸盐的情况下,骑手的速度越快,或输出  Physiological improvement. The faster a 功率越高,那么他或她的比赛能力就越 rider can go or the more power that can be 强。 generated without accumulating high levels of lactate, the better his or her racing fitness.  踩踏效率:每次踩踏越圆滑,耗费体力就  Economy of pedaling. The smoother one 越少,因而肌肉中堆积的乳酸盐也越少。 pedals, the less effort he or she uses, and  装备选择:最优的曲柄长度,座垫高度以 therefore, the less lactate that accumulates in 及横把调整都可以产生更好的踩踏效率, the rider's muscles. 也使骑手肌肉中制造的乳酸盐更少。  Equipment selection. Optimal crank arm  间歇恢复:在每组间歇训练的恢复期间, lengths, saddle heights, and handlebar 乳酸盐降低的水平反映了骑手的恢复程 adjustments create a greater pedaling 度,以及是否为下一组间歇练习做好了身 economy, which then produces low levels of 体上的准备。 lactate in the rider's muscles.  Recovery interval. Reduced levels of lactate indicate that a cyclist is ready for the next work interval in a workout. The key piece in achieving all of these 要想达到所有这些目标,一个关键问题 5
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 4 INTENSITY 第 4 章 强度 benefits is the ability to accurately measure 就是如何精确地在“外面”(如训练台或赛道 lactate in a "field" setting (using an indoor trainer 上)而不是在实验室里测量乳酸盐――换句话 or track) rather than a lab –in other words, 说就是便宜的测量方式。 前些年测量乳酸盐 inexpensively. Until recently, the only way to 的唯一方式就是在实验室里使用分析仪,比如 measure lactate was in a lab using an analyzer such as the YSI 2300, the accepted standard in the YSI 2300,这是符合美国标准的仪器。但是该 United States. Its size, expense, and the need for 仪器体积大,价格高,并且需要电源,因而不 electricity, however, make it impractical for field 适合在野外使用。 use. RPE 目标 乳酸盐(mmol/L) <10 恢复 <2 10-12 有氧运动 2-3 13-17 乳酸极限阈值 3-5 18-19 有氧能力 5-12 20+ 无氧能力 12-20 Table 4.2 Lactate Zones 表 4.2 乳酸盐区间 In the past few years relatively inexpensive 最近几年里,美国的体育用品市场上出 portable lactate analyzers have been introduced to 现了一种相对便宜的便携式乳酸盐分析仪,但 the U.S. fitness market but these are not for the 不太适合一般的骑手。使用这种仪器需要相当 average rider's use. Using such a device requires 的技巧,只有为运动员取样数百次后才能掌握 extensive skill that comes only with the experience of sampling hundreds of athletes. The 这种经验。这种乳酸盐采样方式虽然有用,但 bottom line is that lactate sampling, while helpful, 不是为骑手准备的,而是他或她的教练或实验 is not something for the rider to use, but rather a 室的技术人员使用的一种工具。 tool that may be used by his or her coach or a lab technician. Muscular System 肌肉系统 Power is a measure of work compared to time. It 功率是测量相对于时间所做的功,它的计量单 is expressed in units called "watts," named for 位是“瓦特”,由蒸气机的发明者詹姆斯·瓦 James Watt, the inventor of the steam engine. In 特而命名。在物理学中,功率由以下公式来定 physics, power is described in a formula as: 义: Power = work/time 功率 = 做功 / 时间 At the risk of oversimplification, in cycling 虽然有点过于简化,但你可以把骑车运 "work" is essentially gear size and "time" is 动中的“做功”理解为齿轮比的大小,把“时 cadence. So if gear size is increased and cadence 间”理解为踏频。所以如果齿轮比增大但保持 kept steady, power rises. Or, if cadence is 同样踏频的话,输出功率增加;而如果踏频增 increased (time per revolution of the crank is decreased) while using the same gear size, power 加(每次旋转曲柄的时间减少)但保持同样齿 also rises. 轮比的话,功率也会增加。 Several scientific studies have found that 科学研究已经发现输出功率和比赛表现 power is closely related to performance. If the 之间关系紧密。如果平均输出功率增加,比赛 6
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 4 INTENSITY 第 4 章 强度 average power output increases, race velocity also 时的速度也会增加。但是心率与比赛表现之间 increases. The same cannot always be said for 的关系就不能用这样的方式去解释。这也是为 heart rate, as explained above; that is why power 什么功率监测仪是很棒的单车训练工具。对认 monitoring is such an excellent tool for bicycle 真的车手来说,这是监测强度的最有效的方 training. It is the most effective way for the serious rider to monitor intensity. 法。 The downside of power monitoring, as 功率监测不如心率监测的方面是设备的 compared with heart rate, is equipment cost. In 价格。在 20 世纪 90 年代早期,功率监测仪的 the early and middle 1990s, a powermeter cost 价格大概是心率表的 20 倍。但是 1999 年出现 about twenty times as much as a heart rate Turn PowerTap 后,二者的价格差大幅下降到 monitor. With the introduction of the Tune Power-Tap in 1999, however, the cost ratio was 大约 4 比 1。 lowered to something approaching 4 to 1. Power-based training begins with 基于功率的训练从确定个人的“关键功 determining one's "critical power profile". This is 率曲线”开始。这是用图形方式展现个人在不 a visual representation of the ability to produce 同时期的功率输出的能力。测量不同时间 power at various durations. Finding and graphing 段――即所谓的关键功率(CP)时间段―― average power output for the critical power (CP) durations of 12 seconds and 1, 6, 12, 30, 60, 90, 分别为 12 秒,1 分钟,6,12,30,60,90 和 and 180 minutes produces a curve or profile such 180 分钟里的平均输出功率,并将数值画到图 as those shown in Figure 4.1. 上,就会得到如图 4.1 所示的曲线。 Figure 4.1 Critical profiles for two riders 图 4.1 两名骑手的关键功率曲线 Note that the profiles in Figure 4.1 are 注意图 4.1 中有两名不同骑手的关键功率 considerably different for the two riders. Rider A 曲线。骑手 A 在短时间里能够产生比骑手 B 7
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 4 INTENSITY 第 4 章 强度 is capable of producing far greater power than 大得多的功率输出。虽然骑手 B 在短时间里 Rider B for short durations. Although Rider B 输出功率较少,但他的功率曲线坡度较缓,这 lacks short-duration power, the generally 表明他的耐力水平比较高。在临近终点的全力 shallower slope indicates much greater 冲刺时,骑手 A 占有优势;但随着骑行距离 endurance capability. In an all-out sprint near the finish line, Rider A has an advantage, but 的增加,骑手 B 就会慢慢占据主动。 Rider B has the upper hand as the duration increases. Once you've determined average power for 一旦你能够确定不同时间段里的平均输 each of the above durations (Chapter 5 describes 出功率(第 5 章解释具体如何做),你的关键 how to do this), your CP training zones can be 功率(CP)训练区域就可以计算出来了。对 established. For the average power at each 每个时间段的平均功率上下浮动 5%就得到了 duration, add and subtract 5 percent to establish zones. For example, if your average power for six 这个区域。比如,如果你在 6 分钟里的平均输 minutes is 360 watts, then CP6 is 342 to 378 出功率是 360 瓦,那么 CP6 就是 342 瓦到 378 watts (360*0.05 = 18. 360 -18 = 342, 360+18 = 瓦(360×0.05=18. 360-18=342,360+18= 378). 378)。 Focusing your training on a given range of 将你的训练集中在指定的 CP 区域内有可 CP zones has the potential to produce fitness 能改善你的某些身体素质来适应特定类型的比 benefits that can be applied in certain race 赛,如表 4.3 所示。 situations, as shown in Table 4.3. 时间段 CP 区域 所需身体素质 比赛运用 12 秒 CP0.2 爆发力 临近终点的冲刺 冲上短坡 起步 1 分钟 CP1 乳酸盐清除能力 短时加速 短距离爬坡 6 分钟 CP6 VO2max 时的速度 中等距离爬坡 比赛中的短时高强度的片段 12 分钟 CP12 有氧能力(VO2max) 短时加速 30 分钟 CP30 超出乳酸盐极限水平 长距离持续地出力 60 分钟 CP60 保持乳酸盐极限水平 短距离比赛时的耐力 90 分钟 CP90 接近乳酸盐极限水平 中等距离比赛时的耐力 180 分钟 CP180 基础的有氧能力 长距离比赛时的耐力 Table 4.3 Critical Power Zone Benefits and Race 表 4.3 关键功率训练区域及其对身体和比赛能 Applications 力的作用 Cardiovascular System 心血管系统 In the early 1980s, the introduction of the portable 在二十世纪八十年代,便携式心率表的出现曾 heart rate monitor brought about a profound 使运动员的训练方式发生了深刻的变化,而现 change in athletes' approaches to training. It is 在心率表是很普通的训练设备,其普及率仅次 now a commonly used training device, second 于码表。 only to the handlebar computer in popularity. 8
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 4 INTENSITY 第 4 章 强度 From the time heart rate monitors first hit 从市场上第一次出现心率表开始直到 20 the market until about 1990 they were "gee whiz" 世纪 90 年代,它一直是所谓的很“炫”的玩 toys –fun to play with, but the numbers didn't 具――好玩,但却没人注意其数据。现在几乎 mean much. Now that nearly everyone has one, 人手一个,而运动员玩得尤其熟练。在全国各 athletes are becoming more astute in their use. At criteriums, road races, and time trials around the 地的绕圈赛,公路赛和计时赛中,你会发现大 country you can find most cyclists wearing them 部分车手都戴着它们,用以调整和监测出力程 to regulate or monitor exertion. 度。 A heart rate monitor is much like the 心率表很类似于汽车上的转速表,它们 tachometer in an automobile. Neither one tells 不能告诉你速度多少快,但能告诉你引擎的工 how fast you're going, but rather how hard the 作程度。你可以在原地不动让汽车引擎空转甚 engine is working. Just as a car can rev up the 至使其转速超过转速表的安全区域;同样,你 engine without moving and redline the tachometer, heart rate can zoom while you are 也可以让心率表记录你在原地踏步时的心率情 running in place. 况。 Knowing how hard the heart is working is 了解你的心脏工作负担有多少重,是你 important information that allows you to make 在训练过程中面临做决定时的重要依据。有时 decisions as a workout progresses. Sometimes 候在高质量的训练课中,你的训练动机的强弱 motivation, or lack of it, gets in the way of rating 会影响个人感知发挥度的判断。 your perceived exertion during high-quality training sessions. Be aware that a low heart rate is not always 请注意心率偏低不总是坏事。实际上, a bad sign. In fact, a low workout heart rate 在进行熟悉的日常训练时心率偏低是个好现 relative to what experience has shown to be more 象。有氧运动能力提高后,一般都会使你的心 common for you can be a good sign. Improving 率降低。同样道理,心率偏高也不一定都是好 aerobic fitness typically produces a lower heart rate than when you were less fit. In the same way, 现象。 a high heart rate is not always a good sign, either. For a cyclist, knowing lactate threshold 对一个骑手来说,了解自己的乳酸盐极 heart rate (LTHR) is as important as knowing 限心率(LTHR)就象了解自己的车架尺寸一 frame size. But forget about trying to find 样重要。但千万不要试探达到自己的最大心 maximum heart rate. Not only does this require 率。这不光需要勇气――就象拿枪指着自己的 great motivation –as in a gun to the head –but it's not as good an indicator as LT. 头一样――而且最大心率对训练的指导作用也 不如 LTHR。 Heart rate training zones are best if based on 心率训练区域最好是基于 LTHR 制定, LTHR, since the percentage of maximum at 因为每个人随着乳酸盐堆积而进入无氧区域时 which one becomes anaerobic (lactate 的心率占最大心率的百分比都相差很大。例 accumulates) is highly variable. For example, one 如,某个车手的 LTHR 可能是他的最大心率的 cyclist may have a LTHR that is 85 percent of his maximum heart rate, while another goes 85%,而另一个却是 90%。如果两个人都在 anaerobic at 90 percent of max. If both riders 最大心率 90%的区域训练,前者已是深度无 train at 90 percent of max, one is deeply 氧而后者却刚刚达到无氧边界。他们训练时的 anaerobic and the other is at threshold. They are 感觉会完全不同,训练效果也不会一样。但 not experiencing the same workout or getting the 是,如果让两人都在 100%,或其他相同百分 same benefits. If, however, both train at 100 比的的乳酸盐极限心率下训练,他们的个人感 9
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 4 INTENSITY 第 4 章 强度 percent of LT or any other percentage of LT, they 觉发挥程度就会完全相同,训练效果也会比较 experience the exact same exertion level and reap 接近。 the same benefits. Finding LT requires scientific precision, but 找出精确的乳酸极限需要科学方式,但 don't let that scare you away. It's actually a simple 不要被它吓倒,实际上过程很简单。我将在下 procedure. I'll describe how to do it in the next 一章教你怎么做。所以我想先确定 LTHR 并且 chapter. For this reason I prefer to first determine 据此制定心率训练区域。 LTHR and then establish heart rate zones on either side of it. One "easy" way of finding your lactate 找出乳酸盐极限心率的一个“简单”方 threshold heart rate is to time trial while wearing 式戴着心率表进行个人计时测试。个人计时的 a monitor. The distance of the individual time 距离可以是 5 公里,10 公里,13 公里,16 公 trial (ITT) could be 5k, 10k, 8 miles, 10 miles, or 里,或 40 公里。你可以在比赛时或训练时做 40k. The test can be done at an established race or as a workout you do alone. The average heart rate 这项测试。记录下测试期间的平均心率,据此 from this test will serve as a predictor of your LT. 就可估算你的乳酸盐极限心率。因为你在比赛 Since you will undoubtedly have higher 时的动力肯定比在个人单独测试时要强,所以 motivation in a race than when doing this test 对其测试数据的处理也有不同。参考表 4.4 就 alone, the results should be interpreted 可从 ITT 结果得出 LTHR 了。 differently. Table 4.4 provides guidelines for determining LT heart rate from an ITT. 距离 比赛 训练 5 公里 110%LT 104%LT 10 公里 107%LT 102%LT 13-16 公里 105%LT 101%LT 40 公里 100%LT 97%LT Table 4.4 Lactate Threshold Heart Rates based on 表 4.4 基于个人计时数据计算乳酸盐极限心率 Individual Time Trial Example: A 10-mile individual time trial is 举例:某人参加 16 公里的个人计时赛并 done as a race when the athlete is tested and 且比赛很努力。平均心率为 176。176 除以 highly motivated. The average HR is 176. Divide 1.05=167,即他的乳酸盐极限心率(然后根 176 by 1.05=167 for LT (See hold number 167 in 据 167 在表 4.6 中查找对应的心率训练区 table 4.6 for HR training zones.) Table 4.4 may also be used to determine HR to be used in an 域)。表 4.4 还可以用来确定在个人计时赛中 ITT. For example, a 40k ITT should be ridden at 应该保持什么样的心率。例如,在 40 公里个 100 percent of LT. 人计时赛中你应该保持在 100%的 LTHR 的心 率骑行。 Another simple test that can be done alone 另一个简单的测试可以自己单独做,也 and has proven to provide a fairly accurate 能比较准确地估计 LTHR:独自骑行 30 分 estimate of LTHR is to ride a thirty-minute time 钟,前 10 分钟结束后按下心率表的圈数按 trial alone. Ten minutes into the time trial click 键,后 20 分钟个人计时的平均心率就是你的 the lap button on your heart rate monitor. The average heart rate for the last twenty minutes of LTHR 的比较合理的估计值。对所有这些测试 your time trial is a reasonable estimate of LTHR. 来说,你重复测试的次数越多,你的 LTHR 的 As with all of these tests, the more frequently you 估计值就越准。 repeat the test, the more accurately you can 10
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 4 INTENSITY 第 4 章 强度 estimate LTHR. You may even be able to use your workouts 你还可以在训练时证实原先通过测试估 to help confirm what was previously found in 算出的 LTHR 是否准确。只要你感觉到自己刚 tests to be LTHR. Simply pay attention to your 刚进入无氧状态时,关注一下这时的心率就可 heart rate whenever you feel yourself initially 以了。这种强度下通常是感觉到大腿有灼烧 becoming anaerobic. This level of intensity will be marked by burning sensations in your legs and 感,并且呼吸开始变得沉重。 the onset of heavy breathing. Once you've found your LTHR, you can 一旦找到了你的 LTHR,你就可以通过表 determine your heart rate training zones by using 4.5 或表 4.6 确定你的心率训练区域。 Table 4.5 or Table 4.6. 训练区域 RPE 目标 %LTHR 1 <10 恢复 65-81% 2 10-12 有氧 82-88% 3 13-14 快速(TEMPO) 89-93% 4 15-16 接近阈值 94-100% 5A 17 超出阈值 101-102% 5B 18-19 有氧能力 103-105% 5C 20+ 无氧能力 106%+ Table 4.5 Heart Rate Training Zones based on Lactate 表 4.5 基于乳酸盐极限心率(LTHR)的心率 Threshold Heart Rate (LTHR) 训练区域 Since we'll be referring to it frequently, I've 我为每个心率区域做了编号,因为以后 numbered each heart rate zone. Zones 1 through 4 我们会经常提到它。区域 1-4 都是有氧区 are each aerobic zones and zones 5A, 5B, and 5C 域,而 5A,5B,5C 区都是无氧区域。 are each anaerobic. Heart rate varies with sport. If you're cross- 做不同运动时的心率也是不同的。如果 training in the winter by running, your lactate 你在冬季进行跑步之类的交叉训练的话,你会 threshold heart rate will be different from cycling, 发现跑步的乳酸盐极限心率和骑车时是不同 as will all of your training zones. Because of this, 的。因此,交叉训练时你应该为该项运动确定 you should either determine heart rate zones for each sport you crosstrain in or go only by RPE for 其心率区域,或者根据该项运动时的个人感知 other sports. 发挥来决定强度。 11
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 4 INTENSITY 第 4 章 强度 Table4.6 Heart Rate Training Zones Find your LT 表 4.6 心率训练区域。在 5a 区找到你的乳酸盐 heart rate in the “Zone 5a”column (bold 极限心率(黑体字),该行从左到右的 number). Read across from left to right for 数据就是你的训练区域。 training zones. 12
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 4 INTENSITY 第 4 章 强度 Race-Fit Systems 适应比赛的身体系统 Coming into top racing form means optimizing 进入顶级比赛状态意味着以上三个身体系统的 the performance of each of the three systems. A 能力达到最优。一个拥有强健肌肉系统但能量 cyclist with a great muscular system but poor 供应系统和心血管系统却很差的骑手无法在公 energy and cardiovascular systems won't last long 路上骑多久。你必须把三个系统整合起来共同 on the roads. It takes all three systems working together. 工作。 These systems must go through many 在训练年度里这三个系统都要经历很多 changes during the training year for you to race 变化来让你更有效率地比赛并达到你的目标。 effectively and attain your goals. The following is 下面列出的是一部分训练后可能发生变化的清 a partial list of changes that occur as a result of 单: training. Energy Production System 能量供应系统  Greater utilization of fat and sparing of  能够更多地利用脂肪和节省糖原 glycogen  提高从乳酸盐转化为能量的能力  Enhanced conversion of lactate to fuel  增强糖原和肌肉磷酸盐的储备  Increased stores of glycogen and creatine  改善从血液中夺氧的能力 phosphate  Improved ability to extract oxygen from blood Muscular System 肌肉系统  Increased force generation within a muscle  增强单位肌肉纤维产生的力量 fiber  调动更多的肌肉纤维参与做功  Enhanced recruitment of muscle fibers  运动方式更加有效率  More economical movement patterns  增强肌肉的耐力素质  Enhanced endurance qualities Cardiovascular System 心血管系统  More blood pumped per heartbeat  每次心跳泵出更多血液  Greater capillarization of muscle fibers  肌肉纤维上有更多的毛细血管  Increased blood volume  总血量增加  Enhanced oxygen transportation to the  改善氧输送到肌肉的能力 muscles DON'T BE A SLAVE TO YOUR HEART 不要成为心率表的奴隶 RATE MONITOR Ten years ago hardly anyone had a heart rate monitor. 十年前几乎没人听说过心率表,而现在却几乎人手 Now almost everyone has one. Generally, I'm glad to 一个。总体来说,我为这样的变化趋势而高兴,但 see that trend, but there's a downside. It seems that 也有一个担心,那就是我们变得太关注心率了。让 we're becoming overly concerned with heart rate. Let 我来解释一下。 me explain. Before heart rate monitors, when an athlete 在心率表出现之前,当运动员开始高强度训练 started a hard workout such as intervals, he or she 13
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 4 INTENSITY 第 4 章 强度 continually gauged how the session was going and 比如做间歇练习时,他或她需要不断地调整训练过 may have decided to cut it short or to extend it. The 程的进行,并且可能将训练缩短或延长。在前心率 usual basis for this pre-heart rate monitor decision was 表时期,他们做决定的依据就是个人感知发挥 perceived exertion (PE). PE is based on a subjective (PE)。PE 是身体基于训练时的呼吸,乳酸盐堆 reaction to breathing, lactate accumulation, fatigue, and other less-defined sensations during exercise. 积,疲劳,以及其他无法描述的感觉所做出的主观 From this somewhat vague data the athlete would 反应,根据这些有点模糊的数据运动员就可以做出 make decisions. What was good about this system was 判断。这种训练系统的好处是它迫使运动员倾听身 that it forced athletes to stay in tune with what their 体的语言并与之保持一致。不足之处在于掌握和了 bodies were feeling. The downside was that it took 解身体的语言需要相当的经验和技巧。 experience to develop the skills to know what the sensations meant. But now, with heart rate monitors, many athletes 但是现在,因为有了心率表,许多运动员都不 largely ignore their PE and focus solely on what their 再关心他们的 PE,而是完全依靠心率了。虽然训 heart rates are. While it's effective to know your heart 练时你的心率一目了然,但却无法告诉你其他一些 rate when training, it is not the only metric that should 需要被监测的参数。实际上,这么做会让你陷入困 be monitored, in fact, doing so can really mess you up. Why is that so? Well, for one thing, heart rate is not 境。为什么这么说?首先,心率不能让你全面了解 giving you a complete picture of the body's workload, 身体的负荷,它甚至不一定能告诉你正确的信息, nor is it necessarily even giving you an accurate 因为许多因素――随便列举一些,比如气温,饮 picture, since many factors –such as heat, diet, and 食,心理压力――都会影响心率。 stress, to name just a few –affect it. Heart rate by itself does not tell you how well 心率本身不能告诉你在训练和比赛中的表现如 you’ performing in a workout or a race, and yet re 何,但许多运动员却试图靠这个数字得出结论。比 many athletes try to draw conclusions from one 如,我总是听到这样的话:“我无法让自己的心率 number. For example, something I hear all the time is, 上去,所以就停止训练了”。心率低是坏事吗?也 "I couldn't get my heart rate up so I stopped the workout" Is a low heart rate bad? It could be, but then 许是,但我们说过也许会是好事。有氧能力提高的 again, it might be good. One of the physiological side 一个标志性生理变化就是每博输出量的增加――心 effects of improving aerobic fitness is an increased 脏每次跳动都泵出更多血液。这就意味着亚极量的 heart stroke volume –more blood is pumped per beat. 发挥水平下心率的降低。所以比赛或训练时心率偏 That means a reduced heart rate for any submaximal 低也许是说明你的身体素质提高了,应该继续下 level of exertion. So a low heart rate in a workout or 去――而不是停止。 race may be telling you that fitness is high and to keep going –not that you should stop. In the same way, a high heart rate is not 同样道理,高心率也不一定是好事,虽然大部 necessarily good, as most athletes typically conclude. 分运动员都这么认为。“今天我的心率很容易就上 "It was easy to get my heart rate up today" translates 去了”被解读成“我今天状态很好”。我再说一遍 into "I'm in good shape." That's, again, not necessarily 这不一定正确。我们可以从街上拉一个缺少运动的 true. We could take a sedentary person off the street, put him on a bike, and force him to ride fast. Guess 人,把他按到自行车上,然后强迫他玩命得骑快。 what? His heart rate would rise very easily. We might 猜猜结果怎样?他的心率很容易地就上去了,甚至 even be able to achieve a maximal pulse with very 可以达到他的最大心率,但输出功率却很小。从心 little power output. If his heart rate achieved the same 率图上我们得不出任何结论,因为他也达到了和训 max as that of a fit rider it would really tell us nothing 练有素的运动员一样的最高心率。你看,一个训练 about either one of them. You see, there is no 有素的运动员和一个肥胖的懒散家伙的最大心率完 difference between the maximal heart rate of a very fit 全一样,你的身体素质越差,心率上升就会越容 athlete and that of an obese couch potato. The less fit 易。 you are, the easier it is to get heart rate up to max. When testing athletes I have found that when they 对运动员做测试时,我发现一种情况:当他们 are in very good race shape their maximal heart rates 处于很好的比赛状态时,他们的最大心率会下降。 14
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 4 INTENSITY 第 4 章 强度 appear to drop. I don't know exactly why that is. It may 我不清楚为什么,也许是因为他们的有氧系统更好 have something to do with their aerobic system 地适应了耐力训练,以至于肌肉系统无法驱使它达 adapting so well to endurance training that the 到更高的心率。 muscular system is incapable of driving it any higher. Another misuse of the heart rate monitor number 另一个关于心率监视数据的误解就是靠它来确 is drawing conclusions about one's state of well-being. 定一个人的身体状况。“我的静止心率偏高(或偏 "My resting heart rate is high (or low) so I must be 低)了,所以我一定是训练过度了”是另一个我常 overtrained", is another common complaint I hear –It 常听到的抱怨――但是,光靠静止或运动时的心率 is not possible, however, to look at resting or exercising heart rates and draw such a conclusion. If it 是无法得出这样的结论的。否则的话,运动科学家 was, sports scientists would have stopped looking long 就不用忙着寻找度量过度训练的方法了――他们已 ago for a way to gauge overtraining –something they 经找了好久了,但仍然没有找到。 have not been able to find. Heart rate by itself tells you nothing about 心率本身无法告诉你的表现如何或身体状况。 performance or well-being. It must be compared with 它必须和其他数据结合对比才有意义。比如对骑行 something else to have meaning. For example, when it 表现来说,把心率和功率做对比(例如,使用 comes to cycling performance, comparing heart rate CompuTrainer,PowerTap 或 SRM)就是一个非常 with power (for example, on a CompuTrainer or with a Power-Tap or SRM) is an excellent way to determine 好确定身体素质是否提高的方法。如果与上次测试 gains in fitness. If heart rate is low and power is 相比,输出功率不变或提高而心率降低了,说明身 normal to high, when compared with previous 体素质提高了;如果心率和输出功率都提高了,则 performances, then fitness is high. If heart rate is high 说明运动员的能力可能还在培养阶段。这个方法也 and power is high then the athlete is probably still 可用来确定基础期训练是否可以结束了。 building fitness. This is a good way to gauge when the Base period should come to an end. If heart rate is low and power is also low then the 如果心率和功率都降低了,则说明运动员可能 athlete may be experiencing fatigue, lifestyle stress, or 是疲劳,生活压力太大,甚至是训练过度了。二者 even overtraining. There are other possibilities in this 的组合还会有其他的可能性,现在你们应该了解某 combination, so all we know is that something is not 些观念的错误之处了吧。 right. Metrics other than power could also be used in 除了功率以外,还有其他一些数据可以和心率 conjunction with heart rate to help draw conclusions 相结合来帮助确定运动员的状态。例如,心率较低 about the athlete's status. For example, what would 而 PE 较高说明了什么?这说明你的身体素质和健 low heart rate and high PE be telling you? This is 康状况很好;那么心率较高但 PE 较低说明了什 saying that fitness and well-being are probably good. What would you say about high heart rate and low PE? 么?一般来说这不是什么好事情。根据你的个人情 Common sense would suggest that something isn't 况分析一下各种可能性吧。 right. Think your way through the various possibilities. The main point here is that heart rate alone tells 总而言之,心率本身只能告诉你一个事实―― you only one thing –you are still alive. Drawing 你还活着。单单依靠心率表数据得出结论是愚蠢 conclusions only from what your monitor says on a 的。你应该利用这个神奇的训练工具提供的数据, given day is folly. Use the information that this 但不要完全依靠它指导训练。 miraculous training tool gives you, but don't rely on it alone. Sidebar 4.1 工具栏 4.1 15
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 4 INTENSITY 第 4 章 强度 Multisystem Training 多系统训练 RPE, heart rate, and power each offer unique 个人感知发挥(RPE),心率以及功率,每种 benefits for the serious cyclist when it comes to 讯息都能帮助认真的车手在训练和比赛时测量 monitoring intensity of a workout or race. RPE 强度。RPE 提供主观但是全面的骑车时的整体 provides a subjective yet comprehensive view of 感觉;心率提供心血管系统的工作状态,并且 what you are encountering when on the bike. Heart rate offers a window into the cardiovascular 根据经验可以估计身体的运动负荷;功率计记 system and thus a glimpse of the workload the 录了身体的输出功率,这更多地反映了运动能 body is experiencing. A powermeter reports what 力,而不是身体感受到的生理压力。对于训练 the body is accomplishing. Power is a measure of 来说,这些信息都很有价值。 performance rather than an indicator of the physiological stress experienced. Each is valuable in the training process. Using all three is like seeing a picture in 综合运用这三种信息就象是从三维而不 three dimensions instead of only one or two – 是一维或两维的角度看一副立体画――训练也 training makes more sense. Whether or not a 会变得更有意思。不管你是否用数字表达, number is assigned, RPE should be an integral RPE 应该是所有训练中综合测量强度的方 method of monitoring intensity in all workouts. This will pay dividends in races where closely 法 。在无法严密监视心率和功率的比赛中你 observing heart rate and power is not possible. 应该多运用这种方法,RPE 是你“压箱底”的 RPE is the "stake in the ground" –the supreme 本事――是所有强度监测方式的最高手段,所 reference for all intensity monitoring. You must 以你必须学会熟练运用。心率监测最好在稳定 become good at using it. Heart rate is best used 状态的训练,特别是在乳酸盐极限阈值之下的 for steady-state training, particularly that done 训练中使用。对于长距离有氧骑行或恢复性训 below the lactate threshold. It is especially 练来说心率表特别有用。在间歇训练,爬山或 effective during long, aerobic rides and for 冲刺,以及所有无氧训练时重点监视功率。我 recovery workouts. Focus on power for intervals, hill training, sprint-power training, and all 发现骑手们用功率表进行训练后比赛成绩会有 anaerobic workouts. I've seen significant 显著提高。毫无疑问这会是自行车训练的发展 improvement in race performance when riders 方向。掌握并适当地运用上述每种测量强度的 have begun training with power. This is 方法很有可能极大地改善你的训练,以及比 unquestionably the future of bicycle training. 赛。 Mastering and appropriately applying each of these intensity monitoring systems has the potential to dramatically improve your training and, therefore, your racing. Measuring Workload 测量训练量 Now that you have three systems for monitoring 现在你已经有三种测量强度的系统了,可以开 intensity, it's possible to quantify workload. 始计算训练量。回想一下前面一章所说的,训 Recall from the previous chapter that workload is 练量是频度,持续时间和训练强度的综合。了 the combination of frequency, duration, and 解了这个概念,你就能够跟踪和比较每周的训 intensity of training. Knowing workload allows you to keep track of and compare weekly training 练对身体施加的负荷,这对于避免过度训练是 很有用处的。如果你了解什么样的训练能够给 16
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 4 INTENSITY 第 4 章 强度 stress loads placed on the body. Such information 身体施加什么样的压力,你就可以为每天的训 is valuable for avoiding overtraining. It also helps 练量定计划了。反过来,这些信息也能帮你确 in planning daily workouts if you know how 定何时需要休息以及如何恢复。这也使周期性 much stress training is likely to produce. In turn, 训练更加地有效率(第 7 章详细介绍周期性训 this allows you to determine how much and when recovery is needed. It also makes periodization of 练)。 training more effective (see Chapter 7 for details on periodization). The following are three workload-measuring 下面介绍 3 种测量训练量的方法,分别 methods, one based on each RPE, heart rate, and 基于 RPE,心率和功率。 power. RPE RPE At the end of a training session, assign an average 每次训练结束以后,使用 6-20 的强度级别概 workout RPE using the 6 to 20 scale. Then 括本次训练的平均个人发挥感知度,然后用这 multiply this RPE value by the number of minutes 个数字乘以训练的分钟数。比如,60 分钟的 in the session. For example, if a 60-minute 间歇训练,平均 RPE 为 14,则今天的训练量 session including intervals had an average RPE of 14, the workload for this day is 840 (60*14=840). 就是 840(60×14=840)。 Heart Rate 心率 Using a heart rate monitor with a time-by-zone 使用带时间和心率分区功能的心率表,至少有 function, it's possible to know how many minutes 3 个心率区间(这样通过骑行时切换不同区间 were spent in at least three zones (with a three- 就可以监测 5 个心率区间)并能记录每个区间 zone monitor, all five zones may be observed by switching zones during the ride). By multiplying 的训练时间。用每个区间的标识数字(比如区 each of the zone's numeric identifiers (Zone 3, for 域 3)乘以该区间的训练分钟数然后加总,就 example) by the number of minutes spent in each 可得到每天,每周或者任何时间段内的训练 zone and then adding them up, workload for a 量。 week or any other period of time may be determined. For example, if you completed a 60-minute 例如,你骑行了 60 分钟,其中 20 分钟 ride that included 20 minutes in Zone 1, 25 在区域 1,25 分钟在区域 2,15 分钟在区域 minutes in Zone 2, and 15 minutes in Zone 3, the 3,那么累积训练量就是 115。计算方法请参 cumulative workload is 115. Here's how that 考下面的公式: number was determined: 20 × 1 = 20 25 ×2 = 50 15 × 3 = 45 总和 115 Power 功率 The Tune Power-Tap offers a quick way of Tune PowerTap 提供了一种测量训练量的快速 monitoring workload –session kilojoules, 方法――训练能量,简称“E”,在 PowerTap recalled as "E" (for energy) and displayed in units 上以千焦(kJ)为单位,这是测量能量消耗的 called kilojoules (kJ) on the Power-Tap. This is a measure of energy expended. One kilocalorie 方式,1 千卡=4.184 千焦。训练中消耗的能 17
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 4 INTENSITY 第 4 章 强度 (kcal or calorie) is equal to 4.184 kJ. Energy used 量几乎是表示训练量的最完美方式。 in training is a nearly perfect way of expressing workload. Cumulative Workload 累积训练量 Whichever method you use, record your daily 不管你采用什么方法计算,你都要把每天的训 workload in a training log. By totaling the daily 练量记录在训练日志中。将每日训练量加总 workloads, a cumulative workload for the week is 后,就能得到一周的累积训练量,这个数字能 determined. This number serves as an indicator of 够反映这周的艰难程度。与前面几周的训练量 how difficult the week was. By comparing it with past weeks, you can quickly see what is 相比较,你会很容易看出训练负荷的变化。一 happening to the stress load. In general, the 般来说,从初冬开始训练季直到次年春天开始 cumulative workload should increase as the year 比赛,训练量应该是慢慢增长的,但不是直线 progresses from the start of training season in 式的增长,而是波浪形的增长方式,这样就能 early winter until the spring races. This should not 够让身体逐渐适应并变得更强壮。图 4.2 显示 be a straight-line progression, however. It instead 了在某段训练年度中每周累积训练量是如何增 follows a wave-like pattern that allows the body 长的。 to gradually adapt and grow stronger. Figure 4.2 shows how the cumulative weekly workload advances through one portion of the training year. Figure 4.2 Example of weekly cumulative workload 图 4.2 每周累积训练量的增长方式示例 progression Unfortunately, there is no rule of thumb for 不幸的是,没有什么简单方法能够确定 determining what a given athlete's workload 运动员的训练量应该是多少,不同个体差别很 should be. It varies considerably with the 大,所以经验才是最好的老师。通过对比每周 individual, so experience is the best teacher. By 累积训练量和你在训练与比赛时的表现,你有 comparing your weekly cumulative workloads with your training and racing performances, it's 可能计划出最优的训练量并避免过度训练。但 possible to plan optimal training patterns while 永远要记住最优的训练量不是固定的,而是随 avoiding overtraining. But always bear in mind 着身体素质的提高,训练年头,健康状况,心 that optimal workload is a moving target that is 理压力以及其他变数而变化的。你可以参考过 dependent on accumulated fitness, time of the 去的累积训练量的历史记录,并以此作为今天 training year, health, psychological stress and 和将来训练的起点,这比光靠猜测来确定训练 other variables. Cumulative workload history 量效果要好些。 provides a better starting point for determining how you should train today and in the future than 18
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 4 INTENSITY 第 4 章 强度 does merely guessing. 19
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 Chapter 5 TESTING 第5章 测试 Motivation can’ take you very far if you don’ have t t 如果没有腿你就没法跑,不管你的愿望如何强 the legs. 烈。 -- LANCE ARMSTRONG ――LANCE ARMSTRONG What are my strengths as a cyclist? What 作为车手来说,我的强项是什么?在训练中 aspects of performance should I focus on in 我应该注重哪方面能力的培养?我是否在朝 training? Am I making progress toward my 着我的长期目标前进?怎样才能提高比赛成 long-term goals? How can I improve my race 绩? results? These are questions the serious bicycle 对于一个认真的赛车手来说,这些问题 racer must ask several times every year. For the 每年都会自问好几次。而对于一个新手来 novice cyclist, these questions are difficult to 说,他们很难回答这些问题,因为这需要非 answer since there is so much self-discovery to 常了解自己。即使对于经验丰富的车手来 come. Even for an experienced rider, the answers are not always easy. The problem is 说,要回答这些问题也不容易。原因在于运 that athletes often "can't see the forest for the 动员们常常“只见树木,不见森林”。主观 trees." Subjective self-evaluation is always 性的自我评估往往是很难的,而其他人的研 difficult. Someone else's studied opinion – 究判断――常常来自教练或关心你的队 often a coach or a concerned teammate –is 友――往往是回答这些问题所必须的。因为 usually necessary to get at the answers to such 这本书的目的就是为了让你成为你自己的教 questions. Because the purpose of this book is 练,所以我要教你在训练和准备比赛时如何 to make you your own coach, I'm going to 确定训练的重点。 show you how to determine what you need to emphasize in training and race preparation. You may not like what you discover about 你也许不会喜欢了解自我的结果。几年 yourself. Several years ago, a master rider 以前,有个中老年车手想请我指导他。他说 asked me to coach him. He described how 在很多比赛中,一到爬坡的时候他就跟不住 when it came to climbs he was unable to hang 大部队从而早早地就落在了最后。虽然他对 on with the peloton and was off the back early in most races. Although unhappy with the 自己很不满意但还没有完全失去希望。他思 situation he wasn’ completely dejected. He has t 前想后了很久并最终确定问题在于输出功率 given it a lot of thought and decided that the 太低。所以在冬季的训练中,他参加了一门 problem was a lack of power. So over the 弹振式(plyometrics)力量训练课,而教练 course of the winter he took a plyometrics class 和他的工作人员都是诸如足球运动员之类的 with a trainer who worked with professional 专业力量选手。 power athletes such as football players. My new charge had attended workouts 那年冬天我的这位新委托人每周参加四 four times a week that winter and had been so 次训练,他想进步的决心如此之大以至于最 committed to improving that he ended up with 终导致双脚疲劳性骨折。所以他想知道我能 stress fractures in both feet. What he wanted to 否帮助他改善输出功率。 know was how could I help him improve his power. 1
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 The first thing I had him do was test 我让他做的第一件事就是在他的电脑训 power on his CompuTrainer. What we 练台上测试输出功率。我们发现他的输出功 discovered was that he had tremendous power, 率极高,虽然他因为疲劳性骨折静养了很 despite inactivity due to the stress fractures. He 久。在我所指导过的所有中老年车手中,他 easily ranked in the top 5 percent for maximum power generation of all the masters I had ever 可以轻松地进入最大输出功率排名的前 coached. We also found, however, that he 5%。但是,我们发现他无法保持这样的高 couldn't sustain the power output for even a 功率的输出,哪怕几秒钟都不行,而且他的 few seconds and that his anaerobic endurance 无氧耐力非常差。在爬短坡或高强度长距离 was poor. Once he crossed the redline and 骑行时,一旦超越阈值进入无氧状态他就会 became anaerobic on a short climb or a long, 很快地疲劳。所以最大输出功率根本不是他 intense effort he quickly fatigued. Maximum 的弱项。因此我为他制定了一个计划来改善 power generation wasn't holding him back at 他的无氧耐力以及乳酸盐耐受力,他照做以 all. I subsequently set up a program for him that would improve his anaerobic endurance 后在来年的赛季中果然大有提高。 and lactate tolerance. He went on to have a much-improved race season. You also may have reached a conclusion 你有可能对你自身的强项和弱项做出不 about your strengths and weaknesses that is not 正确的结论。进行这种被误导的训练课程是 true. By pursuing the wrong course of training, 对你的时间和精力的双重浪费,而且最终你 you're expending both time and energy and 的问题依旧或者收效甚微。训练中车手们把 may still end up with very little to show for your trouble. It is not unusual at all for riders to 精力集中在错误的能力培养上的情况一点都 concentrate on the wrong abilities in training. 不少见,比如车手们最常见的情况就是把精 What is most common among cyclists is to 力集中在他们的强项能力的训练上。好的爬 focus primarily on strengths. Good climbers, 坡型骑手喜欢把训练时间放在爬山上,而不 for example, prefer to spend their training time 是进行个人计时训练,而这么做的后果也许 climbing rather than working on time trialing 就是在 A 级的多站式比赛中光芒黯淡的总 that may be the cause of lackluster results in A- 成绩。 priority stage races. I call these race-specific weaknesses 我把这些和比赛相关的弱项叫做“限制 "limiters." Knowing what limits your race 因素”。了解限制你的比赛成绩的因素就象 performance is like finding the weak link in a 找出一个链条的最薄弱一环一样。一旦你加 chain. Once you strengthen this "link" your 强了这“一环”,你的成绩就会马上进步。 results immediately improve. But if all you work on is your strengths and the weak link 但是如果你只是培养你的强项而不管这些弱 remains weak, race performance stays much 项的话,你的比赛成绩将年复一年地保持原 the same from year to year. 状。 Of course, your limiters may never 当然,你的限制因素也许永远不可能成 become strengths, but you must always be 为你的强项,但你必须不断尝试,而且在改 trying. The trick is to improve the limiters 善限制因素时还要保持强项能力不会衰退。 without letting the strengths deteriorate. That's 这就是在本书中有关训练计划的章节里我想 what I want to teach you to do in the planning chapters of this book. For now, let's discover 要教给你们的。不过现在让我们先找出你的 what your strengths and limiters are. 强项和限制因素是什么。 2
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 There are two general categories of 每年你需要做两大类的评估,从而决定 assessment that should be done each year to see 在基础期和发展期需要把训练重点放在什么 where your training needs to be focused during 地方。能力评估靠骑行完成,而自我评估靠 the Base and Build periods. Performance 纸笔进行。每年中有三次时机很适合做这些 assessment is done on the bike and self- assessment is done with paper and pencil. 评估: There are three times during the season when it is quite beneficial to conduct an assessment:  Near the end of the last Race period of the  在整个赛季最后一个比赛期临近结束 season, complete a performance 时,进行一次能力评估,从而建立一个 assessment to establish a high-fitness 高水准身体素质的基线。 baseline.  在基础期开始时,进行能力评估和自我  At the start of the Base period, do both 评估,从而确定在接下来几个月里的训 performance and self-assessment to determine what is needed for training in the 练重点。 coming months.  在基础期结束时,再进行一次能力评估  At the end of the Base period, repeat the 看看是否有进步,然后再开始发展期。 performance assessment to measure progress before starting the Build period.  I will cover these training periods in detail in 在第 7 章我会详细讲解训练周期。 Chapter 7. By the end of this chapter, you'll score 在本章末尾,你要在几个与能力相关的 yourself in several performance-related areas. 类别上为自己打分。根据这些打分数据你就 From this data you will be able to compare 可以将你的能力和特定比赛所需要的能力相 your capabilities to the specific demands of 比较,并制定出满足你的需要的训练计划。 cycling and customize a training program specific to your needs. Some athletes are not keen on testing and 有些运动员对测试并不热心,而是更喜 prefer to make decisions intuitively based on 欢在比赛中根据当时的情况做出直觉的判 what they have discovered in races. That may 断。有些时候这么做是有效的,但大多数时 work for some, but for most it often results in 候凭猜测会做出不准确的结论,因为你会被 guessing and jumping to inaccurate conclusions based more on emotion than fact. By 情绪所左右而不是根据事实。通过完成本章 completing all of the assessments included 所包含的测试内容,你就会走上一条比你以 here, you'll be on the road to training more 往所做的更有效果的训练之路。想想看,这 effectively than you’ ever done before. ve 对于你的下个比赛季来说意味着什么。 Imagine what that could mean for your next race season. Performance Assessment 能力评估 There are several tests that can be done to 评估你的生理进步有好几种测试方式。你最 gauge your physiological improvement. It is 好是用前后对照的方式运用这些测试。为你 best to use them comparatively. Establish a 所采用的每种测试方式建立一个基线,然后 baseline in each of the tests that you decide to 3
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 use and then retest at intervals throughout the 在一年中定期地重做这些测试,看看你的生 year to see how your physical ability is 理能力是否有变化。你也许不需要在赛季中 changing. It is not necessary that you repeat all 重复所有这些测试,而是把重点放在那些最 of the tests throughout the season. Focus on the 能反映你的限制因素的测试上,也许只是对 ones that seem to best reflect what your limiters are. This may come down to one test of 应于本书所介绍的某一种测试方式。定期地 all of those described here. By regularly 通过测试检查你的进步情况能够让你确信训 gauging your progress with it you can ensure 练是在正确的轨道上进行的――而不是相 that the training program is on track –or that it 反。 isn't. When testing it is important that you 当你做测试时有一点很重要:那就是要 eliminate as many variables from one test to 尽可能地消灭那些在前后两次测试时可能变 the next as is possible. For example, the warm- 化的外界因素。例如,热身过程需要完全一 up procedure needs to be the same. Some other 样,另外还有其他一些有可能影响测试的因 elements that may affect the test include diet, hydration, level of fatigue, equipment, bike set- 素,比如饮食,补水,疲劳程度,个人装 up, tire pressure, and time of day. 备,单车装备,胎压,以及测试时间。 If at any time during a test you feel 如果在测试期间你感觉头重脚轻或恶心 lightheaded or nauseous, stop immediately. 的话,必须马上停止测试。进行本章介绍的 You are not attempting to achieve a maximum 所有测试时都不需要达到你的最大心率,但 heart rate on any of the tests described here, but 是需要达到非常高水平的出力程度。 it is necessary to attain a very high level of exertion. Here are the tests broken down by 下面将分类介绍这些测试方法。 category. Sprint Power Test 冲刺功率测试 Tests done on the bike are usually the best 在单车上所做的测试往往是比赛能力的最好 indicators of racing performance. With a 的指示器。使用功率监视器,电脑训练台或 powermeter, a CompuTrainer, or in a 者实验室设备就能够测量你的最大功率以及 laboratory, measure your maximum power and 平均持续输出功率。带有冲刺功率测试功能 average sustained power. The accompanying CompuTrainer Sprint Power Test describes 的电脑训练台会告诉你如何按步骤做此项测 how this is done with a CompuTrainer. With a 试;你也可以用功率监视器在骑行时做同样 powermeter, perform the test on the road in the 的测试,测试距离大约 322 米(0.2 英里或 same way. The course should be about 0.2 352 码),路况为平路或很小的上坡。记下 miles (352 yards or 322 meters) and either flat 开始和结束的地点,这样你就可以在将来做 or slightly uphill. Mark the start and finish 同样的重复测试了。 points so you can find them in the future for re- tests. SPRINT POWER TEST ON 电脑训练台上的冲刺功率测试 COMPUTRAINER CompuTrainer Set-up 电脑训练台设置 You will need one or two assistants to record 你需要一到两个助手来帮忙做记录,以及在必要 4
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 information and possibly to spot for safety (there is 时确保安全(全力冲刺时单车可能会翻倒)。根 a risk of the bike tipping over with a maximal 据用户说明书的描述设置好电脑。热身大约 10 effort). Set up and calibrate the equipment as 分钟,调整电脑并选择 0.2 英里长(322 米)的 described in the user's manual. Warm up for about 训练课程。 ten minutes and calibrate the equipment. Select a course that is 0.2 miles long. Test 测试 1. Following your warm up, take two or three 1. 在你热身之后,做两到三次力量逐渐增强的 increasingly powerful practice starts of 8-12 练习,每次 8-12 秒,从而确定最适合你的 seconds each to determine the best gear to start 齿轮比。开始测试前,让后轮停止。如果后 the test in. The start is with the rear wheel stopped. If rear wheel slips, tighten and 轮阻力太小,就把它调整地更紧一些。 recalibrate. 2. 在测试期间你可以站着或坐着骑,或任意调 2. During the test you may stand or sit and shift 整齿轮比。如果你是个大块头或力量很大的 gears at any time. If you are a large or powerful 车手,你最好在车子两边安排保护人以免翻 rider, you'll want a spotter on either side of the 倒。你也可以把训练台固定在一块大夹板上 bike to prevent tipping. You may also bolt your 以避免车子翻倒。 CompuTrainer to a sheet of plywood to prevent 3. 一切就绪以后,把后轮停下来,并让助手帮 tipping. 你按下横把上的控制按钮开始测试。 3. When ready to begin the test, stop your rear wheel and have an assistant press the button on 4. 使出你最大的力量冲刺 322 米,大约会用时 the handlebar control unit to begin the test. 25-40 秒。 4. Sprint the 0.2-mile course as fast as you can. It 5. 测试结束后,记录最大输出功率(瓦)以及 will probably take 25-40 seconds. 平均输出功率(瓦)。 5. At the completion of the test, record maximum 6. 换轻松的齿轮比和阻力,恢复性骑行几分 watts and average watts. 钟。 6. Recover by spinning in a light gear and resistance for several minutes. Sidebar 5.1 工具栏 5.1 If you can conduct the test in a lab, the 如果你是在实验室里做的测试,那么你 applicable protocol will probably be something 所使用的有可能是“Wingate 功率测试”之 called a "Wingate Power Test." The technician 类的方法。那里的工作人员会给你解释测试 should be able to explain what the results 结果的含义,而且他们应该不会向其他的运 mean. The technician will probably not be able to relate the information to other cyclists, 动员透露这些测试结果。 however. Once you've completed the power test, use 完成功率测试之后,对照表 5.1 看看你 Table 5.1 to help you decide what the results 这两项能得几分。 mean. Don't be disheartened if your maximum is 如果你的最大功率比预想的低,也不必 lower than expected. You need to realize that 灰心丧气,你需要了解自己的弱点。如果这 this is a weakness and if it is also a limiter (it 也是你的限制因素(妨碍你在 A 级赛事中 prevents you from attaining better results in A- 取得更好的成绩)的话,你就必须想办法改 priority races) you must work on your ability to quickly generate force against the pedals if 善这种快速地大力踩踏板的能力了。平均输 you're going to improve. A low average power 出功率偏低往往意味着乳酸忍耐力需要提 is a warning to improve lactate tolerance. I will 高。我在下面几章会讨论如何改善力量和乳 discuss how to improve both force and lactate 酸忍耐力。如果这两项你的得分都是 4 分或 5
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 tolerance in later chapters. If you score four or 5 分,这说明快速释放力量和乳酸忍耐力是 five for both, the quick application of force and 你的强项。你也许是个非常好的冲刺手,所 lactate tolerance are among your strength areas. 以我们需要继续下面的测试来找出你的弱项 You're probably a very good sprinter in this 所在。 case, and we'll need to keep looking for your weakness. 等级 分数 资深男运动员 资深女运动员 最大 平均 最大 平均 优秀 5 1,100+ 750+ 1,000+ 675+ 良好 4 950-1,099 665-749 850-999 600-674 一般 3 800-949 560-664 720-849 500-599 不太好 2 650-799 455-559 585-719 410-499 很差 1 <650 <455 <585 <410 Table5.1 Power Ranges of Cyclists (watts) 表 5.1 骑手的输出功率范围(瓦特) Average power output will vary more 与最大功率相比,平均输出功率在一年 throughout the year than will maximum power. 中的起伏很大。比如,在冬天做测试时,你 While testing in the winter, for example, you 的平均功率也许会比夏天你的比赛能力最强 may find average power relatively lower than 的时候低。这是因为在冬天你缺少比赛体 in the summer when race fitness is high. That's because you quickly lose the ability to tolerate 验,所以就会很快失去忍耐乳酸的能力。 lactate (winter) when the body is no longer experiencing it. Graded Exercise Test 递增出力测试 The graded exercise test can be done with a 你可以在电脑训练台或功率监视器上做递增 CompuTrainer or powermeter. Most laboratory 出力测试。在医院,诊所和大学里的大多数 testing facilities at hospitals, clinics, and 实验室测试设备上也可以进行一种非常复杂 universities also conduct a very sophisticated 的压力测试,它使用测功计来测量有氧能力 ergometer stress test that measures aerobic capacity and also determines lactate threshold. 并确定乳酸盐极限阈值,有些甚至需要采集 Some may even sample blood to determine 血样来确定乳酸盐水平,就象第 4 章中所描 lactate profiles as described in Chapter 4. 述的那样。实验室测试的花销很大。 Expect to pay dearly for a lab test. One of the measures to be gleaned from 通过递增出力测试能够得到的一个重要 the graded exercise test is your lactate 指标就是在你达到乳酸盐极限阈值时的心率 threshold heart rate and power. In the scientific 和输出功率。在科学界,对于如何定义乳酸 world, there are different definitions for the 盐极限阈值仍然存在争议,而且我发现实验 point at which lactate threshold is reached. I've found that labs frequently use the more 室中使用的往往是其中较保守的定义。依据 conservative of these definitions. That 这种保守测试得出的选手的乳酸盐极限心率 conservative approach yields a low threshold 和功率都会稍低一些。如果你是个中老年骑 heart rate and power level for a racer. If you're 手,实验室的工作人员也许会很不情愿让你 a master, the lab technicians may also be 在疲劳程度越来越重的情况下继续测试,可 reluctant to allow you to continue the test until 能会过早地关闭机器停止测试――他们担心 6
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 fatigue sets in, choosing instead to stop the test 你会猝死在实验室里。所以在你安排一次实 prematurely. They don't want you to die in 验室测试之前,一定要先把这些问题搞搞定 their labs. Be sure to work out these issues 再说。 before scheduling a lab test. If you're new to racing or have coronary 如果你只是个新手,或者是有心脏方面 risk factors such as a history of heart disease in 的潜在问题,比如有家族性心脏病史,高胆 your family, high cholesterol, high blood 固醇,高血压,心脏杂音或运动后眩晕之类 pressure, a heart murmur or dizziness after 的问题的话,那么你只能在实验室里进行这 exercise, then you should only conduct this test in a laboratory under the close supervision of a 种测试,并且需要有医生在旁边紧密看护。 physician. It is possible to conduct the graded 在室内训练台或固定自行车上也可以进 exercise test using an indoor trainer or 行这种递增出力测试。使用训练台时,你需 stationary bike. To use a trainer, you will need 要在横把上装一个感应后轮速度的码表。这 a handlebar computer sensor for the rear wheel. 种情况下你无法知道输出功率,但你可以用 Power outputs will not be known, but you can measure speed instead. Accurate and reliable 测量速度来代替。要想找到适合这种精密测 stationary bikes are hard to find for such 试的准确可靠的固定自行车很困难。必须挑 precise measurement. Look for one that 那种以数字方式显示功率和速度的机器,而 digitally displays power or speed. Do not use a 不是健身房里常见的那种以指针或游标显示 health club bike that shows speed or power 功率和速度的机器,因为那种机器太不准确 with a needle or sliding gauge. These are far 了。 too inaccurate. GRADE EXERCISE TEST ON 在电脑训练台上做递增出力测试 COMPUTRAINER CompuTrainer Set-up 电脑训练台设置 You will need an assistant to record information. 你需要一个助手帮忙做记录。根据用户说明书的 Set up and calibrate the equipment as described in 描述设置校准好设备。热身大约 10 分钟,调整 the user's manual. Warm up for about ten minutes 电脑并选择 12-16 公里长的平路训练课程,但 and calibrate the equipment. Select a flat course that is 8-10 miles (12-16 kilometers) long. You won't 你不需要骑完全程。 use all of it. Test 测试 1. Throughout the test, you will hold a 1. 在整个测试期间,你需要保持预定的输出功 predetermined power level (plus or minus 10 率水平(上下幅度不超过 10 瓦)。从 100 watts). Start at 100 watts and increase by 20 瓦开始,每分钟增加 20 瓦,直到你无法继 watts every minute until you can no longer continue. Stay seated throughout the test. Shift 续坚持增加功率为止。在测试期间要保持坐 gears at any time. 姿踩踏,并可以自由调整齿轮。 2. At the end of each minute, tell your assistant 2. 每次保持功率 1 分钟之后,告诉你的助手当 how great your exertion is using the guide on 前的发挥度水平。你可以参考下面的表格, the following page (place this where it can be 把它摆在你能看得见的地方。 seen): 6 14 7 非常非常轻松 15 辛苦 8 16 9 非常轻松 17 非常辛苦 7
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 10 18 11 还算轻松 19 非常非常辛苦 12 20 13 有点辛苦 3. Your assistant will record your exertion rating 3. 你的助手会记录你的发挥度,以及每分钟结 and your heart rate at the end of the minute and 束时的心率,并提醒你增加功率到下一个级 instruct you to increase power to the next level. 别。 4. The assistant will also listen closely to your 4. 助手还需要密切观察你的呼吸情况并记录何 breathing to detect when it becomes noticeably labored for the first time in the test. This point 时你的呼吸显著地变得吃力。这个点被叫做 is defined as the VT or ventilatory threshold. 通气量阈值,或 VT。 5. Continue until you can no longer hold the 5. 继续测试直到你无法保持至少 15 秒钟的功 power level for at least fifteen seconds. 率水平。 6. The data collected should took something like 6. 记录下的数据应该类似于下表: this: 功率 心率 发挥度 100 110 9 120 118 11 140 125 12 160 135 13 150 142 14 200 147 15 220 153 17 (VT) 240 156 19 260 159 20 Sidebar 5.2 工具栏 5.2 GRADE EXERCISE TEST ON 在固定自行车上做递增出力测试 STATIONARY BIKE 1. Test must be done with a stationary bike that 1. 测试用的固定自行车必须能够精确显示速度 accurately displays speed (or watts). (或功率)。 2. Select "manual" mode. 2. 选择“手动”模式。 3. You will need an assistant to record 3. 你需要一个助手记录数据。 information. 4. 在机器上热身 5-10 分钟。 4. Warm up on equipment for 5 to 10 minutes. Test 测试 1. Throughout the test, you will hold a 1. 在整个测试期间,你需要保持预定的速度或 predetermined speed or power level. Start at 15 功率水平。从 24 公里/小时(或 100 瓦)开 mph (or 100 watts) and increase by 1 mph (or 始,每分钟增加 1.6 公里/小时的速度(或 20 20 watts) every minute until you can no longer continue. Stay seated throughout the test. Shift 瓦的功率),一直到你无法继续增加强度为 gears at any time. 止。在测试期间要保持坐姿踩踏,并可以自 2. At the end of each minute, tell your assistant 由调整齿轮。 how great your exertion is using this guide 2. 每次保持出力 1 分钟之后,告诉你的助手当 (place this where it can be seen): 前的发挥度水平。参考下面的表格,把它摆 在你能看得见的地方: 6 14 7 非常非常轻松 15 辛苦 8 16 9 非常轻松 17 非常辛苦 8
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 10 18 11 还算轻松 19 非常非常辛苦 12 20 13 有点辛苦 3. Your assistant will record your exertion rating 3. 你的助手会记录你的发挥度,以及每分钟结 and your heart rate at the end of the minute and 束时的心率,并提醒你增加速度(或功率) instruct you to increase speed (watts) to the 到下一个级别。 next level. 4. 助手还需要密切观察你的呼吸情况并记录何 4. The assistant will also listen closely to your breathing to detect when it becomes labored. 时你的呼吸显著地变得吃力。这个点被叫做 This is the VT or ventilatory threshold. 通气量阈值,或 VT。 5. Continue until you can no longer hold the speed 5. 继续测试直到你无法保持至少 15 秒钟的速 (watts) for at least fifteen seconds. 度(或功率)水平。 6. The data collected should look something like 6. 记录下的数据应该类似于下表: this: 速度 功率 心率 发挥度 15 100 110 9 16 120 118 11 17 140 125 12 18 160 135 13 19 180 142 14 20 200 147 15 21 220 153 17 (VT) 22 240 156 19 23 260 159 20 Sidebar 5.3 工具栏 5.3 Lactate Threshold Test on Road 在公路上测试乳酸盐极限阈值 If you'll be training with either a heart rate 如果你使用心率表或者功率计来训练的话, monitor or a powermeter, this test will also 通过这项测试还能够找出你达到乳酸盐极限 give you a good indication of your lactate 阈值时的心率和输出功率。大多数骑手都反 threshold relative to heart rate and power. Most 映进行这项测试比进行前面所述的乳酸盐极 riders find this test to be far easier to conduct than either of the aforementioned lactate 限阈值测试要容易得多。 threshold tests. It's simple. Merely complete a thirty- 真的很容易,你只需要在平路或缓慢上 minute time trial on a flat to slightly uphill road 坡的公路上完成一次 30 分钟的个人计时练 course. This may also be done on an indoor 习就可以了。你也可以在室内训练台上做, trainer, although most riders find this harder 虽然大部分骑手都觉得这么做比在路上骑要 than being on the road. If you want to determine or confirm your lactate threshold 更吃力些。如果你想找出或确认你的乳酸盐 heart rate (LTHR), click the lap button on your 极限心率(LTHR)的话,就在个人计时开 heart rate monitor ten minutes into the time 始 10 分钟后按你的心率表进入下一圈。这 trial. Your average heart rate for the last twenty 样你最后 20 分钟的平均心率就是对你的 minutes is a good estimation of LTHR. LTHR 的很好的估算。 9
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 If you are training with power, your 如果你使用功率计的话,采用上述方法 average power output for this test also 计算的平均输出功率也能够反映出你的乳酸 functions as an approximation of lactate 盐极限输出功率。你也可依此得到第 4 章所 threshold power. It will also establish your 述的 CP30 区域。 CP30 zone as described in Chapter 4. The more times you do this or any of the 该测试或前面所述的测试项目做的次数 previously described tests, the more reliable 越多,依此得出的训练区域就越可靠。 your training zones will be. Lactate Threshold Test Results 乳酸盐极限阈值测试结果 Testing for lactate threshold reveals two 测试乳酸盐极限阈值可以揭示你在两方面的 elements of your race fitness –power at lactate 比赛能力――乳酸盐极限输出功率和无氧耐 threshold and anaerobic endurance. It also 力,而且还能定出你的乳酸盐极限心率―― locates your lactate threshold heart rate –a key element of your training when using a heart 这是使用心率表进行训练的人必须知道的一 rate monitor. In order to derive the full benefit 个关键元素。为了让你的训练给你带来最大 of a workout, you should regulate the intensity 收益,你应该依据你的乳酸盐极限心率从表 of that workout using lactate threshold heart 4.6 中找出你的训练区域,并以此为指导调 rate as a guide to set zones as listed in Table 整你的每次训练的强度。 4.6. Power at lactate threshold is a good 乳酸盐极限输出功率能够很好地反映比 indicator of performance and will allow you to 赛能力,而且是你用功率计或电脑训练台来 train the muscular system with a powermeter or 训练肌肉系统的依据。对绕圈赛以及那些需 CompuTrainer. Anaerobic endurance is 要持续地以高强度骑行的比赛来说无氧耐力 important in criteriums and during the sustained, high-intensity efforts of road races. 很重要。在室内训练台上做 LT 测试时,大 Most race-fit athletes can last four or more 多数适应比赛的运动员都能够在乳酸盐极限 minutes beyond their lactate threshold on the 阈值之上坚持 4 分钟或更长时间。如果你无 indoor trainer test for LT. If you're unable to 法达到这个指标的话,那么无氧耐力就是你 achieve that, then anaerobic endurance is a 的弱项。不过在冬季的基础期开始之前做这 weakness. This is nearly always the case with 项测试时往往不会得到太好结果,所以如果 tests completed at the start of the winter Base 你在训练季初期无法在这项测试中坚持很久 period so don't be concerned if it is early in the 的话,不必为此太过担心。 season and you are unable to last long on the test. 级别 分数 时间 优秀 5 >5:00 良好 4 4:00-4:59 平均 3 3:00-3:59 一般 2 2:00-2:59 差劲 1 <2:00 Table 5.2 Anaerobic Endurance Time 表 5.2 无氧忍耐时间,即运动员从进入 LT indicates the athletes efforts from 开始坚持到测试结束的时间 LT to end of test The lactate threshold test also serves as an 乳酸盐极限阈值测试也可用来建立你的 excellent baseline of your fitness. By the 身体素质的基准线。经过两轮或更多次的测 10
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 results from two or more serial tests, you can 试,你就能看到一年中身体素质的变化。把 see the changes in your fitness throughout the 测试结果画在一张纵轴表示心率,横轴表示 year. Construct a graph by plotting heart rate 功率输出的坐标图上,这就是 Conconi 测试 on the vertical axis versus power on the 所使用的方法。该测试由意大利生理学家 horizontal axis. The Conconi Test, developed by Italian physiologist Francesco Conconi in Francesco Conconi 在 20 世纪 80 年代创建, the early 1980s, applied the method to Francesco Moser 在准备冲击世界记录时曾在 Francesco Moser's training program in 训练中使用此方法。该测试需要你从作图曲 preparation for his attempt on the world hour 线中标出乳酸盐极限心率对应的点,然后观 record. The test relies on the establishment of 察后续的一系列测试曲线是否发生偏离或下 the lactate threshold heart rate as the point at 移。我发现几乎没有哪个运动员的测试图能 which the line on such a graph deflects or 够产生明显的偏离,所以如果你的测试结果 bends downward. I've found very few athletes 也是这样的话,不必太担心。 who have an obvious deflection in their graph, so don't be concerned with looking for this in your test results. Figure 5.1 Graph of two graded exercise tests 图 5.1 两个递增出力测试图 Figure 5.1 illustrates the tracings of a 图 5.1 显示了在两个不同时期所做的乳 lactate threshold test performed on two 酸盐极限阈值测试的结果曲线。第一次是在 separate occasions. The first was conducted at 基础期开始前做的,而第二次是在 12 周的 the start of the Base period and second 基础期训练结束后做的。请注意第二次测试 following twelve weeks of Base training. Notice that the tracing for Test 1 has shifted to 曲线右移并下降了一点。这说明运动员在同 the right and slightly down. This shows that the 样功率输出时的心率下降了。这是测量进步 athlete has a lower heart rate at any given 的最有效的方法之一。另一个说法就是在给 power level. That is one effective way of 定的心率下输出功率提高了。虽然乳酸盐极 measuring progress. Another is that power has 限心率(以 LT 表示)在 12 周后没有变化, increased for every given heart rate. While the 但输出功率改变了。 lactate threshold heart rate (indicated as LT) has not changed in twelve weeks, power has. 11
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 Critical Power Tests 关键功率测试 If you have a powermeter, establishing power- 如果你有功率计的话,建立以功率为基础的 based training zones will allow more complete 训练区域能够让你在训练中更加全面地使用 use of the unit in training while also providing 这个工具,同时还能在整个赛季中为你提供 you with valuable comparison points for fitness 关于身体素质的有价值的参考点。如果你能 throughout the season. If you also establish and periodically update a personal critical power 够按照表 4.1 那样定期地测试并画出个人关 profile as shown in Figure 4.1, you will have a 键功率曲线的话,你就能直观地看到你的比 visual representation of how performance is 赛能力是如何日积月累地提高的。 changing over time. To establish a critical power profile you 为建立关键功率曲线,你需要完成 5 次 will need to complete five time trials, one each 个人计时测验,时间分别是 12 秒,1,6, of 12 seconds and 1, 6, 12, and 30 minutes. 12,30 分钟。每次测试都需竭尽全力,所 Each test is a maximum effort for the entire 以你最好是把它们分散在几天里面。一旦你 duration. It's best to spread these out over several days. Once your profile is established 已经建立了关键功率曲线,在后续的测试中 you may want to update only certain critical 你也许不需要完成所有这些测验,而是只更 power points along the curve in subsequent 新曲线中的某些关键功率点就可以了。 tests without completing the entire battery. There is a learning curve associated with 对于这些测验你也需要有个学习过程。 this testing. It's common to start out too fast on 个人计时测验中经常出现的情况就是在刚开 each time trial and then fade near the end. It 始时往往骑得太快结果测验还没结束就骑不 may take two or three attempts over a few days 动了,这会导致你也许要花上好几天尝试两 or even a few weeks to get the pacing right. To reduce the need for such continued testing, it's 三次甚至搭上好几个星期才能找到合适的节 best to start each time trial test at a lower 奏。为了避免这种原因造成的不停测试,你 power output than you think is appropriate. 最好在个人计时测验开始时以稍低于你认为 This will pay off with fewer test failures. Begin 合适的功率骑行,这样就可避免太频繁的测 such testing in the early Base period with at 验失败。在基础期开始时做一次这样的测 least one other battery of follow-up tests 试,然后到了发展期开始前再做一次这样的 completed before beginning the Build period. 测试(训练周期会在第 7 章中介绍)。 (These periods are explained in Chapter 7.) The longer durations of 60, 90, and 180 按照关键功率图中 CP12 到 CP30 的倾 minutes may be estimated from the profile 斜度将曲线延长,就可得到较长距离如 graph by extending the slope of the CP12 to 60,90,180 分钟的估算结果。你也可以使 CP30 line. You may also get an estimation of 用一点数学方法估计出这些延长线上的功率 the values for these extended data points with a little math. To estimate 60-minute power, 点的数值。比如要计算 60 分钟的平均输出 subtract 5 percent from your 30-minute average 功率,就把 30 分钟平均输出功率减去 5% power result. For an approximation of 90- 即可;要计算 90 分钟的平均输出功率,就 minute power, subtract 2.5 percent from the 60- 把 60 分钟的平均输出功率减去 2.5%即可; minute power. Subtracting 5 percent from the 把 90 分钟平均输出功率减去 5%就得到 180 90-minute power figure estimates 180-minute 分钟的平均输出功率。 power. 12
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 Keep in mind that these power points 请记住超过 30 分钟的那些功率点只是 beyond 30 minutes are estimates only and may 估算出来的,所以可能很不准确。这种误差 well be inaccurate. That's acceptable since 对于以功率为基础的训练方式是可以接受 training with power is normally only 的,因为这种方式一般只用于短距离的训 recommended for shorter durations as when doing intervals, hill repeats, sprints, or tempo 练,比如间歇练习,重复爬坡,冲刺或快速 efforts. Long, steady rides are best done using 骑行。对于长距离的平稳骑行,你最好使用 heart rate or perceived exertion to regulate 心率或个人感知发挥度来调整强度。 intensity. Once all of these power data points are 如果所有这些功率点的数据都已建立, established you are ready to determine your 下一步你就可以根据表 4.3 来确定你的关键 critical power training zones as shown in Table 功率训练区域了。 4.3. Applying Test Results 测试结果的应用 Establishing a profile and completing selected 完成某些测试并建立测试数据还不够――你 tests is not enough –you must now determine 现在必须知道这些数据对你的训练意味着什 what all of this data means for your training. 么。再次提醒注意,所有这些测试数据只有 Again, keep in mind that the results of these 在前面提到过的众多外界因素得到控制的前 tests are only as good as the effort put into controlling the many variables discussed 提下才有实际意义。马马虎虎的测试无法成 earlier. Sloppy testing provides no basis for 为度量你的身体素质的基准。你还要明白有 measuring fitness. Also realize that there are 许多外界因素是你无法控制的,比如天气; many variables not completely under your 另外身体素质的变化可以是很微小的―― control, such as weather. In addition, the 2%或者更小――甚至在专业场地上的复杂 changes in fitness can be so slight –2 percent 测试也无法探测到这种变化。正是由于这些 or less –that field testing may not be 令人困扰的因素的影响,所以也许会出现这 sophisticated enough to detect them. Because 样的情况:虽然自我感觉水平有进步,但测 of these confounding factors, it might appear in subsequent tests that fitness is slipping even 试结果却显示身体素质有所下降。所以在训 though you sense an improvement. Your 练中表现出的身体素质的指标以及自我感觉 feelings and indications of fitness from 仍然是有效的――不要让所谓的“科学”训 workouts are valid –don't completely disregard 练方法完全代替你的直觉。 them in an attempt to train "scientifically." Sprint Power Test 冲刺功率测试 The purpose of this test is to determine whether 这项测试的目的是确定冲刺能力是否是你的 sprinting is a weakness or strength for you. 弱项或者强项。表 5.1 能够帮助你确定这一 Table 5.1 will help you determine that. Bear in 点。记住:即使这是你的弱项,它也不一定 mind that even if it is a weakness, it is not 是你的限制因素。只要你所参与竞争的不是 necessarily a limiter. If your race goals do not include events that often come down to a sprint 那些需要靠冲刺来定胜负的比赛,它就只是 for the line, then it is merely a weakness but 你的弱项而不是限制因素。 not a limiter. 13
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 While it seems that good sprinters are 虽然好的冲刺选手基本都是天生的,但 born that way, this does not mean that your 并不是说你的冲刺能力无法改善。好的冲刺 sprinting cannot improve. Good sprinters have 手都有一些相同点。首先他们都有在瞬间调 several things in common. The first is that they 集大量的肌肉纤维参与做功的能力,并能坚 have a tremendous ability to instantaneously recruit a large number of muscle fibers to 持到冲刺完成;他们全身的力量都很强因此 initiate and finish the sprint. They also can 也能够向脚踏施加巨大的力量;另外他们都 generate tremendous force on the pedals due to 能够以非常高的频率转动踏板。这些能力都 a high level of total-body strength. And they 是可以训练的。通过这些训练,有些人能够 can turn the pedals at a very high cadence. 快速轻易地获得进步,而另一些人,由于不 These are all characteristics that can be trained. 具备冲刺手所需要的体质特征,收效会非常 Some will find such training produces quick 有限。 and easy results, while others, who do not have the sprinter body type, will not realize as much gain. Graded Exercise Test 递增出力测试 As mentioned earlier, this test provides a 前面曾经讲过,这项测试提供了关于你的有 snapshot of your aerobic fitness and helps to 氧身体素质的一个缩影并帮助你确定了乳酸 establish a lactate threshold heart rate. Both are 盐极限心率。把你在测试中获得的心率数据 applicable only to you. Comparing the heart 与其他人相比较几乎是没有意义的,但是把 rate data of this test with another rider's will be of little or no value. Comparing your present 现在的测试结果与将来的测试结果相比较却 results with those of future tests is quite 是有启发作用的。图 5.1 展示的就是初始测 revealing, however. Figure 5.1 is a graph of an 试(测试 1)和几周后的后续测试(测试 initial test (Test 1) and a follow-up test done 2)的比较图。 several weeks later (Test 2). In subsequent tests, improving aerobic 在后续测试中,如果象图 5.1 中的测试 fitness is evident if the slope of the line moves 2 一样,曲线向右和向下移动,则说明有氧 to the right and down, as shown by Test 2 in 能力提高了。这表示在给定的功率输出级别 Figure 5.1. This indicates that for any given 上,心率下降了。或者从另一个角度讲,在 power level, heart rate has dropped. Or, to look at it another way, for any given heart rate, 给定的心率状态下,输出功率提高了。 power is greater. Now let's determine your lactate threshold 现在让我们来确定你的乳酸盐极限阈值 (LT). It may be estimated from the test data by (LT)。你可以观察以下 4 个指标来估算 observing four indicators: rating of perceived 该值:个人感知发挥度(RPE),通气量阈 exertion (RPE), ventilatory threshold (VT), 值(VT),LT 之上的持续时间,和功率百 time above LT, and power percentage. For the experienced rider, LT typically occurs when 分比。对于有经验的车手来说,LT 一般是 RPE is in the range of 15 to 17. A rough 在 RPE 达到 15-17 级时出现,记录在此 estimation of LT is made by noting the heart RPE 范围内的心率就可得到 LT 的粗略估 rates that fall in this RPE range. If you are new 算。但是如果你刚开始骑车不久,也许你会 to cycling, you may find it awkward to assign 觉得定义 RPE 很困难。你在自行车上感受 an RPE. The more experience you gain on the 不同强度的经验越丰富,完成这项任务就越 bike at various intensities, the easier this task 轻松。 14
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 will become. LT may also be estimated by your 你也可以靠助手对 VT 的观察估算你的 assistant's estimation of VT. If this falls in the LT。如果 VT 的出现还落在 RPE15-17 级 range of RPE 15 to 17, it narrows the 的区间内的话,估算的准确性就更高了。但 possibilities even more. Realize, however, that 是你要明白对于从没有测试过的人来说,确 determining VT is quite difficult for the person who has never done it. Another way of 定 VT 时非常困难的。另外一个确定 LT 的 determining LT is that a rider will typically not 方法是:一般来说骑手在达到 LT 时,将无 be able to continue for more than five minutes 法在这样强度下保持出力超过 5 分钟。所以 on this type of test once LT has been reached. 你或许可以通过最后 5 个采样点的数据来估 So your LT is likely within the last five data 算出你的 LT。 points collected. Power output may also be used to estimate 功率输出也可以被有经验的骑手拿来估 LT for the experienced rider as it generally is 算 LT,因为在测试中 LT 一般会出现在最大 found at about 85 percent of the maximum 输出功率的 85%的时段。根据这四项指标 power achieved on the test. From these four 你应该可以很接近地估算出乳酸盐极限心率 indicators you should be able to closely estimate lactate threshold heart rate (LTHR). (LTHR)。你测试的次数越多,LT 的估算 The more times you complete this test, the 结果就越准确。 more refined the estimate of LT becomes. Notice in Figure 5,1 that the lactate 注意在图 5.1 中,测试 1 和测试 2 的乳 threshold heart rate has not changed from Test 酸盐极限心率没有变化,虽然测试 2 的乳酸 1 to Test 2, although LT power has increased. 盐极限功率输出提高了。这是有经验的并且 This is typical of the results seen in 状态良好的骑手在基础期时的典型表现。另 experienced and generally well-conditioned riders during their base period. On the other 一方面,对于一个新手或者中断训练很久的 hand, a novice, or someone who has had a long 人来说,也许在后续的测试中会看到乳酸盐 break from training, may expect to see the 极限心率稍许提高一点。 lactate threshold heart rate rise slightly in subsequent tests. Lactate Threshold Test on the Road 在公路上测试乳酸盐极限阈值 This is a simple analysis. Your heart rate 这是个简单的分析方法。你只需在公路上做 average for the last twenty minutes of the 一次 30 分钟的竭尽全力的个人计时测验, thirty-minute, all-out time trial done on the 在最后 20 分钟里的平均心率就是很接近你 road as a workout is a close approximation of 的 LTHR 的估算值。如果你是参加个人计时 LTHR. If you compete in a time trial as a race, take 5 percent of your average heart rate and 比赛的话,把你的平均心率加上 5%就是你 add it to the average to estimate LT. But if 的 LT 的估算值。不管是哪种方法,如果你 either of these is the only test done, it's a good 只做过一次测试的话,那么你最好是在骑车 idea to continue evaluating what you found 训练中继续评估你的 LTHR 的准确性。在 your LTHR to be when on training rides. When LTHR 心率下平稳骑行时你应该感觉到呼吸 riding steadily at this heart rate you should be 粗重以及大腿的灼烧僵硬感,并且你的个人 aware of labored breathing and a feeling of 感知发挥水平应该在 15-17 级。所有这些 burning tightness in the legs, and your RPE 测试,你做的次数越多,测试结果就越准 15
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 should be about 15 to 17. As with all testing, 确。 the more frequently this test is done the more refined the estimate becomes. Critical Power Tests 关键功率测试 The data gathered for the critical power tests 关键功率测试后,应该把得到的数据画在图 should be graphed to produce a Power Profile 上制成如图 5.2 那样的功率曲线。那些持续 as shown in Figure 5.2. The longer critical 时间较长的关键功率数据可以通过按 CP12 power durations may be estimated by 到 CP30 的倾斜度将曲线延长来估算。这种 extending the slope of the line for CP12 to CP30. This provides rough estimations that 粗略的估算值可能会与实际值有一点高低的 may be a bit low or high depending on your 出入,这要看你的有氧和无氧能力的平衡度 aerobic-anaerobic fitness balance. For example, 如何。比如,在冬季早期你的有氧能力可能 in the early winter months your aerobic fitness 相对强于你的无氧能力,所以,CP12 也许 is probably relatively better than your 会略小于在夏天时的测试值,这就会导致延 anaerobic fitness. As a result, CP12 may be 长线的倾斜度较平以及右侧的估算值较高。 lower than what would be found in the summer 在冬季接下来的几个月以及在在春季的后续 months, thus causing the extended slope of the 测试将帮助纠正这种过高的估算值。 line to be high on the right end. Follow-up tests done over the ensuing months of the winter and spring will help to correct this overestimation. What should your Power Profile look like? 你的功率曲线应该是什么样的?这在某 This depends somewhat on the courses on 种程度上依赖于你要参加的比赛的性质。短 which you race. A short-duration race 距离并且在途中有短而陡峭的山坡的比赛, contested on a course with short, steep hills 适合于那些 CP1 和 CP6 功率值高的骑手; favors a rider with high CP1 and CP6 power, whereas a longer race with rolling hills and 而长距离并在途中有连绵起伏的山坡,需要 long, steady climbs favors those with high 长而稳定爬坡能力的比赛,适合于那些 CP12 and CP30 power. In theory, those power CP12 和 CP30 功率值高的骑手。理论上说, zones that are trained in most frequently will 在哪个功率区域训练得越频繁,这个区域的 improve the most. 功率能力提高得也越多。 16
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 Figure 5.2 Power profile for hypothetical rider 图 5.2 某个假想骑手的功率曲线 So comparing your Power Profile with course 所以把你的功率曲线与本赛季你要参加的最 and race requirements of the most important 重要的比赛的要求相对照,就能确定你的下 races of the season provides guidance in 一步训练的方向了。第 6 章将提供这方面的 determining exactly how to train. Chapter 6 更多的细节内容。 provides greater detail on this. Self-Assessment 自我评估 By now you've collected a lot of data on 到目前为止你已经从你自己身上收集了许多 yourself. All of this is of no value unless the 数据。但是如果你不能运用这些数据改善你 information is used to improve training and 的训练和比赛的话,它们将毫无意义。完成 racing. Completing the following three profiles 以下三项个人情况的评估――专长,意志品 –Proficiencies, Mental Skills, and Natural Abilities –will provide a start toward doing 质和自然能力――将是你迈向这一目标的第 that. Chapter 6 will take this one step further by 一步,而第 6 章将更进一步地提供一些改善 providing a system for improvement in weak 你的弱项的系统方法。 areas. If you have the equipment to conduct the 如果你拥有能力评估测试所需要的设备 performance assessment tests you now have a 的话,那么现在你应该对你的强项和弱项有 good idea of some of your areas of strength and 了很好的了解了。当然也有可能你根本没办 weakness. Chances are, however, that you don't 法接触这些复杂的设备。那么我们仍然可以 have access to sophisticated equipment. We can still get a pretty good understanding of 通过问一些合适的问题以及,当然啦,需要 your capabilities by asking the right questions 你诚实的回答来很好地了解你的能力。即使 and, of course, answering honestly. Even if you 你有条件做能力评估测试,你也应该在每个 were able to do the performance testing, you 训练季开始时评估一下你的专长,意志品质 should evaluate your proficiencies, mental 和自然能力。在继续阅读之前,请先完成工 skills, and natural abilities at the start of every 具栏 5.4-5.6 的问卷。然后我会解释你的得 17
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 training year. Before reading any further, 分代表什么意思。 complete the three profiles in Sidebars 5.4-5.6. Then I will explain your scores. PROFICIENCIES PROFILE 个人专长情况 Read each statement below and decide it you agree 阅读以下每个题目,想一下如果这是说你自己的 or disagree with it as it applies to you. Check the 话你是否同意,然后在对应的栏打勾。如果不能 appropriate answer. If unsure, go with your initial 确定的话,以你阅读题目时的第一感觉为准。 feeling. A=同意 D=不同意 A=Agree D=Disagree A D A D ___ 1. I'm quite lean compared with others in my ___ 1. 在和我同级别的车手圈子里,我的体形显 category. 得相当瘦。 ___ 2. I'm more muscular and have greater total ___ 2. 在和我同级别的车手圈子里,我的肌肉更 body strength than most others in my 发达,体重也更大。 category. ___ 3. I'm usually capable of single-handedly ___ 3. 我常常能够独立地骑好几分钟来赶上与前 bridging big gaps that take several minutes. 面队伍的较大的差距。 ___ 4. I'm capable of enduring relentless suffering ___ 4. 我能够忍受长时间的连续不断的痛苦,有 for long periods of time, perhaps as long as 时甚至长达 1 个小时。 an hour. ___ 5. 和我同级别的大多数车手无法一口气爬上 ___ 5. I can climb long hills out of the saddle with 去的很长的山坡,我却能够爬上去。 most others in my category. ___ 6. 我能做车上的“特技”,以及提车跳跃等 ___ 6. I can do "wheelies," hop and jump my bike 动作,并且比大多数人做的好。 better than most. ___ 7. I can spin at cadences in excess of 140 rpm ___ 7. 我能够毫无困难地高速旋转曲柄,并让踏 with no difficulty. 频超过 140rpm。 ___ 8. I look forward to the climbs in races and hard ___ 8. 我很期待比赛中的爬坡路段,以及艰难的 group workouts. 团队训练。 ___ 9. I'm comfortable in an aerodynamic position: ___ 9. 我能够很轻松地保持空气动力学姿势:俯 aero bars, elbows close, back flat. 身握 TT 把,双肘靠拢,背部水平。 ___ 10. I have a lot of fast-twitch muscle based on ___ 10. 从我的瞬时冲刺速度,垂直起跳高度等 my instantaneous sprint speed, vertical jump, 指标分析,我肯定有较多的快收缩肌。 or other indicator. ___ 11. While I suffer, I seldom "blow up" on ___ 11. 在我经历的痛苦记忆中,我很少在爬坡 climbs even when the tempo increases. 的时候“爆缸”,即使当时是在加速。 ___ 12. In a race, I can ride near my lactate ___ 12. 在比赛中,我能够在我的乳酸极限区域 threshold (heavy breaking) for long periods 附近(呼吸粗重)骑很长的时间。 of time. ___ 13. 在长距离的个人计时赛中,除了在折返 ___ 13. In a long individual time trial, with the 点和上坡时以外,我能在整个比赛中保持 exception of turnarounds and hills, I can stay 坐姿。 seated the entire race. ___ 14. 在集体冲刺时,我感觉到好斗的欲望, ___ 14. In a pack sprint, I feel aggressive and physically capable of winning. 以及赢得胜利的机会。 ___ 15. When standing on a climb, I feel light and ___ 15. 采用站立式爬坡时,我感觉踩踏很轻快 nimble on the pedals. 很灵活。 Scoring: For each of the following sets of questions 评分:对于以下每一组问题,记录那些你回答 count the number of "Agree" answers you checked. “同意”的问题的个数. Question numbers Score 问题编号 分数 1,5, 8,11,15 Number of "agrees"__ Climbing__ 1,5, 8,11,15 “同意”的个数__ 爬坡__ 2,6,7,10,14 Number of "agrees"__ Sprinting__ 18
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 3,4,9,12,13 Number of "agrees"__ Time trial__ 2,6,7,10,14 “同意”的个数__ 冲刺__ 3,4,9,12,13 “同意”的个数__ 个人计时__ Sidebar 5.4 工具栏 5.4 MENTAL SKILLS PROFILE 意志品质情况 Read each statement below and choose an 阅读以下问题并根据可能性选择你认为最合适的 appropriate answer from these possibilities: 回答: 1=Never 2=Rarely 3=Sometimes 1=从不 2=很少 3=有时 4=Frequently 5=Usually 6=Always 4=经常 5=通常如此 6=一贯如此 ___ 1. I believe my potential as an athlete is ___ 1. 我认为我有成为优秀运动员的潜质。 excellent. ___ 2. 我渴望训练并始终坚持不懈。 ___ 2. I train consistently and eagerly. ___ 3. 即使比赛进行的很不顺利,我仍能保持积 ___ 3. When things don't go well in a race, I remain 极心态。 positive. ___ 4. In hard races, I can imagine myself doing ___ 4. 在艰苦的比赛中,我能想象自己发挥出 well. 色。 ___ 5. Before races, I remain positive and upbeat. ___ 5. 比赛前我能保持积极和乐观的心态。 ___ 6. I think of myself more as a success than as a ___ 6. 我认为我更多的是成功者而不是失败者。 failure. ___ 7. 比赛前,我能够摆脱自我怀疑的情绪。 ___ 7. Before races, I am able to erase self-doubt. ___ 8. 比赛日的早晨,我醒来时充满热情。 ___ 8. The morning of a race, I awake ___ 9. 如果在比赛中表现不好的话,我也能从中 enthusiastically. 学到一些东西。 ___ 9. I learn something from races when I don’ dot well. ___10.我能够想象自己如何在比赛中处理艰苦的 ___10.I can see myself handling tough race 情况。 situations. ___ 11. 我能够在比赛中发挥出接近我的最好能 ___ 11.I’ able to race close to my ability level. m 力的水平。 ___12.I can easily picture myself training and ___12.我能很容易地让自己进入训练或比赛状 racing. 态。 ___13.Staying focused during long races is easy for ___13.在长距离比赛中我能够很容易地保持精力 me. 专注。 ___14.I stay in tune with my exertion level in races. ___15.I mentally rehearses skills and tactics before ___14.在比赛中我不断调节自己的出力水平。 races. ___15.比赛前我会在脑子里把要用的技巧和战术 ___ 16.I’ good at concentrating as a race m 过一遍。 progresses. ___ 16.随着比赛的进行我的精神会更加专注。 ___ 17.I make sacrifices to attain my goals. ___ 17. 我会为达到目标而做出牺牲。 ___18.Before an important race, I can visualize ___18.在重要比赛开始前,我能形象地预见到自 doing well. 己发挥出色。 ___19. I look forward to workouts. ___19. 我期待训练。 ___20.When I visualize myself racing, it almost feels real. ___20.当我形象地预想自己的比赛过程时,它几 ___21. I think of myself as a tough competitor. 乎和真的一样。 ___22. In races, I tune out distractions. ___21. 我觉得我是个不好对付的竞争者。 ___23. I set high goals for myself. ___22. 在比赛中,我不会分神。 ___24. I like the challenge of a hard race. ___23. 我为自己定了很高的目标。 ___25. When the race gets hard, my concentration ___24. 我喜欢艰苦的比赛带来的挑战。 improves. ___25. 当比赛变地更困难时,我的专注程度也会 ___26. In races, I am mentally tough. ___27. I can relax my muscles before races. 提高。 ___28. I stay positive despite late starts or bad ___26. 在比赛中,我的神经很坚强。 weather. ___27. 比赛前我能够放松肌肉。 ___29.My confidence stays high the week after a ___28. 推迟发车或天气很坏时我仍保持积极心态 19
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 bad race. ___29.经历一场糟糕的比赛之后,我只需一个星 ___30. I strive to be the best athlete I can be. 期就能恢复自信。 ___30. 我努力成为我能够企及的最好的运动员。 Scoring: Add up the numerical answers you gave 评分:把你对以下各组问题的回答数字相加,并 for each of the following sets of questions and 根据以下的评分表格找出你的合计数值对应的分 rate the associated categories according to the 数。 scoring chart below. 问题编号 分数 Question numbers Score 2,8,17,19.23,30 Total___ Motivation___ 2,8,17,19.23,30 合计___ 动机___ 1,6,11,21,26,29 Total___ Confidence___ 1,6,11,21,26,29 合计___ 自信___ 3,5, 9,24,27,28 Total___ Thought habits___ 3,5, 9,24,27,28 合计___ 思维习惯___ 7,13,14,16,22,25 Total___ Focus___ 7,13,14,16,22,25 合计___ 专注力___ 4,10,12,15,18,20 Total___ Visualization___ 4,10,12,15,18,20 合计___ 形象化想象___ 合计 级别 分数 32-36 优秀 5 27-31 好 4 21-26 平均 3 16-20 正常 2 6-15 差 1 Sidebar 5.5 工具栏 5.5 NATURAL ABILITIES PROFILE 自然能力情况 Read each statement below and decide it you agree 阅读以下每个题目,想一下如果这是说你自己的 or disagree with it as it applies to you. Check the 话你是否同意,然后在对应的栏打勾。如果不能 appropriate answer. If unsure, go with your initial 确定的话,以你阅读题目时的第一感觉为准。 feeling. A=同意 D=不同意 A=Agree D=Disagree A D A D ___ 1. I prefer to ride in a bigger gear with a lower ___ 1. 和大多数训练伙伴相比,我更喜欢较大的 cadence than most of my training partners. 齿轮比和较低的踏频。 ___ 2. I race best in criteriums and short road races. ___ 2. 我在绕圈赛和短距离公路赛中成绩最好。 ___ 3. I’ good at sprints. m ___ 3. 我擅长冲刺。 ___ 4. I'm stronger at the end of long workouts than my training partners. ___ 4. 在长距离训练的最后时刻,我比我的训练 ___ 5. I can squat and/or leg press more weight than 伙伴气力更足。 most in my category. ___ 5.在负重半蹲和/或躺式蹬举练习中,我能举 ___ 6. I prefer long races. 起比同级别的大多数车手更重的重量。 ___ 7. I use long crank arms than most others my ___ 6. 我偏爱长距离比赛。 height. ___ 7. 我使用的曲柄长度比大多数和我同样高度 ___ 8. I get stronger as a stage race or high-volume 的人更长。 training week progresses. ___ 8. 随着多站式比赛或大运动量的训练周的进 ___ 9. I comfortably use smaller gears with higher cadence than most others I train with. 行,我感觉更强壮了。 ___ 10. I have always been physically quicker than ___ 9. 和大多数一起训练的人相比,我更喜欢用 most other people for any sport I’ ve 较小的齿比和较高的踏频。 participated in. ___ 10. 与大多数和我一起参加比赛的骑手相 ___ 11.In most sports, I’ been able to finish ve 比,我能够在单纯竞速上胜过他们。 stronger than most others. ___ 11.在很多运动项目中,在接近终点时我都比 ___ 12. I’ always had more muscular strength ve 其他大多数人气力更足。 20
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 than most others I’ played sports with. ve ___ 12. 我的肌肉力量比一起参加运动的其他大 ___ 13. I climb best when seated. 多数人都强。 ___ 14. I prefer workouts that are short but fast. ___ 13. 保持坐姿时我的爬坡最快。 ___ 15. I’ confident of my endurance at the start m ___ 14. 我喜欢距离短速度快的训练。 of long races. ___ 15. 长距离比赛时我对自己的耐力很有信 心。 Scoring: For each of the following sets of questions 评分:对于以下每一组问题,记录那些你回答 count the number of "Agree" answers you checked “同意”的问题的个数. and rate the categories accordingly. 问题编号 分数 Question numbers Score 1,5, 7,12,13 “同意”的个数__ 力量__ 1,5,7,12,13 Number of "agrees"__ Strength __ 2,3,9,10,14 Number of "agrees"__ Skill __ 2,3,9,10,14 “同意”的个数__ 速度技能__ 4,6,8,11,15 Number of "agrees"__ Endurance__ 4,6,8,11,15 “同意”的个数__ 耐力__ Sidebar 5.6 工具栏 5.6 Proficiencies 个人专长 There are three proficiencies that determine 决定能否在单车比赛中成功的个人专长有三 success in cycling: 项:  Climbing  爬坡  Sprinting  冲刺  Time trialing  个人计时 It's an unusual cyclist who stores a 4 or 5 on 以上三项中每项得分都在 4-5 分的车手相 each of these. Body size and shape, aerobic 当少见。体形,身高,有氧潜力,以及肌肉 capacity potential, and muscle type often 类型往往决定了你的强项是其中的哪一个。 determine which of these are your strength. 就因为你是个好的冲刺手,并不等于说你可 Just because you are a good sprinter, however, doesn't mean that you should neglect climbing. 以忽略爬山。如果你不会爬山结果比别人晚 What value is it to have a tremendous sprint but 很久才接近终点,那么即使你有超强的冲刺 be unable to climb and so arrive at the finish 能力又有什么用呢?你必须着手改善你的限 well after winners? You must work to improve 制因素。任何一项得 3 分或更低分数的专项 your limiters. Any proficiency in which you 能力都是你的弱项,如果它正是特定比赛所 scored a three or less needs work if it is a race- 需要的能力那么它就是一个需要改进的限制 specific weakness –a limiter. Just how much 因素。至于你需要改进到什么程度则依赖于 work you need depends on the types of races 你准备参加的比赛类型。我们将在下一章继 you plan to be doing. We'll explore that issue in the next chapter. 续讨论这个问题。 Mental Skills 意志品质 Mental skills are the most neglected aspect of 意志品质是最容易被各个层次的认真的车手 racing for serious cyclists at all levels. I've 所忽略的比赛因素。我知道一些很有天赋但 known talented riders who, except for their 缺乏自信心的骑手,他们应该能够赢得比赛 lack of confidence, were capable of winning or 或保持正常发挥,但实际上却很少成为强有 21
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 always placing well, but were seldom 力的竞争者。这是因为他们的头脑拖了后 contenders. Their heads were holding them 腿。 back. More than likely, you scored a 4 or 5 in 很有可能你在动机一项会得到 4-5 the area of motivation. I always see this in the 分,这在我训练过的运动员中常常看到。如 athletes I coach. If you didn't, then it may be 果不是这样的话,你也许应该回过头去想一 time to take a long look at why you train and 想你为什么训练和参加比赛。 race bicycles. A highly motivated and physically 一个骑手,如果他有很强的动机,很好 talented rider who is confident, has positive 的身体条件,又很自信,习惯于从积极方面 thought habits, can stay focused during a race 思考问题,能够在比赛中保持专注,能够形 and has the ability to visualize success is 象化地预想胜利,这种人是无法被击败的。 practically unbeatable. A physically talented athlete without these mental qualities hopes to 一个身体条件很好但没有这些意志品质的运 finish with the peloton. If you are weak in this 动员往往希望跟着大部队一起完赛。如果你 area, other than working closely with a good 在这方面比较弱的话,除了找运动心理学家 sports psychologist, one of the best courses of 好好谈谈以外,还可以读一本他们写的书, action is to read a book by one of them. Here 这也是一种很好的治疗方法。下面列出的是 are some books I’ found to be helpful in ve 我能找到的有利于改善意志品质的书单。有 improving mental skills. Some may be difficult 些书比较难找,因为现在已经不出版了: to find as they are out of print: Bull, Stephen J. Sport Psychology. Crowood Press: Bull, Stephen J. “ 运动心理学” Crowood Press: . 2000. 2000. Elliott, Richard. "The Competitive Edge." Elliott, Richard. "竞争的边缘." TAFNEWS: 1991. TAFNEWS: 1991. Jackson. Susan A. and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. Jackson. Susan A. and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. “运动的流程” Human Kinetics: 1999. . Flow in Sports. Human Kinetics: 1999. Loehr, James. “ 运动员坚韧意志力的培养” . Loehr, James. Mental Toughness Training for Stephen Greene Press: 1982. Sports. Stephen Greene Press: 1982. Loehr, James. The New Mental Toughness Training Loehr, James. “ 新编运动员坚韧意志力的培养” , for Sports, Penguin Books: 1995. Penguin Books: 1995. Lynch, Jerry. Creative Coaching. Human Kinetics: Lynch, Jerry. “ 创新性教练” Human Kinetics: . 2001. 2001. Lynch, Jerry. Running Within. Human Kinetics: Lynch, Jerry. “ Running Within” Human Kinetics: . 1999. 1999. Lynch, Jerry. Thinking Body, Dancing Mind. Lynch, Jerry. “ 思考的身体,舞动的心灵”Bantam Bantam Books: 1992. Books: 1992. Lynch, Jerry. The Total Runner. Prentice Hall: Lynch, Jerry. “ 完全的跑者” Prentice Hall: 1987. . 1987. Lynch, Jerry, and Chungliang Al Huang. Working Lynch, Jerry, and Chungliang Al Huang. Working Without, Working Within. Tarcher & Putnam: 1998. Without, Working Within. Tarcher & Putnam: 1998. Orlick, Terry, “ 灵魂的胜利” Leisure Press: 1992. . Orlick, Terry, Psyched to Win. Leisure Press: 1992. Orlick, Terry. “ 运动的心理” Leisure Press: 1986. . Orlick, Terry. Psyching for Sport. Leisure Press: Ungerieider, Steven. “颠峰状态的心灵训练” . 1986. Rodale Sports: 1996. Ungerieider, Steven. Mental Training for Peak Performance. Rodale Sports: 1996. 22
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 Natural Abilities 自然能力 Some were born to be cyclists. Their parents 有些人天生就是运动员。他们的父母给了他 blessed them with the physiology necessary to 们能够在两个轮子上出类拔萃的必备生理条 excel on two wheels. Others were born to be 件。还有些人天生就是足球运动员或钢琴 soccer players or pianists. Many of us who are 家。我们中的许多人选择参加自行车比赛时 cyclists have chosen to race a bike regardless of our genetic luck. Passion for the sport means 并没有考虑这些遗传学上的运气。运动的狂 a lot and helps overcome many physiological 热意味着一切,并帮助克服了许多生理上的 shortcomings. 弱点。 The right mix of three basic abilities 在任何运动中,以下三项基本能力的正 determines success in any sport: 确组合决定了竞赛的成功:  Endurance: The ability to continue for a  耐力:能够持续很长时间的能力。 long time.  力量:能够产生力量对抗阻力的能力。  Strength: The ability to generate force  速度技能:能够以该项运动所要求的速 against a resistance. 度做出动作的能力。  Speed Skill: The ability to make the movements of the sport at a required speed. For example, an Olympic weight lifter must 例如,一个参加奥运会的举重运动员必须有 generate a tremendous amount of force, and 极其巨大的力量,需要一定的技巧但几乎不 needs a fair amount of skill and very little 需要耐力。撑杆跳运动员需要极大的技巧, endurance. A pole vaulter needs tremendous 中等的力量,几乎不需要耐力。马拉松运动 skill, a moderate amount of strength, and little endurance. A marathon runner doesn't need 员不需要很大的力量,技巧只需要一点点, much strength, only a little skill, but great 但需要很强的耐力。每个运动项目都是这三 endurance. Every sport is unique in terms of 个元素的独特的组合,因此,也需要独特的 the mix of these three elements and, therefore, 训练方法。 requires unique methods of training. Road cycling puts a premium on 公路车比赛需要超乎寻常的耐力,但是 endurance, but strength for climbing hills and 在爬坡时需要力量,在冲刺时需要正确的踩 skill for sprinting and pedaling correctly are 踏技巧,所以这两项也同样重要。这些能力 also important elements of the formula. This 的组合非常独特,这也是为什么自行车运动 unique combination of abilities is one of the reasons that cycling is such a difficult sport for 是最难进行训练的运动的原因。一个骑手不 which to train. A cyclist can't just put in a lot of 能简单地靠骑很多里程来建立超强的耐力, miles to develop huge endurance and disregard 却忽视了力量和速度技能的训练。他必须把 strength and skill. It takes a mix of all three 这三种能力混和起来才能达到出类拔萃。 abilities to excel. The Natural Abilities Profile you 你完成的自然能力情况评估提供了关于 completed provides a snapshot of your 你在这三方面的个人能力的一个缩影。得到 individual capabilities for the three elements of 4-5 分的能力表示你的一个强项。如果所 fitness for cycling. A score of 4 or 5 for one of 有的得分都是 4-5 分的话,那么毫无疑问 the abilities indicates a strength area. If all of your scores are 4 or 5 you undoubtedly have 你已经是个在很多运动项目上表现都很优秀 been a good athlete in many sports. A score of 的运动员了。3 分或更低的能力表示你的一 23
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 3 or less indicates a weakness, one that may 个弱项,部分因为遗传,部分源于训练。你 partly be due to heredity and partly to training. 无法改变你的基因,但你可以改变你的训 You can't change your genes, but you can 练,如果你需要这么做的话。这是在下一章 change your training, if it's needed. That's what 中你将看到的内容。 you'll find out in the next chapter. Miscellaneous Factors 杂项因素 There is a fourth category for self-assessment 在本章的结尾是第四类单车骑手需要了解的 included in the Cyclist Assessment at the end 自我评估内容――杂项因素。这些因素里很 of this chapter –Miscellaneous Factors. Most 多都是主观性的,但请尽量象前面一样使用 of these are quite subjective, but try to rate 从 1 到 5 的级别来积分。下面的简单介绍将 them using the same l-to-5 scale as for the other profiles. The following brief comments 帮助你做这件事。 may help you to do this. Nutrition. Could your nutrition improve? Do 营养:你能改善你的营养吗?你吃很多的垃 you eat a lot of junk food? On a scale of 1 to 5, 圾食品吗?按 1-5 分级,你对你的饮食的 how strict is your diet? If it is very strict with 严谨程度如何?如果你非常严谨,不吃任何 no junk food, circle 5. If nearly all you eat is 垃圾食品,5 分。如果你吃的大部分食品都 junk food, circle 1. 是垃圾食品,1 分。 Technical equipment knowledge. How well 技术装备知识:你对你的单车的内部构造了 do you know your bike's inner workings? 解多少?如果需要你能够修理或更换任何部 Could you repair or replace anything that may 件吗?如果你是个有认证的技师的话,5 need it? If you're a certified mechanic, circle 5. 分。如果你连补胎都不会,1 分。 If you’ unable to repair even a flat tire, circle re 1. Race strategy. Before starting every race, do 比赛战术:在每次比赛开始前,你有一个在 you have a master plan of what you will do 各种不同情况下该如果行动的指导计划吗? under various circumstances? If so, mark 5. If 如果有,5 分。如果你从未想过比赛战术, you never give race strategy any thought and 只是依靠比赛中的本能反应,1 分。 just react to what happens, circle 1. Body composition. Power-to-weight ratio is 身体组成:功率/体重比率对骑车运动极其 extremely important in cycling. Evaluate your 重要。评估一下你的体重。你是否负担着多 weight side of the ratio. Are you carrying 余的体重?如果减掉它就能让你成为更好的 excess flat that if removed would make you a 爬坡手?使用以下的分级标准: better climber? Use the following scale: 多余体重 等级 10 磅或更多 1 7-9 磅 2 4-6 磅 3 1-3 磅 4 没有多余体重 5 24
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 Support of family and friends. For those who 家庭和朋友的支持:对那些不懂这项运动的 are not fans of the sport, cyclists may seem 人来说,单车手也许看上去有些奇怪。那些 somewhat strange. Those we are closest to 与我们关系密切的人对我们的心理压力有极 have a tremendous effect on our psychological 大的作用。你的朋友和家人对你花费时间用 stress. How supportive of the time you spend training and racing are your family and friends? 于训练和比赛的支持程度如何?如果他们百 If they are 100 percent supportive, circle 5. If 分之百地支持你,5 分。如果你得不到任何 you have no support and are ridiculed by those 支持,并且被你身边的人冷嘲热讽,或者他 who are close to you, or if they try to convince 们极力劝说你不要在骑车上面花费太多的时 you not to devote so much time to riding, circle 间,1 分。 1. Years of racing experience. How many years 比赛经验:你已经参加训练和比赛几年了? have you been training and racing? Circle that 以年头作为分数。如果超过 5 年,也是 5 number. If more than five years, still circle 5. 分。经验在高水平比赛和训练中意义重大。 Experience plays a significant role in high- level training and racing. Tendency to overtrain. Do you come on 过度训练的可能性:你是否每年都是在 12 strong about December –and are you ready to 月份感觉很强壮但是到了 6 月份却要准备放 quit by June every year? If so, you're prone to 弃比赛了?如果是,你也许有过度训练的倾 overtraining –circle 1. Or do you frequently 向――1 分。或者你经常在全年训练中穿插 take rest breaks throughout the year and stay enthusiastic for training and racing right up 休息恢复从而始终保持训练和比赛热情高 until the last race on the calendar? If you're one 涨,直到赛季的末尾?如果你是少数几个能 of the few racers with such wisdom and 够如此明智并有耐心的车手之一的话,5 patience, circle 5. 分。 You've now evaluated yourself in several key 现在你已经对你自己的某些关键因素做了自 areas. To compile the results mark your score 我评估。把这些得分记录在自行车手评估表 for each on the Cyclist Assessment form (工具栏 5.7)里从而得到综合结果。所有 (Sidebar 5.7). All of those with a score of 4 or 那些得 4-5 分的都是强项。得 3 分或更低 5 are strength areas. Scoring a 3 or less indicates a weakness. For each item, briefly 的是弱项。对于每一项因素,你都需要简单 comment on what you learned about yourself. 地描述一下你对自己的看法。以后在设计你 Later on we'll come back to this form to help 的年度训练计划时,我们还会回过头来看这 design your training plan for the year. 个表格。 At the top and bottom of the Cyclist's 在车手评估表的抬头和结尾处留出的空 Assessment, there are spaces for you to write in 白是给你填写本赛季的目标,以及要达到赛 goals for the season and training objectives to 季目标所需要的训练目标。但是先不要为此 help achieve them. Don't do anything with 做任何事情。在下一章我们会进一步考察如 these sections yet. The next chapter takes a closer look at how to go about correcting some 果改善那些阻碍你在比赛中取得更好成绩的 of the abilities that may be holding you back 能力。在第 7 章,我们会评估你在表格最后 from better racing. In Chapter 7, the assessment 部分的训练目标,并开始设计年度训练计划 will come together as you complete the last 来取得更好的比赛成绩。 sections at the bottom of the form and begin the process of designing an annual training plan for better racing results. 25
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 5 TESTING 第 5 章 测试 Sidebar 5.7 工具栏 5.7 26
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 6 RACING ABILITIES 第 6 章 竞赛能力 Chapter 6 RACING 第6章 竞赛能力 ABILITIES Things worth having are not easy to obtain. Once 值得拥有的东西不易得到。一旦拥有,就必须小 obtained, those items must be treated with care and 心而特别注重地对待它们,否则它们就会溜走。 respect or they slip away ――GALE BERNHARDT, 精英教练 – GALE BERNHARDT, elite coach YOU have identified your strengths and 你已经鉴别出你的强项和弱项。基于这些测 weaknesses. Based on this testing and previous 试及过去的竞赛经验,对你为什么是现在这 race experience you should now have a good 样的车手,你应该有了很好的认识。如那些 idea of what makes you the rider you are. As 章节所述,很多种因素都可能最终起决定性 discussed in that chapter, there are many possibilities when it comes to this 作用:生理,精神,营养,技术,战略等 determination: physical, mental, nutritional, 等。如同本书的大部分章节一样,在这一章 technical, strategic, and more. In this chapter, 我们将重点放在生理方面的训练。 as with most in this book, we will focus on the physical aspects of training. Back in the 1970s when I began to study 回顾七十年代,当我开始从科学的角度 training seriously from a scientific perspective, 认真研究训练时,我相信如果能找到一个展 I was convinced that if I could find a diagram 示训练全貌的图的话,我就能更好地掌握这 which illustrated what training was all about 个学科。几年间我花功夫画了各种各样的 I’d have a better grasp of the subject. For years I played around with various drawings, always 图,一直试图找到能清楚表现训练的图式。 trying to find the one that made it clear. Could 训练可以是一条连续的直线吗?或者最好应 training be a straight-line continuum? Might a 该用圆形来解释在为比赛而作的训练中发生 circle best explain what happens in training for 的事吗?又或许三维的螺旋线能最好地表现 competition? Or maybe it’s a three-dimensional 训练相关的一切吗?实际上没有一个图管 spiral that best shows what training is all about. 用。 Nothing seemed to work. Then I discovered the writings of Dr. 随后我发现了罗马尼亚科学家兼教练 Tudor Bompa, a Romanian scientist-coach who Tudor Bompa 博士的文章,他写了很多关于 has written extensively about periodization. In 周期性训练的东西。他在工作中使用了一种 his work he uses a simple diagram to describe 简单的图来描述训练。这就我要的!当我能 training. This was it! Once I got a handle on the components of his diagram, training became 掌握他的图上的各个部分时,训练变成了一 simple. His figure not only helped me to 件简单的事。他的图不但帮助我简化了训练 simplify the elements of training, it also 的各个部分,而且还提供了第三个维度—— provided a third dimension of time. 时间。 In this chapter I’ll introduce you to the 在这一章中,我将会向你介绍 Bompa 的 Bompa diagram, which now serves as the basis 图,这个图现在是我训练运动员时全部工作 for all I do when training athletes. While it 的基础。它看上去非常简单,但里面有许多 appears to be very simple, there are many 微妙的地方需要考虑。一旦你掌握了这些概 subtle nuances that require some consideration. But once you have grasped the concepts, the 念,训练的过程――以及许多关于该怎样训 process of training – and the answers to many 练的问题的答案――就会很清楚了。 1
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 6 RACING ABILITIES 第 6 章 竞赛能力 of the questions about how to train – will be evident. First, it’s necessary that you first fully 首先,你需要完全理解第五章中提到过 understand the concept of limiters that was 的限制因素的概念,因为你必须思考如何把 touched on in Chapter 5. This is necessary 图中的概念和你的强项和弱项关联起来。 because you must consider how the concepts of the diagram relate to your own strengths and weaknesses. Limiters 限制因素 There are aspects of your physical fitness that 你的某些方面的身体素质会制约你竞赛的能 hold you back when it comes to race 力。我们已经在上一章揭示了一些弱项。把 performance. We discovered some of these 你的弱项全部消除掉,只留下强项当然好, weaknesses in the last chapter. While it would 但这既不现实也不完全必要。实际上,也许 be nice to eliminate all of your weaknesses and have only strengths, that is neither realistic nor 只有其中的一个或者两个缺陷让你不能取得 all that necessary. More than likely, only one or 更好的比赛成绩。这些关键的弱项就是你的 two of these shortcomings stand between you 限制因素。 and better race results. These key weaknesses are your “limiters.” Peak performance is a consequence of 运动能力的高峰是你个人的强项与某次 matching your individual strengths with the 比赛的要求相吻合的结果。这就好比你拿你 requirements of an event. This is similar to 的彩票券和中奖号码比对,6 位数字中有五 comparing your lottery ticket to the winning 位对上了――很接近,但却拿不到百万美元 numbers and finding out that you had five of the six numbers right – close, but no million- 的奖金。比赛就和这差不多。你面对的比赛 dollar prize. Racing is like this. Having two of 所需的三项特质中你拥有两项,那还不够 the three qualities necessary to race at the front 好。你没有的那一项就是限制因素。只要把 isn’t good enough. The one you’re missing is 它改掉,无论你还有其它的什么弱项,你就 the limiter. By correcting it, regardless of your 会是一个有力的竞争者。所以说,你该关心 other weaknesses, you’re a contender. So it’s 的是限制因素,而不是弱项。 really not weaknesses that should concern you, it’s limiters. A limiter is a race-specific weakness. For 限制因素是一种与特定竞赛相关的弱 example, let’s say you are training for a hilly, 项。比如说,你正为一个多山的 A 级公路赛 A-priority road race that is always won or lost 而训练,这个比赛总是在最后一个爬坡段决 on the last climb and one of your weaknesses is 出胜负,而你的弱项之一就是爬坡。这个弱 climbing. This weakness is obviously a limiter- it prevents you from performing at the level 项明显是一个限制因素,它阻止你达到获胜 required for success. But if your other 需要的水准。如果你另外的弱项是冲刺,在 weakness is sprinting, this would not be a 这样的比赛中它不会是一个限制因素。所以 limiter for this race. So while you have two 虽然你有爬坡和冲刺两个弱项,但只有一个 weaknesses: climbing and sprinting only one is 会限制你在这场重要比赛中的水平发挥。 limiting your performance in this important event. 2
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 6 RACING ABILITIES 第 6 章 竞赛能力 What you should closely watch for in this 在这章中,你需要特别关注的是:在你 chapter are the necessary requirements to race 参加的各种比赛中都有些什么样的要求,其 well in the types of races you do, and which of 中哪些是你不具备的。稍后我会告诉你怎样 those requirements you are missing. Later I’ll 补强你的限制因素。 show you how to strengthen your limiters. Basic Racing Abilities 基础竞赛能力 In Chapter 5, I mentioned the three basic 在第五章,我提到有三种基础能力是所有的 abilities required in all sports: endurance, force, 运动都需要的:耐力,力量和速度技巧。不 and speed skill. Different types of races, from 同类型的竞赛,爬坡或平路,短途或长途, hilly or flat to long or short, require different 需要这些能力的不同组合。这些基础能力是 mixes of these abilities. The basic abilities are the ones with which an athlete should start his 运动员在他的年度训练开始时就有的,它们 or her training year. They also should be the 同时也是新车手在开始的一两年里要培养的 foundations of the novice cyclist’s 基础能力。 development in the sport for the first year or two. It may help to understand where this 为了帮助你理解我们讨论的思路。你可 discussion is going if you see the basic racing 以把这些基础竞赛能力看作是三角形的三个 abilities as the corners of a triangle. While 角。虽然耐力,力量和速度技巧听上去够简 endurance, force, and speed skill sound simple 单了,但解释一下这些名词在这里是如何使 enough, it may be helpful to explain how those terms are used here. 用的可能会有些帮助。 Figure 6.1 Basic abilities triangle 图 6.1 基本竞赛能力的三角图 Endurance 耐力 Endurance is the ability to continue working by 耐力是一种能够推迟疲劳出现而持续做功的 delaying the onset of fatigue. Within the 能力。在本书中,该术语暗指有氧级别的发 context of this book, it implies an aerobic level 挥。耐力和特定比赛有关,例如,一个小时 of exertion. Endurance is specific to the event. 的比赛不需要能连续骑行五个小时的耐力。 For example, a one-hour race does not require the endurance to ride for five hours. As with other aspects of fitness, endurance 如同身体素质的其他方面一样,培养耐 is typically developed by starting with general 力通常从一般性的耐力训练开始,然后过渡 3
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 6 RACING ABILITIES 第 6 章 竞赛能力 endurance training and progressing to more 到更有针对性的训练。这意味着有氧耐力的 specific training. This means that an aerobic 发展首先在冬季通过对心血管系统(心脏, endurance base is built first in the winter 肺,血液,血管)的锻炼打下基础,通常是 months by developing the capabilities of the 靠交叉训练,比如滑雪或跑步。对那些决意 cardiorespiratory system (heart, lungs, blood, blood vessels), usually with crosstraining 全年骑车的车手,可考虑一下公路越野训 activities such as skiing or running. For those 练,因为它结合了跑步和骑车,而且增强你 of you strongly committed to riding your bikes 的控车技能。在冬季的晚期,训练变得更有 year-round, consider cyclo-cross training since 针对性,最长时间的骑行至少要增加到两个 it combines running with cycling and lets you 小时或是和最长时间的比赛一样长,以其中 hone your handling skills. Later in the winter, 时间较长的那个为准。 training will become more specific as the length of the longest rides are extended to a minimum of two hours or the duration of the longest race, whichever is longer. For the novice cyclist, endurance is the 对新车手,耐力是进步的关键。毕竟公 key to progress. After all, the sport of road 路自行车竞赛主要是一个耐力运动。如果你 racing is primarily an endurance sport. If you 没有足够的耐力完成比赛,任何其它方面的 don’t have the endurance to finish the race, it 能力提升再多也没有用。只有先把这个能力 doesn’t matter how well developed any of your other abilities may be. This ability has to be 培养好了,你才能关注其它方面。 nurtured before others are emphasized. Force 力量 Force, or strength, is the ability to overcome 力量,或者说力气,是克服阻力的能力。在 resistance. In cycling, force comes into play on 自行车运动中,力量体现在爬坡和顶风骑行 hills and when riding into the wind. It also has 时。它还在很大程度上决定了在你想加速时 a lot to do with how big a gear you can turn 可以踩得动的最大齿轮比。一年中,你对肌 any time you want to go fast. You develop muscular force by progressing from general to 肉力量的培养从一般性训练开始,并逐渐向 specific training during the year. This starts 针对性训练过渡。从赛季早期的举重训练开 with weight lifting early in the season and 始,并最终过渡到大齿比重复,以及爬坡训 eventually becomes big-gear repeats and then 练。这种进步方式,即从一般性训练过渡到 hill work. This progression, by the way, is 针对性训练,是正确的训练中很常见的典型 typical of the general to specific preparation so 做法。举重时你做的是一般性训练,不需要 common in proper training. When lifting 自行车;但到了用大齿比在山地痛苦地重复 weights you are engaged in general training as 爬坡时,你做的就是专门针对这项运动的训 no bike is involved, but when suffering through big-gear hill repeats the training is specific to 练。我现在提到这个,是因为这是本书论及 the demands of the sport. I mention this now 所有的竞赛能力的培养时都要提到的重要观 because it will continue to be an important 点。 point in the development of all of the race abilities described here. 4
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 6 RACING ABILITIES 第 6 章 竞赛能力 Speed Skill 速度技能 Speed skill is the ability to move quickly and 速度技能是快速及高效移动的能力。它是以 efficiently. It is the ability to pedal smoothly at 高踏频流畅踩踏及没有多余动作快速转动的 a high cadence and to negotiate turns quickly 能力。在这里,它不是用来度量你的竞赛时 without wasted movement. It is not used here 间和速度,尽管它们之间确实相关。改进速 as a measure of your race times or velocity, although these are related issues, As speed 度技能,竞赛能力也会随之提高。这项能力 skills improve, so do race performances. Some 的某些方面,比如 200 转/分钟的踏频,一般 aspects of this ability, such as 200 rpm 都是天生的。我们发现拥有世界级速度的运 pedaling, are typically genetic. Athletes with 动员,他们的快肌纤维比例较高――快肌能 world-class speed have been found to have a 够快速收缩,但会很快疲劳。然而可以通过 high percentage of fast-twitch muscles that are 提高运动效率――即减少能量浪费来快速移 capable of rapid contraction, but they tend to 动――来提高速度技能。数项科学研究已经 fatigue quickly. It’s possible, however, to 证实,依靠正确的锻炼方式和持续的目标, improve speed skill by improving economy – quick movement with little wasted energy. 腿的旋转能力是可以训练的。 Several scientific studies have demonstrated that leg turnover is trainable given the right types of workouts and consistency of purpose. Just as with force, speed skill training 如同力量训练一样,速度技能训练也是 progresses from the general to the specific. The 从一般性训练向针对性训练过渡。这项能力 goal for this ability is to be able to pedal 的目标是使你能够在比现在高的踏频下舒服 comfortably (in other words, with a lower 地——换句话说,能量消耗更少地——蹬 energy expenditure) at a higher cadence than you are capable of now. Such training will start 踏。这样的训练从各种踏频练习(一般性 with drills (general) and slowly move toward 的)开始,慢慢转向以比你现在高的踏频骑 riding with a higher cadence than you currently 行(针对性的)。 employ (specific). Advanced Racing Abilities 高级竞赛能力 The triangle diagrammed in Figure 6.1 may be 图 6.1 所示的三角形还可以进一步扩展。耐 further defined. The basics of endurance, force 力,力量和速度技能构成了三个顶点,但三 and speed skill make up the corners, but each 角形的每一条边则各表示一种更高级的能 of the sides of the triangle represents a more 力。这些是有经验的运动员在训练的后期阶 advanced ability. These are the abilities the experienced athlete will emphasize in the later 段着重发展的能力,当他们的基础技能已经 periods of training, once the basic abilities have 完全培养好了以后。 been fully developed. Muscular Endurance 肌肉耐力 Muscular endurance (ME) is the ability of 肌肉耐力(ME)是肌肉长时间承受高负荷 muscles to sustain a high load for a prolonged 的能力。它是基础的力量和耐力相结合的一 5
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 6 RACING ABILITIES 第 6 章 竞赛能力 time. It is the combination of the basic force 种能力。在自行车的世界里,肌肉耐力就是 and endurance abilities. In the world of cycling, 持续长时间以相对较大齿比持续转动的能 muscular endurance is the ability to repeatedly 力。对公路车手来说,这种能力非常关键。 turn a relatively high gear for a relatively long 肌肉耐力能使你比较轻松地在高速前进的队 time. For the road cyclist, this is a critical ability. ME is what allows you to ride in a fast- 伍中骑行,让你在计时赛中比以往骑得更 moving group without suffering, to time trial 快,并使你能长时间地在一个稳定的速度级 faster than you have done before, and to hang 别上咬住那些领骑的人。 with the leaders on a very long, steady grade. Excellent muscular endurance is 超强的肌肉耐力体现在以大齿比转动时 evidenced by a high level of fatigue resistance 身体能够抵抗较高级别的疲劳。它对于公路 when turning a big gear. It is so critical to 车手的能力而言是如此关键,以至于我们必 performance in road cycling that we will work 须在这上面付出和训练基础耐力一样多的精 on it almost as much as the more basic ability of pure endurance. 力。 Figure 6.2 Higher abilities triangle 图 6.2 高级竞赛能力的三角图 The “general” aspect of muscular- 肌肉耐力训练的“一般性“方面是指发 endurance training is the development of the 展相邻的两个角――耐力和力量。一旦这些 accompanying corners – endurance and force. 能力已经打下扎实的基础,肌肉耐力训练就 Once these abilities are deep-rooted, ME 可从长时间重复(耐力)较高的齿比(力 training begins with long repeats (endurance) in a higher-than-normal gear (force). The 量)开始。刚开始时强度不用太高,最好在 intensity is not high at first, being well below 乳酸阈值之下,但最终这些训练会接近并经 the lactate threshold, but eventually such 常超过乳酸阈值的强度。从赛季早期开始, training approaches and often surpasses 随着训练的进展,高强度间歇时间逐步逐步 threshold effort. As the early-season training 拉长,而恢复间歇时间仍然保持比较短的水 progresses, the work intervals gradually get 平 —— 大约是高强度间歇时间的四分之 longer as the recovery intervals remain quite 一。 short – about one-fourth of the work interval duration. Anaerobic Endurance 无氧耐力 Anaerobic endurance (AE) is the ability to 无氧耐力(AE)是用大齿比高踏频运转时耐 resist fatigue at high cadence while turning a 受疲劳的能力。对高级运动员来说,它是速 big gear. In advanced athletes, it is the blending 度技能和耐力相结合的能力。在需要长程冲 of speed skill and endurance. Anaerobic 刺来决定名次的比赛中,无氧耐力是胜利的 6
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 6 RACING ABILITIES 第 6 章 竞赛能力 endurance is fundamental to races in which 基础。能够以冲刺速度保持骑行几百米的车 long sprints determine success. A rider with the 手通常能决定比赛的结果,不管集体领骑还 ability to maintain sprint speed for several 是个人突破。在需要单独行动来弥合与前方 hundred meters can often dictate the outcome 对手差距时,这些车手同样需要表现出无氧 of a race either as a strong lead-out or as a solo effort. AE is also present in the rider who is 耐力的能力。另一个需要这项能力的地方是 capable of single-handedly bridging a gap. 在攀登只需几分钟到顶的陡坡的时候。在短 Another time when this ability is needed is 距离,快速的竞赛中,比如绕圈赛,多次的 when climbing steep hills that take only a 突然急剧加速会考验你的无氧耐力水平。这 couple of minutes to ascend. In short, fast 样快速的负荷变化会产生大量乳酸。没有很 events such as criteriums, AE is challenged by 好培养出自己无氧耐力的车手会因乳酸盐累 the many surges that take place. Such rapid 积而迅速疲劳。 changes of effort cause the creation of high levels of lactic acid. Without well-developed anaerobic endurance a rider would quickly fatigue as lactate accumulates. From this discussion, it should be evident 从以上讨论中可以明显看出,任何想在最高 that any rider who wants to compete at the 级别比赛中胜出的车手都必须强化自己的无 highest levels must fully hone his or her 氧耐力。但是对新手来说,无氧耐力训练是 anaerobic endurance. But for the novice, AE 要避免的,至少第一年是如此。这一类的训 training is to be avoided for at least the first year. This is a very successful type of training 练在导致受伤,过度训练和生理/心理衰竭方 that is most likely to lead to injury, 面简直太成功了。另外这类训练对训练后的 overtraining, and burnout. The recovery 恢复方面的要求也是最高的。 requirements for this type of training are also the highest of any. There are two types of anaerobic- 有两种类型的无氧耐力训练方式。两者都是 endurance workouts. Both are interval-based. 基于间隔式的。一种是大致在你最高水平的 One is done at a power output roughly 有氧能力下能够输出的最大功率上进行。如 equivalent to what you would experience at the 果你有一块功率表,这就是你的 CP6 区。如 highest levels of your aerobic capacity (VO2max). If you have a powermeter, this is 果你只有心率表或者靠个人感知发挥度来掌 your CP6 zone. If you train only with a heart 握强度,心率区间是 5b,按 6-20 划分的感 rate monitor or ratings of perceived exertion, 知发挥级别(RPE)是 18-19。每次做功间 the heart rate zone is 5b and the RPE is 18 to 歇时长大约三分钟,恢复时长也是一样。随 19 on the 6 to 20 scale. The work intervals are 着赛季的进展和身体素质的增强,做功时长 about three minutes long with equal recovery 要逐渐缩短。 intervals. As the season progresses and fitness improves, the work intervals are shortened. The second type of AE interval workout 无氧耐力训练的第二种方式是让你体验 prepares you for the stresses common when 常常在反复冲击下产生的压力。以极高的功 repeated surges occur. Short repetitions (less 率输出完成间歇之后(不到一分钟)只有很 than a minute long) at very high power outputs 短时间的恢复,然后继续下一次重复。这和 are completed with only short recoveries between them. This is exactly what you 你在绕圈赛中遇到的情况完全一样。这种训 experience in a criterium. The idea of these 练的思路是压迫和刺激体内清除和缓冲乳酸 workouts is to challenge the body’s lactate- 盐的系统,最终使你能很快地排除和适应这 7
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 6 RACING ABILITIES 第 6 章 竞赛能力 clearance and buffering system so that 么大量的乳酸盐,从而使得如此苛刻的比赛 eventually you will be able to remove and cope 变地相对轻松些 ―― 不过想达到这一点可 with so much lactate so quickly that staying 不容易哦。这可不是你愿意经常参与或持续 with such a demanding event becomes 数周的那类训练,这是所有的训练中最要求 considerably easier – but never easy. It is not the sort of training you want to do frequently or 最高也最累人的。 for many weeks. This is the most demanding of all workouts. Power 力度 Power is the ability to apply maximum force in 力度是在尽可能短的时间内爆发出最大力量 the shortest time possible. It results from 的能力。它来自于你所拥有的两种高水准的 having high levels of the basic abilities of force 基础能力――力量和速度技能。在爬短坡 and speed skills. Well-developed power, or the 时,以及冲刺和突然的节奏变化时,就能明 lack of it, is obvious on short hills, in sprints, and in sudden pace changes. 显看出你的力度能力是否培养好了。 Since it is based on the speed skills and 因为它基于三角形中速度技能和力量两 force components of the triangle, power is in 项能力,力度涉及到神经系统和肌肉系统的 the realms of the nervous and muscular 控制。它依赖于神经系统向合适的肌肉群发 systems. It’s dependent on the nervous system 出信号,在合适的时机激发它们收缩,这时 to send signals to the proper muscles, initiating their contraction at just the right times. The 肌肉群必须爆发出巨大的收缩力量。 muscles then must produce a large contraction force. Training for greater power involves short, 为了增强力度而进行的训练包括:短暂的, all-out efforts in the power CP0.2 zone or at 全力以赴的出力,功率区域在 CP0.2,或者感 RPE 20 followed by long recoveries to allow 知发挥度(RPE) 20,然后是长时间的恢复 the nervous system and muscles to fully 以使神经和肌肉系统完全恢复。不充分的恢 recover. Inadequate recovery will diminish the value of this workout. These repetitions are 复会削弱训练的价值。每次重复回合的出力 quite short – on the neighborhood of eight to 时间相当短,大约是 8-12 秒,或者更少一 twelve seconds or less. Heart rate monitors are 些。心率表在力度训练中没有用处。 of no use in power training. Attempting to improve power while 试图在疲劳时做力度训练只会适得其反。这 fatigued is counterproductive. Such training is 种训练最好是在已经休息好了以后做,在每 best done when you are rested and early in a 次训练的开始时候做,这时神经系统和肌肉 training session when the nervous system and 是最灵敏的。这并不是说你绝对不能在每次 muscles are most responsive. This is not to say that you should never work on sprinting late in 训练的后期练习冲刺。你应该在赛季中安排 a workout. You should at some time in the 某段时间专门练习在疲倦的时候冲刺,就象 season prepare to sprint when tired as that is 在竞赛中常常发生的那样。但是当你想要在 what usually happens in a race. But when 赛季初期改善力度能力的话,记住一定要等 trying to improve power earlier in the season 完全恢复好了以后做。 be sure to be well-recovered. 8
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 6 RACING ABILITIES 第 6 章 竞赛能力 Limiters and Racing 限制因素和比赛 Let’s return to the discussion of limiters, which 让我们回到限制因素的讨论中来,限制因素 were previously defined as race-specific 在前文中定义为比赛特定的弱项。到目前为 weaknesses. By now you should have a good 止,你应该对自己有哪些生理能力上的限制 idea of what your physical ability limiters are. 因素有了很好的认识。耐力,力量和速度技 The basic abilities of endurance, force, and speed skill are easily identified. The advanced 能这些基础能力可以容易地鉴别出来。对高 abilities are somewhat more difficult to 级能力的认识有些难度,但因为更高级的技 recognize. But since the higher abilities are 能是基于基础能力的组合,一项基础能力弱 based on the combination of the basic abilities, 就会造成一项高级能力弱。例如,如果你的 a weakness in basic abilities produces a 耐力比较弱,那么它就会限制你的肌肉耐力 weakness in the higher abilities. For example, 和无氧耐力。如果耐力好但缺乏力量,肌肉 if your endurance is weak it will limit both 耐力和力度都会受到负面影响。速度技能糟 muscular endurance and anaerobic endurance. 糕意味着低的力度和低水准的无氧耐力。 If endurance is good but force is lacking, muscular endurance and power are negatively affected. Poor speed skill means low power and inferior anaerobic endurance. As mentioned, the types of races you do 如前所述,你所参加的竞赛类型决定了 determine what strengths are needed and how 你需要什么样的强项以及你的弱项会怎样拖 your weaknesses limit you. Matching your 你的后腿。让你的能力与比赛的要求相吻合 abilities to the demands of the event is critical 是取胜的关键。让我们来看一下具体是怎么 for success. Let’s examine how that works. 做的。 Race Prescription 竞赛处方 There are several variables that define the 公路自行车赛的要求取决于多个变数。例 demands of a road race. For example, races 如,竞赛要求的里程不同,地形特征,如山 vary not only in course length, but also in 地,拐弯也不同。其他的变数包括风,温度 terrain characteristics such as hills and corners. 和湿度。也许公路竞赛中最大的变数就是竞 Other variables include wind, temperature, and humidity. Perhaps the most significant variable 争。让你的生理素质符合于对你来说最重要 in road racing is the competition. Matching 的比赛——这也是你训练的目标——的要求 your physical fitness to the demands of the 才能产生最好的结果。 most important events for which you are training produces the best results. The longer the race is, the more it favors 竞赛的时间越长就越倚重基础能力,反之, the basic abilities. Conversely, the shorter the 竞赛时间越短,则高级能力就越重要。当你 race, the more important the higher abilities 为一场较长距离的竞赛作准备时,耐力的重 are. In preparing for a longer race, endurance is 要性是压倒一切的,但需要爬山时则力量也 paramount, but force is also necessary to deal with hills, and good fuel economy resulting 是绝对必要,好的速度技能可以更经济地节 from good speed skill conserves energy. 约能量。肌肉耐力也会发挥重要的作用,但 Muscular endurance plays an important role, 相比之下,无氧耐力和力度的训练的意义不 9
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 6 RACING ABILITIES 第 6 章 竞赛能力 but training for anaerobic endurance and power 大。 is of less value. In the same way, a short race such as a 同样的道理,短距离竞赛,比如绕圈 criterium favors the higher abilities, especially 赛,倚重的是高级能力,特别是无氧耐力和 anaerobic endurance and power. That doesn’t 力度。这并不意味着耐力和力量就不需要, mean that endurance and force aren’t needed, 只不过它们不象在耐力型比赛中那么重要而 just not to the same extent as for the endurance events. Speed skill training is critical for short 已。速度技能训练对短距离竞赛很关键,肌 races, and muscular endurance also plays a 肉耐力也有一定作用。 role. Training for an important event means 为一场重要的比赛而准备训练,意味着 first deciding what is important for success and 首先要决定哪些是获胜所需的最重要的因 then improving your weaknesses that don’t 素,然后改进你的那些不符合竞赛要求的弱 match the demands of the event, while 项,与此同时还要保持那些符合要求的强项 maintaining strengths that already fit its demands. 的能力。 Other Limiters 其他的限制因素 Besides the event-specific ability limiters 除去已经讨论过的与特定比赛相关的能力方 discussed here, there are other factors that may 面的限制因素以外,还有一些其他方面的因 also hold you back from achieving race goals. 素也许会阻止你达成目标。最重要的一个就 One of the most critical is a lack of time to 是缺少训练时间。这可能是最常见的限制因 train. This is perhaps the most common limiter. If this is a limiter for you, when designing a 素了。如果这也是你的限制因素,那么在设 program consider that the specificity of training 计你的训练计划的时候,多考虑一下第三章 discussed in Chapter 3 becomes increasingly 讨论过的训练的确定性。你可用于训练的时 important as the hours available to work out 间越少,那么这个原则就越重要。换句话 diminish. In other words, when time becomes 说,当训练时间变得稀缺时,你的训练就必 scarce, your training must increasingly 须更加接近比赛。训练量下降了,但针对比 simulate racing. So as volume declines, 赛的训练强度相应提高了。在下一章我会帮 workout intensity specific to the event 助你确定每周需要多少训练时间才是合理和 increases. The next chapter will help you decide how many weekly training hours are 必要的。 reasonable and necessary. 能力 训练 间歇 目标 恢复 RPE 心率 功率 功效 举例 次数* 训练 心率 *** 区域 输出 时间 区域 ** 时间 耐力 1-4/ 20'-6 无 无 2-6 1-3 CP180 a.延缓疲 平坦路面 周 hrs. 劳 上,3hrs 连续 b.发展慢 肌 c.运动效 率 力量 1-2/ 20- 30"-2' 1:2 7-9 4-5b CP12- a.肌肉力 重复地坐着 10
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 6 RACING ABILITIES 第 6 章 竞赛能力 周 90' 60 量 爬坡 间歇 b.运动效 率 速度技 1-4/ 20- 10- 1:2-5 9-10 无 CP1 a.高踏频 30" 快速蹬 能 周 90' 30" b.运动效 踏 率 肌肉耐 1-2/ 30-2 6-20' 3-4:1 7-8 4-5a CP30- a.力量耐 间歇训练 力 周 hrs. 90 力 4x6'(2' RI) 间歇/ b.适应竞 持续 赛节奏 c.提升 LT 下的 速度 无氧耐 1-2/ 30- 3-6' 2:1-2 9 5b CP6 a.提高 5x5'(5' RI) 力 周 90' 30- 2-3:1 VO2max 40" b.提升 4x(4x40”(20” VO2max RI)) 下的速度 每组间 5’ RI c.清除乳 酸盐能力 d.乳酸盐 耐受力 力度 1-3/ 20- 8-12" 1:10 10 无 CP0.2 a.肌肉力 10x8"(80" 周 90' 度 RI) b.快速启 动能力 c.爬短坡 能力 d.冲刺能 力 * 可根据个人情况,赛季不同时期和可供训练的时间而相应变化 ** 每次训练总的时间,包括为培养该项能力的出力时间 *** 出力时间和恢复时间之间的比率,例如,3:1 意味着每出力 3 分钟,休息时间就有 1 分钟 注: '=分钟, "=秒, hrs=小时, Rl = 每次间歇的恢复(休息)时间 Table 6.1 Summary of Abilities 图 6.1 比赛能力汇总表 Training of Abilities 能力的训练 As you can see from the brief discussion of 从以上对诸能力的简单讨论中,你可以看到 abilities, there are training patterns that 一种从一般性发展到针对性的训练模式。图 progress from the general to the very specific. 6.3 表现了这个概念。在年度训练的开始, Figure 6.3 illustrates this concept. At the start 很多功课实际上都是一般性的,这意味着可 of the training year, much of the work is general in nature, meaning that it may not 以不用骑车或者以非常规方式骑车,比如做 include a bicycle or may involve riding in an 练习时。力量(力气)训练是一个从一般性 unusual fashion, as when doing drills. Force 训练过渡到针对性训练的好例子。在训练年 (strength) training serves as a good example of 度的早期,举重锻炼占据了训练时间的很大 the progression from general to specific. Early 一部分;到了冬季的后期,举重房里的训练 in the training year, weight workouts take up a 减少了,而爬山训练的次数增加了——特别 large portion of training time. Later in the 是使用大齿比,低踏频的情况下。最终,运 winter, weight room training is cut back as the 动员可能过渡到重复爬坡或者爬坡式的间歇 11
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 6 RACING ABILITIES 第 6 章 竞赛能力 number of hilly rides increases – especially in a 训练,最后过渡到爬坡式的比赛――这也是 high gear with low cadence. Eventually, the 最有针对性的有关力量的功课。 athlete may progress to hill repeats or hill inter- vals, and, finally, to racing on hilly courses – the most specific of force-related work. Each ability has a unique method of 每种比赛能力的培养都有一个和它相关的贯 training associated with it throughout the 穿整个训练季的独特训练方式。下面会简明 season. Here is a brief and simplified summary 扼要地总结一下如何在整个赛季期间训练这 of how to train abilities from the start of the 些能力。在第八章将会给出更多的关于如何 season through the end. Chapter 8 will provide details of how to blend all of the abilities, and 混合训练各种能力的细节,而在第九章将会 Chapter 9 will furnish workout menus and the 提供训练科目表,以及如何针对每种能力选 criteria for selecting workouts for each of these 择相应的训练方式。 abilities. Figure 6.3 General to specific training emphasis 图 6.3 贯彻全年的强调从一般性到针对性的 throughout the training year 训练 Endurance 耐力 Endurance training starts in early winter with 耐力训练从初冬开始,采用有氧的交叉训练 aerobic crosstraining activities such as Nordic 活动,比如越野滑雪或单排轮滑。这些训练 skiing or in-line skating. These modes of 模式可以给心,肺,血液和血管足够的压 training will provide enough stress to the heart, 力,从而提高它们的耐力水平。在冬季中 lungs, blood, and blood vessels to improve their endurance qualities. By mid-winter, the 期,训练课要逐渐过渡到车上训练,并逐渐 program calls for a gradual phasing-in of on- 减少并排除交叉训练。在冬季晚期或初春, bike training and the gradual elimination of 应该逐渐增加骑行距离,直到和下一赛季中 crosstraining. Late-winter or early-spring rides 最远的比赛距离一样长。到这个时候,你已 should increase until they are at least as long as 经培养出了很好的耐力水平,并开始喜欢在 the longest race of the upcoming season. By 耐力训练中穿插的高强度锻炼。从上赛季结 this point, you have already established a good 束到新训练季的基础期开始之前的这一段过 level of stamina and you begin to favor high- 渡时期里,你可以用交叉训练方式来维持最 intensity workouts over endurance training. During the Transition period from the end of 低的耐力水平。 the race season to the beginning of the Base 12
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 6 RACING ABILITIES 第 6 章 竞赛能力 period, you can maintain a minimum level of endurance with crosstraining. Force 力量 Force development begins in early winter with 力量能力的培养从初冬的举重房里的训练开 training in the weight room. If you have 始。如果你遵循训练计划的话,你会在接近 followed the schedule, you should attain the 冬季中期的基础期 1 结束前获得所需的最大 maximum strength necessary by the end of 力量。然后你应把重点转向在车上提升你的 Base 1 near mid-winter. You should then shift your emphasis toward improving your force 力量。根据天气状况,晚冬是最佳的开始爬 when on the bike. Depending on the weather, 山的时间。接着,山地骑行会演化为间歇式 late winter is the best time to begin riding in 爬坡和重复式爬坡训练,具体选择取决于你 the hills. Later, hill work may evolve into hill 的弱项。通过举重和爬山训练,车手可以在 intervals and repeats, depending on your 整个赛季里维持其力量水平。这对女性和老 weaknesses. A rider can work to maintain 将们尤其有帮助。 strength throughout the season with weight room training and hill work. This is especially helpful for women and masters. Speed Skill 速度技能 As with force, speed-skill development 与力量能力一样,速度技能的培养会提升蹬 improves pedaling economy. Frequent drill 踏的效率。经常地做高踏频练习,特别是在 work, especially in the winter months, teaches 冬季,能够教会大小肌肉群何时放松何时收 big and small muscles exactly when to contract 缩。当与蹬踏相关的肌肉群能够精确和谐地 and when to relax. As the muscles involved in pedaling are activated with precise harmony, 运动时,你就能节约很多宝贵的能量。正如 precious fuel is conserved. Just as with 耐力和力量训练一样,速度技能的训练也是 endurance and force, speed skill training begins 从深秋或初冬开始,取决于你的比赛日程, in the late fall or early winter, depending on the 并在余下的整个赛季中维持在一个稳定的级 race schedule, and continues at a maintenance 别。 level throughout the rest of the season. Muscular Endurance 肌肉耐力 Muscular-endurance work begins in mid-winter 肌肉耐力训练从冬季中期开始,方式是在心 with sustained efforts of several minutes in the 率区间 3 或者功率区间 CP90 持续出力。到 heart rate zone 3 or power zone CP90. By late 了冬季晚期时,要逐渐过渡到在心率区间 4 winter, it gradually progresses to interval 和 5a 或者功率区间 CP30 到 CP60 之间的间 training in the heart rate zones 4 and 5a or CP30 to CP60. The work intervals gradually 歇训练。每次间歇的出力时段逐渐加长,而 get longer as the recovery intervals shorten. By 恢复时段逐渐缩短。到了春季,运动员要能 spring, the athlete is riding up to an hour in 够在这个强度上骑行一个小时。这个练习很 these zones. The effort is much like 象受控制的个人计时赛,对提升有氧能力和 “controlled” time trialing and tremendously 无氧适应力极其有效,而且几乎没有过度训 effective in boosting both aerobic and 13
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 6 RACING ABILITIES 第 6 章 竞赛能力 anaerobic fitness with little risk of overtraining. 练的风险。在整个比赛期,你需要保持已有 Throughout the Race period, muscular 的肌肉耐力水平。 endurance is maintained. Power 力度 Power may be the most misunderstood aspect 力度可能是自行车训练中最易被误解的方 of training in cycling. Most athletes do sprints 面。大部分运动员尝试改善力度水平的训练 with brief recovery periods to try to improve 方式是夹杂短暂的恢复期的反复冲刺。但他 their power. They are really working on 们练的其实是无氧耐力。改善力度的方法其 anaerobic endurance. You can improve power with brief sprints at near maximum exertion 实是以接近最大努力的短暂冲刺加上长时间 followed by long recovery intervals. Natural 恢复期的间歇训练。天生的冲刺好手喜欢这 sprinters love these workouts. Those with little 样的锻炼。那些力度不足的车手——他们拥 power – riders possessing great endurance and 有极好的耐力以及很差的速度技能或力 little speed skill or force – find power workouts 量――会觉得力度训练痛苦不堪而害怕做这 painful and dread doing them. For these 类锻炼。对这些车手来说,把速度技能和力 cyclists the blending of speed skill and force 量训练融合为力度水平的提高,将会使他们 training into power development will lead to an 在开始冲刺时有明显的飞跃。 effective jump at the start of sprints Anaerobic Endurance 无氧耐力 Anaerobic-endurance training includes aerobic 无氧耐力训练包括培养有氧能力的间歇训练 capacity-developing intervals and lactate 和重复性的乳酸耐受式训练。在发展期开始 tolerance repetitions. At the start of the Build 时,有经验的运动员会引入间歇训练以使自 period of training, the experienced athlete 己的有氧能力到达顶峰。在发展期的最后几 should phase into interval training to bring his or her aerobic capacity to a peak. During the 个星期里,乳酸耐受训练使身体能够从血液 last weeks of the Build period, lactate-tolerance 中的尽快排出乳酸盐并缓冲它的影响。无氧 work trains the body to dissipate lactate from 耐力训练的强度非常大,所以新车手不应该 the blood and to buffer its usual effects. 考虑这种类型的训练。在有计划地尝试这类 Anaerobic-endurance training is quite stressful 训练项目之前,你应该已经训练了至少两年 and should not be a part of the novice cyclist’s 来建立良好的速度技能和耐力。过于心急地 regimen. Both speed skill and endurance 进行过多的无氧耐力训练很可能会导致力竭 should be well established with at least two 和训练过度。 years of training before regularly attempting these workouts. The likely results of too much anaerobic-endurance work too soon are burnout and overtraining. Ability Regions 能力区间 In this section, it may sound as if I’m 这一节的内容听上去好象是我在鼓励你去专 encouraging you to specialize in a particular 攻某些特定类型的比赛。其实不是这样的。 category of races. I’m not. My purpose here is 我的目的是向你展示如何把前面谈过的六项 to show you how to blend the six abilities 能力融合起来并在特定类型的比赛中发挥出 14
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 6 RACING ABILITIES 第 6 章 竞赛能力 previously discussed to produce optimal 最好的成绩。在有些比赛中,你的强项能使 performance for specific types of races. Your 你处于有利位置,但可能你还是需要改善某 strengths will favor success in some of these, 些限制因素后才能取得完全的优势。另外本 but it is likely that you will still need to 节内容这还能帮助你了解怎样把强项和限制 improve limiters for complete mastery. It will also help you to begin seeing how strengths 因素融合进一个全面的训练规划里。 and limiters are blended into a comprehensive training program. To understand the requirements of various 为了帮助你理解各种不同类型的比赛的 types of races, it is helpful to further refine the 要求,我们把三角形进一步细化,如图 6.4 triangle as in Figure 6.4. 所示。 Figure 6.4 Racing abilities regions 图 6.4 竞赛能力区域图 Note that the triangle is divided into six 三角形被划分为六个区域,每个区域代 regions, each representing a specific set of 表一个特定的能力要求集合。现在基于你已 ability requirements. By now, you should be 经知道的自己的强项,你应该可以在这些区 able to position yourself within one of the 域中找到你自己的位置。例如,如果耐力是 regions based on your known strengths. For example, if endurance is your number one 你最强的能力,而力量排第二,那么你就是 ability and force is second, then you are a 区域 I 车手 —— 肌肉耐力很强,并偏向耐 region I cyclist – high in muscular endurance 力。如果你有两到三种自然能力的水平相当 with a tendency toward endurance. If two or all 的话,你最擅长的技术也许会帮助你定位。 three of the natural abilities are equal for you, 例如,冲刺好手通常是在速度技能的区域 then your proficiencies may help define your (IV-V),爬坡好手在力量区域(II-III),而 region. Sprinters usually fit into the speed skill 计时赛好手在耐力区域(I-VI)。 regions (IV-V), climbers into the force regions (II-III), and time trialists into the endurance regions (I-VI). Races may also be divided into these same 比赛也可以根据其类型,距离和地形划 six regions based on their type, distance, and 分为同样的六个区域。如果你是个区域 I 的 terrain. If you are a region I cyclist, then you 车手,那么你在区域 I 的比赛中就会发挥得 will do best in region I races. The ability 最好。能力区域三角图还可以帮助你确定需 regions triangle also helps you decide what to work on in order to perform better in any of the 要如何努力才能在其它区域的比赛中表现得 other regions. 更好。 Following is a race description by ability 以下将描述按能力区域划分的不同类型 regions and a prioritizing of the abilities you 15
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 6 RACING ABILITIES 第 6 章 竞赛能力 must train for each type. Obviously, your 比赛,以及按优先级排列的你必须为之训练 strengths will require less training time than 的各种比赛能力。当然,相比于你的强项方 your limiters. Chapter 8 will teach you how to 面,你应该在你的限定因素方面花费更多的 blend the training of the various abilities, and 训练时间。第 8 章将会教你怎么把各种能力 Chapter 9 will provide detailed workouts to support each of these ability requirements. 的训练合在一起,第 9 章会提供详细的训练 科目来满足每种比赛能力的需要。 The priorities of training that are listed 注意每一个区域里列出的训练的优先级 here for each region do not imply an order of 并非训练的顺序,而只是训练的重要性指 training, but rather an emphasis in training. 标。因为你的训练会受到时间和精力方面的 Given that you have time and energy 限制(工作,家庭,修缮房子之类),所以 constraints placed on your training (career, family, home maintenance, etc.), it is necessary 必须要确定什么是最重要的,从而让你更好 to decide what is most important in order to 地抓住重点。如果某个列表的前三项能力中 properly focus. If any of the first three abilities 有任何一项是你的弱项,而这类比赛又是你 in a given list is a personal weakness, and this 的训练年度中的 A 级赛事,那么你在训练时 is the type of A-priority race you are training 就必须要把这些弱项能力的提高放到最优先 for, then you must elevate the identified ability 的位置。优先级列表中的最后三项对该类型 to first priority when it comes to training. The 比赛的价值很有限,但是不要避开这类训 last three abilities in each priority list have 练,还是应该花费少量时间和精力在上面。 limited value for the type of race for which you’re training. Do not avoid these areas, but 如果你的某个强项成为列表中的最后三项能 do assign them less training time and energy. If 力之一的话,那么你只需要对其稍加留意就 a strength area falls into one of the last three 可以了。要知道你不可能所有的方面都强。 abilities, you need place only minor emphasis 另外还要认识到我们是在限制因素概念的指 on it. Realize that you can’t be good at 导下训练。也就是说确定是什么东西拖了你 everything. And also realize that we are 的后腿,然后强化这个弱项。 working within the concept of limiters. Determine what’s holding you back and then correct that weakness. Region I 区域 I Region I includes the long, flat to rolling races 区域 I 包括那种长距离的路面平坦的比赛, that are so common in the northwestern 这种比赛在西北欧国家如荷兰和比利时是很 European countries of the Netherlands and 常见的;但是在美国,超过 100 英里的比赛 Belgium. In the United States, races of more 越来越难找了。风向,团队战术和坚韧的意 than 100 miles are becoming harder to find. Wind direction, team tactics, and mental 志很大程度上决定了比赛的结果。拥有绝佳 tenacity go a long way toward determining the 耐力和计时赛专长的车手很可能成为胜者, outcome of those races. Riders with excellent 虽然这些比赛也可能最终会以集体冲刺收 endurance and time trialing proficiency are 场。 likely to emerge victorious. These races are also likely to come down to a pack sprint. Also included in this region are time trials 这个区域的比赛还包括 30 公里或更长 that are 30 kilometers or longer. Indeed, time 的计时赛。的确,计时赛专长是区域 I 比赛 trialing proficiency is critical to performance in 水平发挥的关键。如果你的弱项是计时赛, region I races. If your weakness is time trialing, 那么你需要把大量精力放在肌肉耐力的训练 16
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 6 RACING ABILITIES 第 6 章 竞赛能力 you need to put a great deal of emphasis on 上,才有可能在比赛中表现好。相比于他们 muscular-endurance training in order to race 的有氧能力和最大功率输出而言,好的计时 well. Good time trialists have exceptional 赛车手都有超乎常人的乳酸盐阈值。他们能 lactate thresholds relative to their aerobic 长期保持空气动力学姿势舒适骑行,并具有 capacities and maximum power outputs. They develop the ability to ride comfortably in an 高效率蹬踏的能力。他们还具有在承受巨大 aerodynamic position and minimize wasted 痛苦时保持专注的超强能力。 energy in pedaling. They also have superior ability to concentrate despite great suffering. Priorities for region I training 区域 I 训练的优先级顺序 Primary importance 最重要的: Endurance 耐力 Muscular endurance 肌肉耐力 Force Secondary importance 力量 Anaerobic endurance 次重要的: Speed skill 无氧耐力 Power 速度技能 力度 Region II 区域 II Region II races include time trials of about 15 区域 II 比赛包括了 15-30 公里的计时赛以 to 30 kilometers and road races of less than 及少于 3 小时的公路赛。爬坡往往是决定这 three hours. Hills are usually the element that 类比赛结果的主要因素。这类公路比赛是在 determines outcomes. These are common road 美国最常见的。 races in U.S. cycling. Climbing is a central proficiency skill for 爬坡是区域 II 的核心技能。是什么造就 region II. What makes for champion climbers? 了爬坡冠军呢?通常他们身高和体重的比例 Typically, they have less than two pounds of 是平均每英寸身高少于两磅。他们的单位体 body weight for every inch of height. They are 重所产生的输出功率更高,并能保持这种做 capable of generating high wattage per pound of body weight in sustained efforts. This 功状态。这需要在乳酸阈值状态下的较高的 requires a high lactate threshold-power output 功率输出以及较大的有氧能力。天生的爬坡 and a large aerobic capacity. Natural climbers 手有高效的爬坡方式,在站立式爬坡时的蹬 have an economical climbing style and are 踏也特别灵巧。 especially nimble on the pedals when out of the saddle on a climb. 17
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 6 RACING ABILITIES 第 6 章 竞赛能力 Priorities for region II training 区域 II 训练的优先级顺序 Primary importance 最重要的: Force 力量 Muscular endurance 肌肉耐力 Endurance Secondary importance 耐力 Power 次重要的: Speed skill 力度 Anaerobic endurance 速度技能 无氧耐力 Region III 区域 III Region III in road racing is found only in short 区域 III 类型的公路赛只出现在分段式公路 prologues of stage races. These are generally 赛的短距离序幕战中。这些比赛一般都是几 individual time trials on hilly courses taking 分钟就能完成的山地路段的个人计时赛。正 only a few minutes to complete. As such, there 因如此,车手们没有必要为此类比赛专项训 is no need for the road racer to train for these events. The stage racer must simply grin and 练。他们只需要咬咬牙忍过这段痛苦就行 bear the agony. 了。 Region IV 区域 IV Region IV is in the domain of the track racer, 区域 IV 是场地车手的领域,特别是追逐冲 especially the match sprinter. Training for this 刺选手。关于该区域的训练不在本书的范围 region is not within the scope of this book. 之内。 Region V 区域 V Region V includes short criteriums that are 区域 V 包括短距离的绕圈赛,这是许多老将 typical of many masters, women’s, and juniors 级车手,女性车手和新手们的典型比赛。这 races. These are forty-five minutes or less and 些比赛的时间通常为 45 分钟或者更短,并 18
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 6 RACING ABILITIES 第 6 章 竞赛能力 have a high requirement for speed skill and 对速度技能和无氧耐力有很高的要求。你还 anaerobic endurance. You must also realize 必须认识到,虽然比赛时间短,冲刺也很 that while this is a short event with much 多,但它仍然式耐力性比赛。不要忽视了这 sprinting, it is still an endurance race. Don’t 项主要能力的培养。 disregard the development of this primary ability. Short criteriums attract riders who are 短距离绕圈赛对好的冲刺型车手很有吸 good sprinters. They usually have great total 引力。他们身体的总体力量较强,能够在瞬 body strength and a capacity to produce 间爆发出极高的功率输出。这种爆发力通常 extremely high power outputs instantaneously. 表现为能垂直弹跳离地超过 22 英寸(56 厘 This power is often marked by the ability to produce vertical jumps in excess of 22 inches. 米)。冠军级冲刺手有象体操运动员一样的 Champion sprinters have the dynamic balance 动态平衡能力,并能够以超高的踏频驱动曲 of a gymnast and can turn the cranks at 柄。在贴身肉搏式的冲刺中,他们表现地非 extremely high cadences. In close-quarters 常勇猛,决不会去想“如果…会怎么样”之 sprints, they race aggressively with no thought 类的问题。他们非常自信有能力赢得这类差 given to “what would happen if . . .” — they 之毫厘的比赛。 are confident in their ability to win the close one. Priorities for region V training 区域 V 训练的优先级顺序 Primary importance 最重要的: Speed skill 速度技能 Anaerobic endurance 无氧耐力 Endurance Secondary importance 耐力 Power 次重要的: Force 力度 Muscular endurance 力量 肌肉耐力 Region VI 区域 VI Region VI races are long criteriums and circuit 区域 VI 类的比赛是长距离的绕圈赛和巡回 races. This is the most common type of race in 赛。这是美国最常见的比赛类型。要注意绕 the United States. Notice that the primary 圈赛需要的主要能力仍然是耐力。当然和长 quality of criterium racing is still endurance. 距离的公路赛比起来,绕圈赛需要的耐力能 Criteriums, however, requires less endurance ability than do longer road races. The ability to 力稍低一些。保持速度和出弯道时的重复性 maintain speed and repeatedly sprint out of 冲刺的能力对取得胜利所必需的,另外在过 corners is necessary for success, as are superb 弯,挤撞和保持平衡时也需要极好的控车技 19
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 6 RACING ABILITIES 第 6 章 竞赛能力 bike handling skills when cornering, bumping, 术。 and balancing. If in a particular race, a hill or hills are the 如果在某个比赛中,一座或多座山是决 deciding factor, then force may replace speed 定性的因素时,力量会取代速度技能成为获 skill as a success characteristic. 胜所需的条件。 Priorities for region VI training 区域 VI 训练的优先级顺序 Primary importance 最重要的: Endurance 耐力 Anaerobic endurance 无氧耐力 Speed skill Secondary importance 速度技能 Muscular endurance 次重要的: Force 肌肉耐力 Power 力量 力度 20
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 7 Planning to Race 第 7 章 为比赛而计划 Chapter 7 PLANNING TO 第7章 为比赛而计划 RACE The method is the same for you as it is for 你的训练方法和专业运动员 The pros. What is different is the workload. 一样,不同的只是运动量。 – MICHELE FERRARI, ――MICHELE FERRARI Italian cycling coach 意大利自行车教练 Why do you train? Is it to enjoy fresh air, the 你为什么而训练?是为了享受新鲜空气,朋 companionship of friends, travel to exotic 友间的友谊,或者是异国的情调,健美的身 places, and the feeling of fitness? Or is it to 材吗?抑或是为了体验达到自身极限的那种 prepare for the peak experience of racing near 高潮感觉? your limits? Certainly all of these play a part in getting 当然所有这些因素都或多或少使你下决 you out the door and onto a saddle, but since 心走出家门跨上单车,但对于那些读这本书 you’re reading this book, I suspect the latter 的人来说,我觉得后一种选择是正确的。我 choice is correct. All of us want to see how 们都很渴望了解自己到底能骑多快,到底有 well we can perform, to get new glimpses of our potential, to push the limits of fitness, and 多大的潜能,能否达到身体的极限,以及享 to bask in the glow of success. 受胜利的光芒。 This chapter lays the groundwork for 本章是第 8 章和第 9 章的基础。在后两 chapter 8 and 9, in which you will develop 章中主要讨论如何建立适合个人的训练计 your own personalized training plan. 划。 Training Systems 训练系统 Cyclists typically gravitate to one of three 一共有 3 种训练系统,每种训练系统都产生 training systems in order to prepare for racing. 过冠军。骑车们在准备比赛时,往往会倾向 Each has produced champions. Most athletes 于选择其中的一个,虽然他们自己往往没有 don’t consciously select a system – it just 感觉 ―― 而事实就是这样。 每天当他们骑 happens. They roll out of the driveway every day and then do what they feel like once on the 出家门口的车道时,要么是跟着自己在路上 road, or they meet with a group and let the top 的感觉骑,要么就是跟随队伍,由其中的资 riders determine the day’s workout. This is not 深车手决定当天的训练量。对于自行车手来 the way to achieve your true potential as a 说这么做达不到自身的真正潜力。通向比赛 bicycle racer. The road to racing success begins 成功之路的起点是有目的的训练:你必须先 with understanding where you are headed and 了解你的目标以及如何实现目标。用系统化 how you will get there. The starting point is a 的训练代替随心所欲的训练,否则你的潜能 decision to train purposefully. Until haphazard 将不太可能发挥。 workouts are replaced with systematic training, approaching your potential is highly unlikely. Selecting a training system has a lot to do 做出选择之前,让我们先考察一下这三 with this decision. Let’s examine the three 种被车手们经常使用的训练系统:以赛代 training systems most commonly used by 练,长期性素质训练,和周期性训练。 cyclists: race into shape, always fit, and 1
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 7 Planning to Race 第 7 章 为比赛而计划 periodization. Race into Shape 以赛代练 The most common training system used by 车手们最常用的训练系统就是以赛代练。这 cyclists is racing into shape. It traces its roots 可以追溯到早期的羊毛衫和钉鞋底时代 back to the days of wool jerseys and nail-on 【1】。即使在目前这个使用功率表,手变 cleats. Even in the age of the power-meters, 速和钛部件的年代,以赛代练仍然被大多数 fingertip shifters, and titanium components, racing into shape is still the system used by 车手们采用,因为它简单易行 ―― 只有两 most cyclists. It’s easy to do – there are only 步。 two steps. Step 1 involves building a large aerobic 第一步是建立一个基础的有氧能力,方 base by pedaling one thousand miles easily. 法是不那么费力地骑 1000 英里。几乎我认 Nearly every rider I talk with knows this 识的所有骑手都知道这个数字,提到它时也 number and speaks of it with quiet reverence. 都怀着相当的敬意【2】。有趣的是,1000 Interestingly, the thousand-mile goal does work well for some athletes. But it doesn’t work for 英里的目标适合某些运动员,但并非所有 everyone. For some, it is way too much, and 人。对有些人来说 1000 英里太长了,而对 for others it is simply not enough. 另一些人来说又太简单了。 Once you have established aerobic 当你建立了有氧耐力以后,就可进行第 endurance, step 2 commences: race. The idea is 二步了:比赛。方法是每个周末参加一次比 that by going to a race every weekend, and club 赛,以及每周三或周四参加一次俱乐部比 races at mid-week, a high level of fitness will 赛。这样就可以使身体素质保持在较高水 result. 平。 There are some good reasons to train this 这种训练方式有一定道理,最重要的理 way, the most important being that the fitness 由就是我们需要发展在比赛中用的着的身体 developed is specific to the demands of racing. 素质。还有什么比比赛更象比赛的?但是也 What could be more similar to racing than 存在一些问题。这种训练方式的结果不可预 racing? There are, however, some problems. Training this way is very unpredictable. It’s 测。很有可能会发生这种情况:身体素质的 just as likely that great fitness will occur at the 高峰在错误的时间来临,而不是在整个赛季 wrong time as at the right time relative to the 的最重要的比赛中来临。另一个问题是没有 most important races of the season. Another 计划休息时间。频繁的以赛代练会导致过度 problem is that there is no planned rest. Racing 训练,也很可能导致过早地出现力竭现象。 into shape frequently leads to overtraining. It is 每次你把车子停在出发线上时你都会投入情 also likely to lead to premature burnout. Every 感,短时间内投入的次数太多的话就会失去 time you put your wheel on a starting line there 热情。就好象你只有这么多火柴一样,如果 is an emotional investment. After some number of these in a short period of time the rider loses 把它们一下子都点光,身心就不愿意继续配 enthusiasm. It’s as if you have only so many 合了。 matches to burn and once they are all used up the body and mind are unwilling to continue. 2
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 7 Planning to Race 第 7 章 为比赛而计划 Always Fit 长期性素质训练 In warmer climates such as Florida, southern 在气候温暖的地带,比如佛罗里达,南加州 California, and Arizona, cyclists often try to 和亚利桑那,骑手们常常在整年中保持比赛 stay in racing shape year-round. The cooler 状态。由于冬天天气凉爽,适合户外比赛, weather and availability of training races 这也诱使他们每周都保持同样强度训练,从 throughout the winter entice them to keep a constant level of fitness by doing the same 而长期保持高水平的身体素质。而其他地方 training rides every week. Due to weather 的运动员由于天气原因则不能考虑这种训练 constraints, athletes in other parts of the 模式,这也是为什么阴雨天气和寒冷气候不 country never even consider this system. That’s 利于训练的原因之一【3】。 good reason why sloppy weather and frigid temperatures are probably an advantage for training. The greatest issues facing the always-fit 长期性素质训练面临的最大问题是会造 trainer are boredom and burnout. After 220 to 成乏味和力竭。经过 220-250 天的高强度 250 days of high-level training, an athlete 训练,运动员几乎象面包片一样被烤干了。 becomes toast. Burnout is not a pretty sight. All 力竭可不是好现象,所有对训练和比赛的热 interest in training, racing, and life in general vanishes. It sometimes takes months to regain 情和对人生的乐趣都消失了。有时车手需要 enthusiasm for riding, if it’s regained at all. 几个月时间才能恢复骑车的兴趣,如果还能 (Chapter 17 will discuss burnout in detail) 恢复的话(第 17 章将详细讨论力竭现 象)。 Another problem has to do with 另一个问题是生理学方面的。按照同样 physiology. After about twelve weeks of 方式训练 12 周后,提高将会停滞在一个平 training in the same way, improvement seems 台期。但身体素质的水平是不会停滞的,如 to plateau. And since fitness is never stagnant, 果不能提高的话,它就会下降。想要长久保 if it’s not improving, it must be getting worse. Trying to maintain fitness at a high level all the 持身体素质在一个较高水平是不可能的,我 time really means trying to minimize losses. It 们能做的只能是尽量把这种损失降到最小程 just doesn’t work. 度。 Periodization 周期性训练 Periodization is the system used by most 现在最成功的运动员都采用周期性训练,我 successful athletes today, and the one I propose 也建议你采用。Part IV 的剩余部分都将描述 you use. The rest of Part IV describes how to 如何将其融入你的训练中。 incorporate it into your training. In Chapter 6, I mentioned periodization in 在第 6 章,我提到周期性训练来源于罗 relation to the works of Romanian scientist Dr. 马尼亚科学家 Tudor Bompa 博士的著作,他 Tudor Bompa who contributed the foreword to 也是本书前言的作者。20 世纪 40 年代后 this book. In the late 1940s, Soviet sports 期,苏联的运动科学家发现运动能力的提高 scientists discovered that athletic performance improved by varying the training stress 是通过在全年中不断变换训练强度来实现, throughout the year rather than maintaining a 而不是靠保持一个不变的强度训练得到的。 constant training focus. This led to the 这就引出了在不同时间段采用不同训练强度 3
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 7 Planning to Race 第 7 章 为比赛而计划 development of annual training plans that 的年度训练计划。东德和罗马尼亚更深入地 varied the stress of training over periods of 发展了这个概念,为每个时期定义了不同的 time. The East Germans and Romanians further 目标,这样周期性训练系统就诞生了。其中 developed this concept by establishing goals Bompa 对这一概念的精细化所做的贡献最 for the various periods, and the system of periodization was born. Bompa so refined the 大,也被称为“周期划分之父”。他的开创 concept that he is known as the “father of 性著作,《训练原理和方法论》,为西方的 periodization”. His seminal work, Theory and 运动员们打开了这扇训练系统之门。该著作 Methodology of Training, introduced Western 的最新版本叫做《周期性训练,训练原理和 athletes to this training system. The most recent 方法论》。 edition of this work is called Periodization, Theory and Methodology of Training. While athletes and coaches have 现在运动员和教练们已经把周期性训练 “Westernized” periodization, they have done so “西方化”了,并且在没有科学帮助的条件 largely without the help of science. Scientific 下走了很远。因为对耐力运动员的长期训练 literature offers little in the way of direction as 计划,科学文献几乎没提出什么方向性指 to a long-term training approach for endurance athletes. 导。 The basic premise of all periodization 所有的周期性训练计划都有一个基本前 programs is that training should progress from 提,那就是应该由一般性训练发展到特殊性 the general to the specific. For example, early 训练。比如说,赛季初期,严肃的车手会把 in the season, the serious cyclist uses much of 大部分训练时间用于通过举重提高整体力 the available training time to develop general strength with weights, while also crosstraining 量,其他时间做交叉训练和骑行;而在赛季 and doing some riding. Later in the season, 后期,会花更多时间在车上进行模拟比赛式 more time is spent on the bike in conditions 的训练。虽然这么做也许符合逻辑,而且事 that simulate bicycle racing. While there is no 实上世界上大部分顶级运动员都坚持这个训 scientific evidence to support such a pattern of 练原则。但目前没有任何科学依据支持这种 training, logic seems to support it. In fact, most 训练模式。 of the world’s top athletes adhere to this principle. Of course, periodization means more than 当然,周期性训练不仅仅是简单的针对 simply training more specifically. It also 性训练。它也包括安排高强度训练的方法, involves arranging the workouts in such a way 使得在早期阶段获得提高的身体素质指标能 that the elements of fitness achieved in an 够继续保持,同时能够关注新的素质指标并 earlier phase of training are maintained while new ones are addressed and improved. This 继续提高。这是一种模块化的训练方法,每 modular method of training means making 个模块意味着 4-8 周的训练周期。下个模 small changes in workouts during four to eight 块的训练内容相比本模块会有某些微调,这 week periods. The body will gradually become 样身体就能够阶段性地适应这种变化的模 more fit with such a pattern of change. 式。 Flexibility of training, or lack of it, may be 采用周期性训练时,骑手们面临的最大 the biggest obstacle facing a cyclist using 障碍也许就是对训练灵活性的把握。骑手一 periodization. Once a rider has outlined a plan, 旦订好了训练计划,就不太愿意变动它。成 there is often a reluctance to vary from it. 功的周期性训练需要灵活性。我所指导的所 Successful periodization requires flexibility. 有运动员都曾在赛季的某些时候因感冒,工 4
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 7 Planning to Race 第 7 章 为比赛而计划 I’ve never coached an athlete who got through 作,或拜会家人等原因而使原先的训练计划 an entire season without a cold, work 受阻,生活就是这样。年度训练计划不应该 responsibilities, or a visit from Aunt Bessie 被视作“最终版本”,从一开始你就要想到 getting in the way of the plan. That’s just the 会存在不可预见和难以避免的因素导致变 way life is. An annual training plan should never be viewed as “final”. You must assume 化。当你准备坐下来按照以下的章节定制训 from the outset that there will be changes due 练计划的时候,千万记住这一点。 to unforeseen and unavoidable complications. Remember this in the next chapter when you sit down to write your training plan. Another problem with periodization is all 周期性训练的另一个问题是它使用的科 the scientific mumbo-jumbo that goes along 学术语。划分阶段的术语把很多人都搞糊涂 with it. The language of periodization seems to 了,包括教练。图 7.1 以时间块的方式表示 confuse many, including coaches. Figure 7.1 了阶段划分的各种术语的含义。在本书中, illustrates the terms as used for blocks of time in periodization. For the purposes of this book, 当提到小周期(mesocycle)时,就是指图 when referring to specific mesocycle periods, 7.1 中的黑体字术语:准备期,基础期,发 the bold terms in Figure 7.1 are used: 展期,高峰期,比赛期和过渡期。 Preparation, Base, Build, Peak, Race, and Transition. Figure 7.1 The training year divided into 图 7.1 被细分成小周期和微周期(周)的赛季 mesocycles and microcycles Training Periods 训练周期 The reason for dividing the season into specific 周期性训练计划把整个赛季划分为各个特别 periods in a periodization plan is that this 的周期,每个周期在保持前期阶段已获得的 division allows for emphasis on specific 训练成果的基础上,重点训练特定方面的身 aspects of fitness, while maintaining others 体素质。同时全方位提高各方面身体素质的 developed in earlier periods. Trying to improve all aspects of training at the same time is 训练是不现实的。没有一个运动员能够承受 impossible. No athlete is capable of handling 这种全方位的训练压力。周期性训练也考虑 that much simultaneous stress. Periodization 到第 3 章讲过的两个训练原则 ―― 逐步加 also allows for two of the training principles 压和适应。 discussed in Chapter 3 – progressive overload and adaptation. Figure 7.2 diagrams the process of 表 7.2 图示了周期性训练的各个组成部 5
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 7 Planning to Race 第 7 章 为比赛而计划 periodization, describes the focus of each 分,以及每个周期的训练重点和建议的时间 mesocycle period, and suggests a time frame 段。 for each period. Figure 7.2 Using training periods to peak at pre- 图 7.2 使用训练周期来规划什么时候到达高 selected times 峰期 If you add up the suggested times for each 把以上各个周期的建议时间段相加,你 period you’ll find a range of 21 to 38 weeks – 会发现整个周期是 21-38 周 ―― 不到一年 well short of a year. The reason for this is that 的时间。之所以这么安排是因为我发现车手 I’ve found cyclists perform best when they 们一年里有 2-3 个高峰期时状态最好。多 peak two or three times during a year. Multi- peak seasons allow for rest and recovery more 个高峰期间顾及到更频繁的休息和恢复,这 frequently, are less likely to cause burnout or 样就不大会造成力竭和过量训练,并有利于 overtraining, and keep training and racing fun. 保持训练和比赛的乐趣。如果你做的好的 If you do things right – instead of losing fitness 话 ―― 而不是在以比赛为主的漫长赛季中 as a long race season progresses – each 失去优势 ―― 你的每个高峰期都会比前一 subsequent peak is higher than the previous 个更高些。在第 8 章,我将解释如果设计这 one. In Chapter 8, I’ll explain how to design 样的多个高峰期。 such a multi-peak season. In the remainder of this chapter, I’ll 本章的剩余部分将详细介绍每个周期。 introduce you to each period in detail. Every 我将描述周期划分的每个方面,以及如何训 aspect of periodization is described, along with 练前两章讨论的比赛能力的建议。当你理解 suggestions for how to train the racing abilities 周期的时候,请参考图 7.3 以了解一个假定 discussed in the last two chapters. As you read about the period, use Figure 7.3 to see how 的赛季中训练量和强度是如何结合的。虽然 6
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 7 Planning to Race 第 7 章 为比赛而计划 volume and intensity blend in this hypothetical 这种假定的安排不会与你的训练计划完全相 season. While will not look exactly the way 同,但大致上差不多。大多数周期性训练计 your will, it probably comes close. The 划的共同点都是在赛季初期增加训练量,然 elements common to most periodization plans 逐渐增加训练强度,减少训练量。注意恢复 are increased volume at the start of the training year followed by increased intensity as volume 周 ―― 在基础期和发展期里周期性出现的 declines. Notice that there are reduced-volume 训练量较小的一周 ―― 它很重要 ,千万 不 recovery weeks scheduled periodically 要忽视。 throughout the Base and Build periods. These are important – don’t pass them up. Figure 7.3 Hypothetical training year divided into 图 7.3 虚拟赛季的各个周期及其训练量和训 periods showing the interplay of volume 练强度 and intensity Accompanying each period description in 以下各节中的周期介绍都配有一个饼 the following section is a diagram that 图,显示该周期所关注的训练重点。需要特 illustrates the mix of racing abilities for that 别注意的是饼图中各种能力所占的比例是大 period. It is especially important to note that 致的。由于个体的能力和其他限制因素,实 the portion of the pie chart devoted to each ability is not exact. The amount of time spent 际花在各个身体素质指标的训练时间是不一 working on each fitness ability will vary with 样的。饼图只是一个如何分配训练时间的粗 the individual’s strengths and limiters. Use the 略的指导。 pie chart only as a rough guide of how to proportion training time. Preparation Period 准备期 The preparation period generally marks the 准备期一般标志着训练年度的开始,只有在 start of the training year and is included only if 赛季结束后有相当长的过度期时才需要,一 there has been a long transition following the 般发生在秋末或初冬,根据上赛季的最后一 end of the racing season. It is usually scheduled 场比赛的日期和过度期的长短而调整。 for the late fall or early winter, depending on when the last race was and the length of the transition. 7
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 7 Planning to Race 第 7 章 为比赛而计划 Figure 7.4A Preparation 图 7.4A 准备期 The purpose of this period is to prepare 该时期的目的是为下面各个周期做身体 the athlete’s body for the periods to follow. It’s 上的准备,或者说为了真正的训练而训练。 a time of training to train. Workouts are low 训练的特点是低强度,重点在最大摄氧量, intensity with an emphasis on aerobic 形式是交叉训练,比如长跑,野外徒步,越 endurance, especially in the form of crosstraining. Activities such as running, 野滑雪,穿雪鞋旅行,游泳和单排轮滑。这 vigorous hiking, cross-country skiing, 些运动能够保持和提高心肺系统的功能(心 snowshoeing, swimming, and in-line skating 脏,血液,血管和肺)。相比于其他周期, will maintain or improve cardiorespiratory 准备期的训练总量相对较小。 (heart, blood, blood vessels, and lungs) fitness. The total volume of training is low when compared with most other periods. Strength training begins with the 力量训练由解剖学适应阶段(AA)开 Anatomical Adaptation (AA) phase that 始,该阶段的目的是为接下来的更大重量做 prepares the muscles and tendons for the 肌腱方面的准备(第 12 章详细介绍力量训 heavier stresses to follow later. (Strength 练)。 training is discussed in detail in Chapter 12). Speed skills can be developed through 速度技巧练习,一般在室内骑行台或滚 drills, usually done on an indoor trainer or 筒上进行,目的是让踩踏更圆更流畅。 rollers. This will reawaken the legs to spinning fluidly in smooth circles. Base Period 基础期 The Base period is the time to fully establish 基础期是全面改善耐力,力量和速度技巧等 the basic fitness abilities of endurance, force, 基本身体素质的时期。基础期持续 8-12 and speed skills. Base is generally the longest 周,一般是整个赛季中最长的一个时期。有 period of the season, lasting eight to twelve 些运动员不重视基础训练,使得该时期结束 weeks. Some athletes are careless with Base training, ending it too soon. It is essential that 的太快了。必须强调基础能力的重要性,因 8
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 7 Planning to Race 第 7 章 为比赛而计划 the basic abilities have a strong foothold before 为它是以后的高强度训练的立足点。 launching high-intensity training. In the warm-winter states, there may be 在冬季比较温暖的国家,这一时期也许 races available during this period. I usually 会有比赛举行。但通常我建议不要参加,因 recommend that these be avoided. They are 为有些骑手状态很好(长期高强度训练的那 often demoralizing since some riders are in 些人),而你却不是 ―― 如果你遵照本计 good shape (the always-fit ones), and you won’t be, if you’re following this plan. If you 划的话 ―― 这常常影响士气。如果你一定 must do one of these races, treat it as a workout 要参加的话,就把它当作训练而不要太看重 and do not take the results seriously. 比赛结果。记住这些比赛是可有可无的,其 Remember that it is okay to abandon the race. 结果不会对你接下来的赛季产生影响。 These races are of no consequence for your season ahead. Since this is such a long period and there 基础期很长,而且在此期间你的身体素 will be many changes taking place in your 质会变化很多,所以我们将它划分为三个阶 fitness throughout, the Base period is divided 段:基础期 1,基础期 2 和基础期 3。随着 into three segments: Base 1, Base 2, and Base 各阶段的深入,将从交叉训练过渡到车上训 3. The volume of training grows in each base period as crosstraining phases into on-bike 练,训练总量和训练强度也会慢慢提升 (见 training. Intensity rises slightly (see Figure 图 7.3)。 7.3). Base 1 marks the start of steady increases 从基础期 1 开始,训练量将稳步提升, in volume to boost aerobic endurance and 从而提高有氧耐力水平以及大运动量后身体 increase the body’s resiliency to large 的恢复能力。在北部高纬度地区,大多是通 workloads. In the more northern latitudes, you 过交叉训练来完成的。即使是那些冬季比较 accomplish most of this through crosstraining. Cyclists in the warm-winter states should still 温暖的国家,骑手们最好也采用交叉训练而 consider crosstraining instead of spending all 不是整天骑车。赛季还很长,而这一时期所 of their time on a bike. It’s a long season, and 训练的身体素质因素基本用不着在车上练。 many of the elements of fitness developed now can be accomplished off the bike. Figure 7.4B Base 1 图 7.4B 基础期 1 9
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 7 Planning to Race 第 7 章 为比赛而计划 Strength training in Base 1 places an 基础期 1 的力量训练重点是采用大负 emphasis on establishing Maximum Strength 荷,低重复次数建立最大力量(MS)。要 (MS) with the use of high-resistance loads and 循序渐进地慢慢加大负荷以避免受伤。 low repetitions. The shift to these greater loads should be gradual so as not to cause injury. Speed-skills work continues just as in the 速度技巧练习和准备期一样,在骑行台 Preparation period with drills that emphasize 或滚筒上进行,重点是高踏频和平滑转动的 high cadence and smooth technique on a trainer 技术。 or rollers. Figure 7.4C Base 2 图 7.4C 基础期 2 In Base 2, on-bike endurance work begins 在基础期 2,车上的耐力训练开始替代 to replace crosstraining as the volume rises. As 交叉训练,训练量也有所上升。骑的路程越 the road rides become longer, the 来越长,跟着队伍一起骑会轻松一些。但要 companionship of a group helps the time to 注意,不要把跟队的耐力训练变成比赛。每 pass faster. Be careful, however, not to ride with groups that turn these endurance rides into 年这个时候都会出现很多所谓“圣诞节明 races. This time of year you will find many 星” ―― 这些在冬天过早进入比赛状态的 “Christmas stars” – riders who are in great race 骑手们,到了夏天往往会在真正的比赛中状 shape in the winter, but aren’t around when the 态全无。 serious racing starts in the summer. You should plan the majority of your road 每周你在路上的大部分训练内容应该是 workouts each week on continuously rolling to 通过连续的爬坡给肌肉系统可控的压力。这 hilly courses that place controlled stress on the 一时期最好的训练内容是保持在乳酸极限之 muscular system. The best courses at this time 下,80rpm 左右或更高的踏频坐着爬坡。训 of the season keep effort below the lactate threshold and allow cadences of 80 rpm and 练中一定要坐着爬坡来增强臀部的力量,在 higher while seated on a hill. Staying in the 以后的训练中会用的着。 saddle is important for these workouts to develop greater hip extension strength for the next period. 10
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 7 Planning to Race 第 7 章 为比赛而计划 Weight room training shifts toward 在举重房里要继续保持前一时期所获得 maintenance of strength gains made in the 的力量。如果天气允许的话,速度技巧的练 previous period. Also, speed-skills work moves 习也可转到了户外,否则就继续室内的练 outside, weather permitting. Otherwise, indoor 习。只要条件允许,就在路上练习冲刺的技 workouts continue. Whenever possible, use the road to refine your sprinting form. 巧。 Muscular-endurance training is also 基础期 2 也将引入肌肉耐力训练,根据 introduced in Base 2, with tempo workouts 心率和功率输出控制训练节奏(细节参见第 based on heart rate or power output (see 4 章)。 Chapter 4 for details). Figure 7.4D Base 3 图 7.4D 基础期 3 Base 3 marks a phasing-in of higher- 基础期 3 开始逐渐引入更高强度的训 intensity training with the introduction of hill 练,如在乳酸极限心率附近或稍高一点的强 work done at or slightly above lactate 度爬山。在基础期 2,坐着爬山锻炼臀部力 threshold. In Base 2, somewhat hilly courses 量以补充举重房中的训练。现在你要面对的 ridden in the saddle complemented the weight room workouts by creating greatest hip 应该是真正的长坡,并且仍然以坐着爬坡为 extension force. Now you should seek out 主。 serious hills with long climbs, still riding them mostly in the saddle. The total weekly volume of training 基础期 3 的每周训练量是整个赛季中最 progresses to the highest point of the season in 高的,其中有氧耐力骑行占整个训练时间的 Base 3, with aerobic-endurance rides on the 一半左右。每次训练的最远距离至少相当于 road accounting for about half of all training 你赛季中最远的比赛距离或至少两个小时。 time. The longest workouts now should be at least as long as your longest race of the season 团队骑行仍然是最好的训练方式。团队中也 or two hours, whichever is longer. Group rides 许有些人已经准备好更高强度训练了,所以 are still the best way to get in these long 他们会骑地更快些。虽然偶尔在冲刺时看到 efforts. Some in the group may be ready for 城市限速标志时慢下来,不要把这些变成比 higher-intensity training and so these rides will 赛。这不太容易,特别是“比赛”的冲动比 typically become faster. While it’s okay to 较强的时候。耐心点,你的目标是在做功较 occasionally put the hammer down in a sprint 少的条件下尽可能骑得最快,到下个周期时 for the city limits sign, don’t turn these into 你才需要开足马力。在赛季后期,你会感谢 11
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 7 Planning to Race 第 7 章 为比赛而计划 races. This is not easy to do as the pressure to 当初保存实力的。 “race” will be high. Be patient and sit in. Your purpose is to get as fast as you can with low- effort rides before turning up the heat in the next period. Later in the season, you’ll be glad you held back. Muscular-endurance training is increased 肌肉耐力训练将会增加,继续举重训练 and weight workouts continue as maintenance. 以保持力量。每周的高强调训练应该达到乳 Several weekly workouts should now take you 酸极限强度的训练区域。 to the lactate threshold intensity training zones. Speed-skills work, done mostly as form 速度技巧练习必须在路上进行,主要练 sprints, must now be on the road. 习冲刺。 Build Period 发展期 A multi-peak season includes two or more full 从图 7.3 中你能看到,要想在一个赛季中出 Build periods. This is shown in Figure 7.3. As 现多个高峰期,就需要有两个或两个以上完 you can see, Build 1 maintains the volume of 整的发展期。发展期 1 保持相当高水平的训 training at a relatively high level, although less 练量,虽然比前面的 3 个 8 周的基础期稍小 than that achieved in three of the previous eight weeks. That means when it is time to return to 一些。这意味着在第一个比赛期结束之后又 Build 1, following the first Race period, you 进入发展期 1 时,你需要重建你的耐力,力 may need to re-establish your endurance, force, 量和速度技巧。 and speed skills. The Build period is marked by the 发展期的标志是引入了无氧耐力训练。 introduction of anaerobic-endurance training. 因为与力量训练,爬山,和肌肉耐力训练同 Just as with force, hill work, and muscular- 时进行,所以一定要小心进行,避免受伤。 endurance training, this should be done cautiously to avoid injury. Figure 7.4E Build 1 12
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 7 Planning to Race 第 7 章 为比赛而计划 There will probably be criteriums and road 绕圈赛和公路赛可能会贯穿这一时期。 races throughout this period. These should 这些比赛应该是较低优先级的,你可以把它 mostly be low-priority, and you can regard 们视作无氧耐力训练的替代。无氧耐力训练 them as a substitute for anaerobic-endurance 可能还包括间歇训练和快速大组骑行。 training. Anaerobic-endurance workouts may also include intervals and fast group rides. During Build 1, endurance work is 发展期 1 期间,耐力训练减少,但仍是 reduced, but is still a prominent focus of 训练的重要内容之一。相比于基础期的大量 training. At this time in the season such rides 耐力训练,现在这类骑行将会少一些,而且 may occur less frequently than in the Base 也许会变成和一两个队友一起做长而轻松的 period. You will be much better served by doing your long, easy endurance rides during 骑行方式。这个时期的大队骑行不适合做耐 this period with one or two teammates rather 力训练,而是用来锻炼肌肉耐力和无氧耐力 than with a large group. Use the group rides for 的。另外在这一时期要特别注意避免过度训 the development of muscular endurance and 练,因为它特别容易发生。大组骑行时要时 anaerobic endurance. It is important to avoid 时注意你的疲劳程度,如果你感觉累得死去 overtraining during this phase of training. Now 活来时,就不要再拼命了。这时要么跟在队 is the time it can easily happen. Pay close 伍里根据体力做自由骑行,要么就干脆别跟 attention to your fatigue level during group 了。想开些,你用不着在朋友面前逞英雄, rides. If you feel dead in the saddle, don’t work hard with the group. Either sit in, getting as 要把力气留到比赛的时候。 much of a free ride as you can, or turn off and ride alone. Be smart. You’re not doing this to impress your friends. Save that for the races. Force training in the weight room is either 举重房里的力量训练要么取消,要么减 eliminated or cut back to one day a week now 少到一周一次,每组的持续时间也相应减 as the duration of such sessions gets shorter. 少,唯一的目的就是保持力量。那些力量较 Strength maintenance is the only purpose. For 弱的运动员应该继续把重点放在爬山上。现 the athlete limited by force, hill work continues to be a primary focus. This may be in the form 在爬山的方式是锻炼肌肉耐力或无氧耐力的 of muscular-endurance or anaerobic-endurance 间歇训练。附录 C 中的训练菜单将提供更多 intervals done on a hill. Appendix C is a 的建议。无氧耐力训练可以和一两个水平相 workout menu that will offer further 近的骑手一起做。肌肉耐力训练最好单独 suggestions. Anaerobic-endurance workouts 做,训练焦点是个人计时赛的需要,心率尽 can be done with one or two other riders close 量保持在乳酸极限训练区域。 to your ability. Muscular-endurance is best done alone to prepare you for the focus needed in time trialing and to keep you in the narrow threshold training zones. Power may now replace speed skills work. 力度练习将代替速度技巧。力度训练可 Power training can be combined with other 以和其他训练,如无氧耐力混合进行。具体 workouts, such as anaerobic-endurance 做时,要记住在当天训练刚开始时趁大腿最 sessions. If so, initially incorporate the power- 有力的时候做力度训练,而把无氧耐力和肌 training portion of your routine early in the workout when the legs are still fresh. At first, 肉耐力训练留在最后做 。刚开始时,不要在 don’t make the common mistake of doing 训练快结束时做力度训练,这是骑手们经常 power training at the end of workouts. Reserve 会犯的错误。 在发展期 2 也许会把力度训练 13
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 7 Planning to Race 第 7 章 为比赛而计划 that for anaerobic endurance and muscular 挪到训练末尾,那是为了模拟比赛快结束时 endurance. In Build 2 power may be shifted to 的冲刺状态。 the end of workouts to simulate the demands of sprinting late in a race. Figure 7.4F Build 2 图 7.4F 发展期 2 Build 2 slightly decreases the volume of 发展期 2 稍微降低了训练量而提升了训 training while increasing the intensity. Notice 练强度。注意图 7.3 中发展期 2 的三周强度 that intensity in Figure 7.3 is increased each of 的增加,就象基础期中训练量的增加一样。 the three weeks just as volume increased in the 到现在为止你应该对疲劳程度的增加很有经 Base period. By now you should be experiencing increasing levels of fatigue and 验了,但你仍需继续注意无氧强度。如果你 you will need to continue being cautious with 拿不准是否要做某项训练时,这时要灵活 anaerobic intensity. If you are unsure about 些,要么不要做,要么时间缩短,因为你的 whether you should do a certain workout, be 疑问就是最好的理由。当你心存疑问时 ―― wise and either leave it out or shorten it. The 就不要去做它。 mere fact that you’re questioning it is enough reason to do so. When in doubt – leave it out. Training in Build 2 emphasizes intensity 发展期 2 比前一个 4 周更加重视强度。 to a greater extent than in the previous four 无氧耐力和肌肉耐力间歇训练时,每组时间 weeks. Anaerobic-endurance and muscular- 更长,恢复时间更短。实际上,这时的肌肉 endurance sessions become longer with 耐力训练应该是象个人计时赛一样的长而连 decreasing recovery intervals. At this point, muscular endurance should be long, continuous 续的费力骑行。 exertions just as in time trialing. Weight room training remains at once a 举重房训练保持一周一次,遵照力量保 week, if at all, and follows a strength 持计划。力量不是弱项的骑手也可以停止举 maintenance plan. Riders for whom force is not 重练习。但是,我建议老将们和女运动员继 a limiter may stop weight training in this 续举重,但决定权在你。力度训练和发展期 period. I recommend, however, that masters and women continue, but the choice is up to 1 一样。 you. Power training may continue as in Build 1. 14
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 7 Planning to Race 第 7 章 为比赛而计划 Peak Period 高峰期 Figure 7.4G Peak 图 7.5G 高峰期 The Peak period is when you consolidate 高峰期是巩固你的比赛能力的时期。这一时 racing fitness. It is time to reduce volume and 期要继续降低训练量和提高训练强度,基本 keep intensity levels high relative to the 与准备参加的比赛所需要的强度水平相当, expected demands of the targeted races while 并要强调训练后的恢复。现在最好每 72-96 emphasizing recovery between workouts. It is now best to train at race-like intensities every 小时就做一次比赛级强度的训练。其用意是 72 to 96 hours. The idea is to be rested and 休息并保持状态,随时能在高质量的测验中 ready to push the limits of the fitness envelope 冲击身体素质极限。这些测验也可以是 B 级 when it’s time for a quality workout. These 或 C 级的比赛,并为接下来的 A 级赛事调整 workouts may also be B- or C-priority races 状态。 that serve as tune-ups for the A-priority races to follow. Tapering brings added rest that sometimes 减少的训练量使得休息增加,有时会使 causes athletes to question whether they are 运动员怀疑这么做能不能行。如果你的赛季 doing enough. If you’ve designed your season 计划正确,又严格按照执行,那你肯定能状 correctly and followed the plan, you will be 态正佳。如果你觉得状态不好,那现在也做 ready. And, even if you aren’t ready, there’s nothing you can do about it now. 不了什么了。 The purpose of periodization is to reach 周期性训练的目的就是在最重要的比赛 peak form just as the most important races 时达到高峰期。这些比赛很少会安排在一个 occur. Since these races are seldom on back-to- 周末,而是常常分散在好几周里,所以往往 back weekends and may be separated by 需要多个高峰期。我发现我训练的运动员发 several weeks, it’s usually necessary to peak more than once. I’ve found that the athletes I 挥最好的赛季都有两个高峰期。我相信这也 train race best when they peak two times each 适用于你。第 8 章将帮助你使用同样的步骤 season. I believe you’ll find that this works for 设计出两个高峰期的赛季计划。 you, also. Chapter 8 will help you design a twin-peaks season using the same procedure I use when training riders. 15
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 7 Planning to Race 第 7 章 为比赛而计划 Race Period 比赛期 This is what you’ve been waiting for. The fun 这是你期待已久的时刻,也是一年中最有趣 time of the year is starting. Now all that’s 的时候。你要做的就是比赛,发挥你的强 needed is to race, work on strength areas, and 项,然后休息恢复。比赛会给你足够的身体 recover. The racers will provide adequate stress 压力,并让身体一直保持在高峰状态。你的 to keep your systems working at a maximum level. Your anaerobic fitness should stay high. 无氧能力会保持在高水平。如果一连几周没 In weeks when there are no races, a race-effort 有比赛,就进行一次类似比赛的大组骑行。 group ride is the best option. Up until now, you’ve been working on 到目前为止,你一直都在和你的弱项斗 your limiters. Now is the time to take your 争。但现在是尽量发挥你的强项并把它推向 strength areas to a new level by emphasizing 一个新高度的时候了。如果肌肉耐力是你的 them. If muscular endurance is a strength, time 强项,那就每周做一次个人计时;如果你个 trial at mid-week. If you’re a strong sprinter, work on that. If climbing is your forte, then 很强的冲刺手,那就每周练冲刺;如果强项 climb. Make your strength as strong as 是爬山,那就每周都爬。尽可能让你的强项 possible. 变的更强。 Figure 7.4H Race 图 7.4H 比赛期 Transition Period 过渡期 The Transition period is a time of rest and 过渡期是比赛期之后的恢复和休息期。它会 recovery following a Race period. This should 出现在上赛季最后一场比赛结束后,但也会 always be included after the last race of the 加在赛季早期第一个高峰期之后以避免在赛 year, but may also be inserted early in the 季后期出现力竭现象。不同的是,赛季早期 season following the first Peak period to prevent burnout later in the year. Early season 的过渡期比较短,也许只有 5-7 天,但赛 Transition periods may be brief, perhaps only 季末尾的过渡期可能有 4 周左右。 five to seven days, whereas at the end of the season such a break may be four weeks or so. 16
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 7 Planning to Race 第 7 章 为比赛而计划 Figure 7.4I Transition 图 7.4I 过渡期 The Transition period should have little 过渡期没有什么严格限制。我唯一的忠 regimentation. My only admonition is to do 告是在这一时期尽管做你喜欢做的活动,只 what you feel like doing during this period, as 要是低强度和低训练量的。交叉训练是个好 long as it is low intensity and low volume. 主意。利用这个时期好好“充电”。现在暂 Crosstraining is a good idea. Use this time to “recharge your batteries.” The time away from 时不骑车,会为你积累更多的训练和比赛的 your bike will pay off with higher motivation 动力,治愈小肌肉损伤,并减轻心理紧张状 for training and racing, the healing of minor 态。 muscle damage, and the reduction of psychological stress. 译者注: 【1】:wool jerseys and nail-on cleats 好象是早期自行车运动员的装备,不是很清楚,翻译 的有点猜测成分。 【2】:原文的 quiet reverence 似乎应该是 quite reverence,译文取后者。 【3】:这一段感觉很怪,原文似乎是说阴雨天有利于训练,但按照上下文意思阴雨天应 该不利于训练,译文取后者。 17
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 8 THE TRAINING YEAR 第 8 章 训练年度 Chapter 8 THE TRAINING 第 8 章 训练年度 YEAR I used to train too much, too many hours. In my first 我以前的训练过多了,时间太长了。在成为职业 year as a pro I trained thirty-five hours a week, 车手的第一年里我每周训练 35 个小时,实在太 which is too hard. 辛苦了。 —— TONY ROMINGER -- TONY ROMINGER NOW it’s time to begin designing an annual 现在是开始设计一个年度训练计划的时候 training plan. The best time of year to do this is 了。一年里最适合做这件事的时机是在你的 shortly following the end of your last Race 最后一个比赛期刚结束不久的时候,这时你 period, when you’re ready to start the 正准备开始下一训练年度的准备期。如果你 Preparation period. If you’ve purchased this book after your season has already begun, it’s 买到这本书时训练季已经开始了,那么你最 still a good idea to plan the rest of your year. 好还是为这一年剩余的时间作个计划。迟到 Better late than never. 的计划总比没有好。 I’m about to take you through a simple 我准备带你简单地走一遍如何制定年度 six-step process of annual planning that will 计划的六步流程,这样你的新赛季就能步入 have you on the way to a better season before 正确的轨道,即便你还没开始为新赛季训练 you even turn a crank. This will require some 一分钟。这需要一些书面工作,最好用铅 writing, but use a pencil as you’ll need to make changes later. The Annual Training Plan 笔,因为以后你需要修改它。附录 B 有年度 worksheet is in Appendix B. You should make 训练工作表,你应该在开始动手前复印一 a copy before starting to work. If you prefer to 份。如果你更喜欢在电脑上制定计划,你可 work on your plan electronically, you will find 以到 www.TrainingBible.com 找到年度训练 an electronic version of the Annual Training 计划的电子版本,那上面还有一些其它自我 Plan along with other tools for self-coaching at 训练用的工具。 www.TrainingBible.com. The danger in following a methodical 遵循系统性的流程来制定训练计划的一 process to arrive at a training plan is that you’ll 个风险是:你可能会过于关注过程和数字, be so engrossed in procedures and numbers that 而忽略了这个计划是否实际可行。我们的目 you might forget to think in a realistic way. 标不是简单地写一个计划,而是为了在比赛 The purpose is not simply to write a plan; the purpose is to race better than ever before. At 中比以前表现地更好。在一个成功的赛季结 the end of a successful season, you’ll realize 束时,你就会认识到有一份书面计划有多么 how important it was to have a written plan. 重要。 Writing and following an annual training 制定和遵循一个年度训练计划大致类似 plan is somewhat like climbing a mountain. 于爬一座山。在启程前,你应该了解山顶在 Before you take the first step, it’s a good idea 哪儿以及你计划怎么到达那里。了解你路上 to know where the peak of the mountain is and 可能会碰到的问题也会很有帮助,因为你可 how you plan to get there. It also helps if you know what problems you’re likely to encounter 以事先为如何解决这些问题做好准备。在爬 along the route so you can be prepared to deal 山的过程中,你会不时地停下来观察顶峰以 with them. While ascending the mountain, 检查你的进展情况。如果遇到新情况,比如 you’ll stop occasionally to look at the peak and 坏天气或者没预料到的障碍,你可能会改变 check your progress. You may decide to 1
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 8 THE TRAINING YEAR 第 8 章 训练年度 change the route based on new conditions such 路线。到达顶峰时,你会充满喜悦,但回首 as bad weather or unexpected obstacles. 整个过程,你就会了解到你一路上克服的挑 Arriving at the peak you’ll be elated, but 战以及你的计划是怎样给你指明方向的。 looking back down you will remember all of the challenges you overcame along the way and how the plan gave you direction. Remind yourself throughout this chapter 看这一章时请你始终牢记:制定年度计 that you’re not writing an annual plan to 划不是为了向别人炫耀或只是为了有条理地 impress anyone or simply to feel organized. 做事情。制定计划的目的是为了创建一个有 The purpose is to create a useful and dynamic 用的,动态的训练指导。在训练过程中,你 guide for your training. You will refer to the plan regularly to make decisions as your 会定期地参考这份计划来做出一些决定。计 training progresses. The plan will help you to 划会帮助你始终瞄准你的目标,而不是在 keep an eye on the goal and not get lost in “just “参加比赛去吧”中随波逐流。训练计划是 going to races”. A training plan is dynamic in 动态的,所以如果有新情况发生时,你会经 that you will frequently modify it as new 常修改它。 circumstances arise. The Annual Training Plan 年度训练计划 It’s time to get started planning. The six steps 现在我们开始制定计划了。你将在本章完成 you’ll complete in this chapter are: 的六个步骤是: 1. Determine season goals 1. 确定赛季目标 2. Establish supporting objectives 2. 确立训练目标 3. Set annual hours 4. Prioritize races 3. 设定年度训练小时数 5. Divide year into periods 4. 确定比赛的优先级 6. Assign weekly hours 5. 把一年分为几个阶段 6. 分配每周的训练时间 In Chapter 9, you will complete the annual 在第九章,你将会按照训练的目标分配 plan by assigning weekly workouts based on 好每周的训练科目,这样年度计划就全面完 abilities. This probably sounds like a lot to 成了。听上去好象有很多事情要做。确实是 accomplish. It is, but the system I’ve set out 这样,但我的这套系统可以让事情变得容易 here will make it easy to do. 些。 年度训练小时数 年度训练计划 赛季目标: 1. 2. 3. 训练目标: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 8 THE TRAINING YEAR 第 8 章 训练年度 训练内容 举 耐 力 速 肌 无 功 测 重 力 量 度 肉 氧 率 试 周 周 比赛 优先级 阶段 小时数 详细信息 技 耐 耐 # 一 能 力 力 01 / 02 / 03 / 04 / 05 / 06 / 07 / 08 / 09 / 10 / 11 / 12 / 13 / 14 / 15 / 16 / 17 / 18 / 19 / 20 / 21 / 22 / 23 / 24 / 25 / 26 / 27 / 28 / 29 / 30 / 31 / 32 / 33 / 34 / 35 / 36 / 37 / 38 / 39 / 40 / 41 / 42 / 43 / 44 / 45 / 46 / 47 / 48 / 49 / 50 / 51 / 52 / Figure 8.1 Annual training plan 图 8.1 年度训练计划 A working version of the Annual Training 图 8.1 所示的就是一个年度训练计划。 Plan appears in Figure 8.1. Notice that there are 注意该计划被分成了几个部分。 在其左上部 3
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 8 THE TRAINING YEAR 第 8 章 训练年度 several parts to the Plan. At the top left of the 是年度训练小时数,赛季目标和训练目标。 page are spaces for annual hours, season goals, 最左边一栏列出了一年中的每个礼拜并为之 and training objectives. The left column assigns 编号,你还需要为赛季中的每一周记录下该 a number to each week of the year. You should 周周一的日期。举例来说,你下一个训练季 write in the date of the Monday of each week of the season. For example, if your first week 的第一个训练周是 11 月 1 日至 8 日,那么就 of training at the start of the next season will be 在第一周写下 11.3,其他各周也照此处理。 the week of November 1-9, write “Nov. 3” in 表中还有几栏列出了比赛和它们的优先级, week 1 and do the same for the remaining 所处阶段以及每周的训练小时数。最右边的 weeks of the coming season. There is a column 部分用来列出按能力划分的各种训练科目 to list the races, their priorities (pri), the period, (在表头里列出了各项能力的类别),在第 and weekly hours for each week. The small 九章会解释最后这一部分。 boxes down the right side will be used to indicate categories of workouts by abilities as listed at the top of the page. Chapter 9 will explain this last part. Step 1: Determine Season Goals 第一步:确定赛季目标 Start with the destination: What racing goals do 以终为始:你想在这个赛季取得什么样的比 you want to accomplish this season? It could be 赛成绩?你的目标可能是等级的提升,或者 to upgrade, to place in the top five at the 取得本地区公路赛的前五名,或者完成一次 district road race, or to finish a stage race. 分段式比赛。研究显示明确定义目标可以提 Studies have shown that clearly defined goals improve one’s ability to achieve them. A 升达到这些目标的能力。一个成功的爬坡手 successful mountain climber always has the 总是下意识地想着山顶。如果你不知道你想 peak in the back of his or her mind. If you 达到什么目标,那么到赛季结束时你就会一 don’t know where you want to go, by the end 无所成。 of the season you will have gone nowhere. Don’t get goals confused with wishes and 不要把目标和心愿或者梦想混为一谈。 dreams. The athletes I train sometimes dream 我训练过的运动员有时候会梦想他们要达到 about what they wish to accomplish, and I 什么样的成就,我总是鼓励他们这么做。有 encourage them to do so. Dreaming is healthy. 梦想是正常的。没有梦想,就没有对未来的 Without dreams there is no vision for the future, no incentive. Dreams can become 展望,也就没有激情。梦想可能成真,但是 realities. But wishes and dreams take longer 心愿和梦想却不可能在一个赛季里实现。如 than one season to accomplish. If you can 果你能这个赛季就实现它,那么不论它有多 achieve it this season, no matter how big it is, 庞大,它也是一个目标,而不是梦想。另 it’s no longer a dream, it’s a goal. Also, dreams 外,当你有一个计划去实现梦想时,梦想就 become goals when there is a plan for 变成了目标。所以我们在为赛季做计划时只 accomplishing them. So we are dealing strictly 考虑目标。 with goals for the purpose of planning a season. Let’s be realistically optimistic. If you had 我们要做个现实的乐观主义者。如果在 trouble finishing club rides in the past season, 上个赛季你还跟不上的俱乐部的团队骑行, winning a stage race this season is a wish, not a 那么在这个赛季取得一个分段赛的冠军就是 goal, “But,” you say, “if you don’t set high 一个心愿,而不是目标。也许你会说:“如 goals you never achieve anything.” That’s true, 4
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 8 THE TRAINING YEAR 第 8 章 训练年度 but the problem with wishes is that you know 果不把目标设高些,你就不会有任何进 down deep you really aren’t capable of 步”。这没错,但问题是你打心底里就明白 achieving them this season, so there’s no 你没有能力在这个赛季这些心愿,所以也就 commitment to the training required. A 不会在训练中为此做任何承诺。有挑战性的 challenging goal will stretch you to the limits, and may require you to take some risks, but 目标会把你推向身体的极限,你还需要为此 you can imagine yourself accomplishing it in 冒一定的风险,但你可以指望在未来几个月 the next few months. Ask yourself: “If I do 里实现它。问问你自己:“如果一切顺利, everything right, can I imagine success with 我能成功达到这个目标吗?”如果你甚至都 this goal?” If you can’t even conceive of 不能想象它有可能成功,那你就是在浪费时 achieving it now, you’re wasting your time. If 间。如果你觉得它有可能实现的话,那就是 you can, it’s a good goal. Otherwise, it’s just 个好的目标,否则的话,那就只是个梦想。 another dream. There are four principles your 你的目标必须符合以下四项原则: goals must adhere to: 1. Your goal must be measurable. How will 1. 你的目标必须是可以度量的。你怎么知 you know if you’re getting closer to it? 道你离目标更近了?商人们怎么知道他 How do business people know if they’re 们离财务目标更近了?当然是靠数钱。 achieving their financial goals? By 所以描述你的目标时不要说“变得更 counting their money, of course. Rather than saying “get better” in your goal 好”,而是要说:“在 58 分钟内完成 40 statement, you might say, “complete a 40k 公里的计时赛”。 time trial in less than 58 minutes.” 2. Your goal must be under your control. A 2. 你的目标必须在你的控制之下。成功的 successful person does not set goals 人不会把目标建立在他人的基础上。 based on other people. “If Jones misses the “假如琼斯没有机会突破,我要赢得某 break, win XYZ race,” is not a 某比赛”之类的目标不能让你充分地投 goal that demands your commitment. “Make the winning break at the 入。但“在 Boulder 公路赛上成功地突 Boulder Road Race,” however, gets your 破!”就会让你血脉贲张。 juices flowing. 3. Your goal must stretch you. A goal that is 3. 你的目标必须对你有压力。目标太容易 too easy or too hard is the same as 或者太难实现就和没有目标一样。对一 having no goal. For a Category 3 racer, 个 3 级公路车手来说,赢得今年的全国 winning the National Pro 职业锦标赛已经超出了压力的范畴,即 Championship this year is more than a stretch, even though it’s a great 便它是一个伟大的梦想;而另一方面 dream. On the other hand, “finish the “完成俱乐部的八英里计时赛”则算不 club’s eight-mile time trial” isn’t 上什么挑战。但“升级为二级车手”很 much of a challenge. But upgrading to 可能就是很棒的目标和压力。 Category 2 would, perhaps, be an excellent stretch. 4. Whatever your goals, state them in the 4. 不管你的目标是什么,都要用肯定句来 positively. Whatever you do while reading 描述。不管你读这一节的时候在干什 this paragraph, don’t think about pink 么,都别幻想不存在的东西。明白我的 elephants. See what I mean? Your goal 意思吗?你的目标必须能够让你把心思 must keep you focused on what you want 集中在你想要发生的事情上面,而不是 5
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 8 THE TRAINING YEAR 第 8 章 训练年度 to happen, not what you want to avoid. 你想要避免的事情上。想想如果某人把 Guess what happens to people who set a 目标设定为“不能输掉某某小镇的绕圈 goal such as “Don’t lose the Podunk Ville 赛”,结果会怎样?对了,他真的会输 Criterium.” You got it, they lose because 掉比赛,因为他不知道应该为此做些什 they didn’t know what they were supposed to do. Knowing what not to do is of little 么。了解不能做什么毫无意义。 benefit. The goal should also be racing-outcome 目标还应该是以比赛结果为导向的。比 oriented. For example, don’t set a goal of 如说,不要把目标设为更快地爬坡,因为你 climbing better. That’s an objective, as we’ll 很快就会看到它的实现。而是应该设定诸如 see shortly. Instead, commit to a faster time for “能更快地完成 Evans 山公路赛”这样的目 the Mount Evans Road Race, for example. Table 8.1 offers some examples of racing- 标。表 8.1 列出了一些以比赛结果为导向的 oriented goals to help you. 目标,希望这些例子能帮助你理解。 目标 在本地区的三级公路赛中进入前十名 八月份的 40 公里计时赛成绩突破一小时 在三个 A 级绕圈赛中,获得两次前五名 升级到 2 级公路车手 在本地区的三级 B.A.R.比赛中进入前五名 在全国性的公路大师赛中进入前三名 在三级的 Mike Nields 分段式公路赛中进入总成绩排名前二十五 Table8.1 Goal Setting Examples 表 8.1 目标设定的范例 After establishing a racing-oriented goal, you 除了设立一个以比赛为导向的目标,你还可 may have one or two others that are important 以有一到两个其他的对你很重要的目标。你 to you. Give them the same consideration you 应该对这些目标一视同仁,但总数不要超过 did the first goal. Stop at three goals so things 三个,以免在接下来几个月里把事情搞得太 don’t get too complicated in the coming months. All of your goals should be listed at 复杂。你应该把全部目标都列在年度训练计 the top of the Annual Training Plan. 划的页首。 Step 2: Establish Training Objectives 第二步:设立训练目标 In Chapter 5, you determined your strengths 在第五章中,你已经确定了你的强项和弱 and weaknesses. After doing this you 项,你也完成了车手的自我评估表格。现在 completed the Cyclist Assessment form. Look 回头看看这张表格,回忆一下:哪些是你的 back at that form now to refresh your memory: 强项?哪些是弱项?哪一个弱项是你的限定 What are your strengths and weaknesses? Which of your weaknesses is a limiter? 因素? You may remember that in Chapter 6, I 你可能还记得我在第六章中解释过限定 described the concept of limiters. These are the 因素的概念。限定因素就是让你在特定的比 key race-specific weaknesses that hold you 赛中无法取得胜利的关键的弱项。在第六章 back from being successful in certain races. In 中我解释了不同类型比赛中需要不同的比赛 Chapter 6, I explained abilities required for different types of races. By comparing your 能力。通过比较你的弱项和比赛的要求你就 6
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 8 THE TRAINING YEAR 第 8 章 训练年度 weaknesses with the race’s requirements, you 会知道你的限定因素。例如以爬坡为主的比 will know your limiters. For example, a hilly 赛需要好的力量和爬坡专长。这两项中的任 race requires good force and climbing 何一个如果是你的弱项的话,都意味着你在 proficiency. A weakness in either of these areas 这个 A 级山地比赛中有一个限定因素。如果 means you have a limiter for A-priority, hilly races. You must improve in that area if you’re 你想在这个比赛中胜出,就必须改善这方面 to be successful in hilly races. 的能力。 Read your first season goal. Do any of 看看你的第一个赛季目标。有没有哪个 your weaknesses (score of 3 or lower on the 弱项(在车手自我评估中得分小于等于 3 分 Cyclist Assessment) present a limiter for this 的)成为这个目标的限定因素呢?如果有, goal? If so, you’ll need to train to improve that 你就必须通过训练来提升这个特定的弱项。 specific weakness. Under training objectives list the limiter. In the coming weeks of the 在“训练目标”之下列出这些限定因素。在 Annual Training Plan, you’ll work on 接下来的年度训练计划的执行时,你将专注 improving this race-specific weakness. Chapter 于提高这个与特定比赛相关的弱项。在第 9 9 will show you how to do that. For now the 章我会告诉你具体怎么做。现在你面临的困 challenge is knowing when you have improved 难是怎么样才能知道你已经改善了你的限定 a limiter -- in other words, being able to 因素 ―― 换句话说,怎样度量进步。 measure progress. 目标 训练目的 本地区三级公路赛进入前十名 1. 提高肌肉耐力:六月份在 57 分钟以内完成 40 公里计时赛 2. 提高爬坡能力:在基础期 1 结束前蹲举重量达到 320 磅 八月份的 40 公里计时赛成绩突 1. 提高专注能力: 在 7 月 31 日前的高速度训炼和比赛中感觉更加专注 (主观测试). 破一小时 2. 提高肌肉耐力:基础期 3 结束前乳酸阈值下的功率输出提高到 330W 在三个 A 级绕圈赛中,获得两次 1. 提高速度耐力:基础期 3 结束前提高在自然能力测评中的速度得分。 前五名 2. 提高冲刺能力: 基础期 3 结束前在功率测试中平均功率达到 700W. 升级到 2 级公路车手 1. 提高爬坡能力: 在基础期 3 结束前把功率/体重指数提高 10% 2. 提高锻炼的一致性: 在发展期完成全部的突破性训练科目 在本地区的三级 B.A.R.比赛中进 1. 提高速度技能: 2 月 12 日前,能够达到 140RPM 的踏频并保持坐在车座上(没有 入前五名 跳动) 2. 提高速度耐力:在发展期 2 结束前在乳酸阈值测试中保持 165 以上心率 4 分钟 在全国性的公路大师赛中进入前 1. 提高冲刺能力:在基础期 3 结束前在最大功率测试中达到 950W 三名 2. 提高爬坡能力:在 5 月 31 日前能够在 28 分钟内爬上 Rist 峡谷 在三级的 Mike Nields 分段式公 1. 提高肌肉耐力:比赛前的 10 周内爬 6 次 Poudre 峡谷 路赛中进入总成绩排名前二十五 2. 提高计时赛成绩: 4 月 15 日前 8 英里(13km)计时赛测试成绩少于 19 分 12 秒 Table 8.2 Limiters and Training Objectives by 表 8.2 根据赛季目标制定的限定因素和训练 Goal 目标 There are several ways to measure 度量进步有几种方式。第 5 章提供了几 progress. Chapter 5 presented several tests you 种可操作的测试方式,另外比赛和专项训练 could conduct, but races and workouts also 也能有效地指示进步。表 8.2 的范例中根据 serve as good progress indicators. Table 8.2 假设的针对某一特定目标的限定因素,得出 provides examples of training objectives for hypothetical limiters associated with specific 了相应的训练目标。你应该用类似的方式针 goals. You should write your training 对自己的每个目标写下相应的训练目标,这 7
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 8 THE TRAINING YEAR 第 8 章 训练年度 objectives for each goal in a similar manner so 样你就能了解怎样确定有没有进步。注意要 you know how to determine when progress is 为每个训练目标都设定了时限。要想达到赛 being made. Notice that time limits are set for 季目标,你必须在训练季的某个特定时间达 each objective. To accomplish the goal, you 到训练目标。如果太迟了,那就和没有达到 must meet the training objective by a certain time of the season. Too late is as good as never. 一样糟糕。 By the time you are done with this part of 到现在为止,你已经完成了的年度训练 the Annual Training Plan, you will probably 计划的目标部分,你可能已经列出了 3-5 have three to five training objectives listed. 个训练目标。它们都有短期的测量标准以备 These are short-term standards against which 你度量进步情况。 you will measure progress. Step 3: Set Annual Training Hours 第三步:设定年度训练小时数 The number of hours you train in the coming 你在即将到来的赛季中的训练小时数――包 season – including on the bike, in the weight 括了在车上的,举重房里的和交叉训练 room, and crosstraining – partly determines the 的――部分决定了你承受的负荷。这是个平 stress load you carry. It is a balancing act: an 衡的艺术:年度训练量过高可能会造成过度 annual volume that is too high will probably result in overtraining; too low and you begin to 训练;太低的话又会造成耐力退步。设定年 lose endurance. Setting annual training hours is 度训练小时数是你做训练计划时作出的最关 one of the most critical decisions you will 键的决定之一。如果你要在这方面犯错的 make about training. If you make an error here, 话,尽量犯训练小时太少的错误吧。 make it on the side of too few hours. Before discussing how to arrive at this 在讨论如何得到这个数字之前,我要先 number, I’d like to make a case for training 解释一下要按时间而不是按距离训练。按照 based on time rather than on distance. Training 距离训练会鼓励你一周接一周地重复同一条 by miles encourages you to repeat the same 路线,还会使你拿今天在同一路线上花的时 courses week after week. It also causes you to compare your time on a given course today 间与上个礼拜花的时间相比较。这样的思路 with what it was last week. Such thinking is 会降低训练效率。使用时间作为训练量的单 counterproductive. Using time as a basis for 位能让你去任何你想去的地方,只要你能在 training volume allows you to go wherever you 指定时间内能完成。你的骑行因为路线多样 want, so long as you finish within a given time. 化而更有乐趣,而且用不着关心平均速度。 Your rides are more enjoyable due to the variety and less concern for today’s average speed. How do you determine annual hours if 如果你没有保存以前训练时间的记录, you haven’t kept track of time in the past? 那么该怎样才能确定你的年度训练小时呢? Most cyclists keep a record of the miles 大部分车手都记录了他们的骑行里程,如果 they’ve ridden. If you have such a record 你有这样的记录的话,把它除以你估计的平 divide the total by what you guess the average speed to have been – 18 miles per hour would 均速度――比如平均每小时 18 英里 be a reasonable guess. If you’ve also (28.8km/h)就比较合理。如果你还做了交 crosstrained and lifted weights, estimate how 叉训练和举重,那么估计一下去年你在这方 many hours you put into those activities in the 面花了多少时间。把这些数字加起来,你就 8
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 8 THE TRAINING YEAR 第 8 章 训练年度 past year. By adding all of the estimates 有了一个大致的年度训练小时数的范围。 together, you have a ballpark figure for your annual training hours. Looking back over the last three years you 回顾过去三年中训练量的变化,你就能 can easily see trends in training volume. If so, 很容易地找出规律。如果有规律的话,那么 did you race better in the high-volume years or 在训练量较大的年度里你的比赛成绩更好一 worse? There were undoubtedly other factors 些还是更差一些呢?毫无疑问,还会有别的 in your performance at those times, but this may help you to decide what the training 因素影响你当时的成绩,但这种方式可以帮 volume should be for the coming season. 助你决定下一个赛季应该用多大的训练量。 Even without records of annual miles or 即使没有每年的训练里程数或者小时数 hours trained, you may be able to produce an 的记录,你也可以做出估算。那会让你有一 estimate. That will give you a starting point. To 个起点。你可以这么做:在一张纸上粗略写 do this, jot down on a piece of paper what a 下你的典型的一周训练情况——不是你的最 typical training week looks like for you – neither your highest nor lowest volume. Add 高训练量也不是最低的训练量。把该周每天 these daily rimes and multiply by 50 for a very 的训练时间加起来,然后乘以 50 就得到了 rough gauge of how many hours you train 一个非常粗略的每年训练小时数。 annually. Table 8.3 offers a rough guideline of the 表 8.3 提供了一份关于各个级别的公路 annual hours typical of cyclists by racer 车手典型的年度训练小时数的粗略参考。你 category. This should not be considered a 不应该把它当作是“必须的”训练量。我就 “required” volume. I know of many riders with 知道很多骑了八到十年车的车手,他们的训 ten or more years of racing who put in fewer miles than those suggested here for their 练时间比他们那个级别对应的建议值要少, category and yet race quite well. The volume of 但仍然在比赛中表现很好。训练量的很大部 training has a lot to do with developing 分是为了培养耐力,如果经过多年的骑行已 endurance. With endurance already established 经建立了良好的耐力,你也可以把重点转移 by years of riding, you can shift your emphasis 到强度上。 toward intensity. 级别 小时/年 职业车手 800-1,200 1-2 级 700-1,000 3级 500-700 4级 350-500 5 级(初级) 200-350 Table 8.3 Annual Training Hours by Racer 表 8.3 各级别车手的年度训练小时数 Category Limiting the number of hours an athlete 相比于制定一个雄心勃勃的训练量然后 trains produces better results than struggling 苦苦挣扎,限制运动员的训练小时数的结果 through an overly ambitious volume. If you 要好的多。如果你有一个全职工作,有家 have a full-time job, a family, a home to 庭,以及家务事,和其他的社会责任,那么 maintain, and other responsibilities, be realistic – don’t expect to train with the same volume as 就要现实一点――别指望达到专业车手的训 练量,训练是他们的工作。 9
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 8 THE TRAINING YEAR 第 8 章 训练年度 the pros. Training is their job. If, however, you have not been 但是如果你以前没什么竞争力,而且你 competitive in the past, and fall well below the 的年度训练小时数远远低于你对应级别的建 suggested annual hours for your category, it 议值,那你最好考虑把训练小时数增加到你 may be wise to consider increasing your 对应级别的最低值——只要增加的训练量没 volume to the lower figure in your category range so long as this is not more than a 15- 有超过 15%。否则的话,你要年年阶段性地 percent increase. Otherwise, increases in your 增加训练小时数,每年增加率在 5%-10%的 annual hours from year to year should be in the 范围内。 range of 5 to 10 percent. Many professional business people have 许多职业商务人士由于出差和工作职责 limitations imposed on their training time by 限制了他们的训练时间。在这种情况下确定 travel and work responsibilities. Determining 年度训练小时数就必须严格依据其可利用的 annual hours in this case is based strictly on 时间而定。在年度训练计划的页首写下你的 what is available. Write your annual training hours at the top of the Annual Training Plan. 年度训练小时数。后面你要利用这个数值来 Later you’ll use that figure to assign weekly 分配每周的训练小时数。 training hours. Step 4: Prioritize Races 第四步:确定比赛的优先级 For this step you need a list of the races you 做这一步之前,先把你准备参加的比赛列张 will be doing. If the race schedule has not been 清单。如果比赛日期还没有公布,那么就以 published yet, go back to last year’s race 去年该项比赛的举办时间为准估算他们今年 calendar and guess which days they’ll be on. 的时间。几乎所有的比赛都是在每年的同一 Races nearly always stay on the same weekends from year to year. 个周末举行的。 On the Annual Training Plan, list all of the 在年度训练计划的“比赛”那一栏按时 races you intend to do by writing them into the 间顺序填入所有你想参加的比赛。别忘了计 “Races” column in the appropriate date rows. 划表上的日期是每周的周一。这是一份包含 Remember that the date indicated is the 了所有可能会参加的比赛的列表。你也许会 Monday of that week. This should be an inclusive list of tentative races. You may 在以后决定不参加其中某些比赛,但现在你 decide later not to do some of these races, but 应该假定全部都会参加。 for now you should assume you’ll do them all. The next step is to prioritize the races into 下一步就是把这些比赛划分为 A,B,C three categories – A, B, and C – using the 3 个等级 —— 按照以下的准则。如果你的车 criteria that follows. If your team is well 队组织完善的话,车队经理可能会对本赛季 organized, the team manager may have some 比赛的优先级提出自己的建议。所以在做决 input on the priorities of the season. Better check with him or her before going beyond this 定前最好先和他或她商量一下。 point. A Races A 级赛事 Pick out the three or four races – no more than 从列表中挑选出三到四个比赛——不要超过 10
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 8 THE TRAINING YEAR 第 8 章 训练年度 this – that are most important to you this year. 这个数——这些是今年对你最重要的比赛。 A stage race counts as one race and two A- 多赛段的比赛算做一个比赛,同一个周末的 priority races on the same weekend count as 两个 A 级比赛也算做一个比赛。A 级赛事不 one race. An A-priority race isn’t necessarily 一定是压力最大的或奖金最高的。它可以是 the one that gets the most press or has the biggest prize purse. It could be the 某个无名小镇的公路赛,但如果你就住在这 Nowhereville Road Race, but if you live in 个无名小镇 ,那它可能就是今年对你来说最 Nowhereville, that could be the big race of the 重要的比赛。 year for you. The A-priority races are the most A 级赛事是日程表上最重要的比赛,所 important on the schedule and all training will 有的训练都要围绕它们而设计。训练的目标 be designed around them. The purpose of 就是为这些 A 级赛事培养能力并适时地达到 training is to build and peak for these A races. 身体素质的顶峰。 It’s best that these races be dumped 如果这些比赛全都能安排在 2-3 周里 together in two or three weeks or widely sepa- 面,或者分散在 8 周或更长的时间里,那就 rated by eight or more weeks. For example, 最好不过了。举例来说,其中两场比赛安排 two of the races may fall into a three-week 在 5 月的某 3 周里面,而其他两场则紧挨着 period in May and the other two could be close together in August. Then again, two may occur 排在八月份里。又比如,五月份有两场,七 in May, one in July, and the other in 月份一场,而另一场在九月份。问题的关键 September. The idea is that in order to come to 是为了能在下一场最重要的比赛来临时到达 a peak for each of these most important races, a 顶峰状态,我们起码需要几周的时间。在两 period of several weeks will be needed. During 场 A 级赛事之间的时期,你仍然会去比赛, this time between A races you will still race, 但却不是在最佳状态。要知道每经受一次身 but won’t be in top form. Realize that every 体压力和达到高峰的过程,你都会损失一些 time you go through the tapering and peaking 基本的身体素质。所以如果 A 级比赛发生地 process you lose some base fitness. So if your A-priority races occur frequently with little 太过频繁,身体就来不及重建最基础的身体 time to re-establish the most basic abilities of 素质和能力,竞技水平也会随之下降。这就 fitness between them, performance will 是为什么 A 级赛事必须要限制在 3 到 4 个, decline. This is why the number of A races is 而且其举办时间最好能远远隔开的原因。一 limited to three or four, and it is best if they are 般来说,一年中最重要的比赛最好是在赛季 widely separated on the calendar. It’s generally 末举办,因为那个时候你的身体素质很可能 best for the single most important race of the 处于最高的水准。 year to come near the end of the season when your fitness is likely to be at the highest level possible. If your A races aren’t neatly spaced or 如果你的 A 级赛事没法象我描述的这样 grouped as I’ve described here, don’t worry. 理想地分布或组合,也不要担心。安排赛季 Season priorities are not determined by the 比赛的优先级不是靠时间表,而是看你的目 calendar, but rather by goals. A schedule, 标。不过,如果不能合理地为比赛日程安排 however, that doesn’t conveniently space the races makes planning and coming to a peak 空隙的话,就会给做计划和到达顶峰状态带 much more difficult, as you will see. 来非常大的困难。下面你就会看到。 In the “Pri” column write in “A” for all of 在你的 A 级赛事的“优先级”一栏写上 your A-priority races. Again, there should be “A”。重申一下:不要超过 3-4 个。 11
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 8 THE TRAINING YEAR 第 8 章 训练年度 no more than three or four of these. B Races B 级赛事 These are important races at which you want to 这些也是你想有所做为的重要的比赛,但是 do well, but they’re not as critical as the A 没有 A 级赛事那么关键。你会在这些比赛前 races. You’ll rest for a few days before each of 休息几天,但用不着达到高峰状态。这类比 them, but not build to a peak. There may be as 赛可能多达 12 个。和 A 级赛事一样,分段 many as twelve of these, and as with the A- priority events, stage races count as one as do 赛以及同一个周末的两场 B 级比赛都算做是 two B races on the same weekend. 一场比赛。 In the Pri column write in “B” for all of 在这些比赛的“优先级”一栏写上 these races. “B”。 C Races C 级赛事 You now have up to sixteen weeks dedicated to 现在你已经安排了差不多 16 周用于 A 级和 either A or B races. That’s most of the racing B 级赛事――这些就是本赛季的最大一部 season. All the other races on the list are C- 分,而其他所有的比赛都是 C 级。参加 C 级 priority. C races are done for experience, as 赛事可被视作增长经验,或者艰苦的训练, hard workouts, as tests of progress, for fun, or as tune-ups for A races. You will “train 用来测试是否有进步,为了好玩或者为 A 级 through” these races with no peaking and 赛事调整状态。你会以训练心态参加这些比 minimal rest before each one. They are 赛,不用达到顶峰状态,也不用很好地休 essentially hard workouts. It’s not unusual to 息。其实它们就是艰苦的训练而已。在这类 decide at the last moment not to do one of these 比赛开始前最后一刻决定不去参加也是很正 low-priority events. If your heart isn’t in it, 常的。如果那天你觉得不舒服,那你最好不 you’d be better off training that day – or 要训练,或者说休息。 resting. Be careful with C races. They are the ones 参加 C 级赛事要小心。因为你可能很 in which you’re most likely to crash or go over 累,也没有赛出好成绩的欲望,在这种状态 the edge into a state of overtraining, since you 下比赛很可能会引起身体崩溃或者滑入过度 may be tired and have low motivation to 训练的边缘。参加这类比赛还常常是因为偶 perform well. They are also usually associated with haphazard racing and confused incentives. 然性的心血来潮或者不明确的动机。你的日 Every race should have a meaning in your 程表上每一场比赛都应该有意义,所以在参 schedule, so decide before a C race what you 加 C 级赛事前好好想想你想从中获得什么。 want to get out of it. The more experienced you 越有经验的车手参加的 C 级赛事越少。与之 are as a racer, the fewer C races you should do. 相反,新手和 4,5 级车手应该多参加一些 Conversely, juniors and Category IV and V 这类比赛来积累经验。 riders should do several to gain experience. Just because you classified a race as a C- 把某场比赛归入 C 级,并不意味着你在 priority doesn’t mean that you won’t give it 比赛中不尽全力,它只意味着这是一次专项 your best shot. It merely means that this is a 训练,而你参加比赛时可能略有倦意。如果 workout and you’re probably coming into it 参加这场比赛符合你的目标的话,你还是应 carrying a bit of fatigue. You may still give it everything you’ve got, if that fits with your 该倾尽全力,但要认识到如果比赛结果不理 purpose in doing a given race, but realize that if 想那也是正常的 —— 因为这不过是一场 C 12
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 8 THE TRAINING YEAR 第 8 章 训练年度 the outcome isn’t what you’d like that there are 级赛事而已。 reasons for this – and it was just a C race anyway. Step 5: Divide Year into Periods 第五步:把一年按周期性分段 Now that the times in the year when you want 既然你已经知道你要在一年中什么时候达到 to be in top form are known (where the A- 顶峰状态(就是表中 A 级赛事的举办时 priority races are listed), periods can be 间),那么现在就可以来划分阶段了。第 7 assigned. Chapter 7 described the six training 章已经描述了一年中的六个训练周期。为帮 periods of the year. To refresh your memory, Table 8.4 summarizes each. 助你回忆,表 8.4 对它们的内容作了汇总。 阶段 持续时间 训练重点 准备期 3-4 周 举重的一般性适应,交叉训练和踏频练习 基础期 8-12 周 建立力量,速度技能和耐力。引入肌肉耐力和爬 坡训练 发展期 6-10 周 培养肌肉耐力,速度耐力和力度 高峰期 1-2 周 减少训练量,用比赛调整状态,巩固赛前状态 比赛期 1-3 周 比赛,优化力量,恢复 过渡期 1-6 周 休息和恢复 Table8.4 Periodization Summary 表 8.4 周期性训练概要 Find the week of your first A race on the 在训练计划表格上找到第一个 A 级赛 schedule and in the “Period” column write in 事,在“阶段”那一栏写上“比赛”。你的 “Race.” This first Race period extends 第一个比赛期可以从这时开始向后延伸大约 throughout your clumping of A races and could 3 周,尽量把所有时间上能凑在一起的 A 级 be as long as three weeks. Count (up the page) two weeks from “Race” and write in “Peak.” 比赛包括进来。然后从比赛期向上数两周, Now work backward three (those over 40 years 标记为“高峰”。再往上数 3 周(对于 40 of age or so) or four weeks from Peak and 岁以上的读者)或 4 周,标记为“发展 indicate “Build 2.” Using duration as indicated 2”。按照表 8.4 上建议的持续时间,继续重 in Table 8.4, do the same for Build 1 (3-4 复这个过程,依次标记“发展 1”(3-4 weeks), Base 3 (3-4 weeks), Base 2 (3-4 周),基础 3(3-4 周),基础 2(3-4 weeks), Base 1 (3-4 weeks), and Prep (3-4 周),基础 1(3-4 周),准备(3-4 周)。 weeks). The first part of the year is now 这样年度计划的第一部分就完成了。 scheduled. Go to your second A race and write in 按照同样办法,找到你的下一个 A 级比 “Race” as you did above. Count backward two 赛以及比赛期。往前数两周,标记为“顶 weeks and write in “Peak” again. Then count 峰”。再往上 3 周或 4 周标记为“发展 back three or four weeks for Build 2 and 2”,再往上 3 周或 4 周标记为“发展 1”。 another three or four for Build 1. It’s not necessary to repeat the Base period unless your 这时不需要再重复“基础期”,除非你的上 first peak has a two- or three-week Race 一个比赛期持续了 2-3 周,或者你感觉到 period, or you feel that your base abilities, 自己的基础能力,特别是耐力和力量有下 especially endurance and force, are being lost, 降,又或者你在第一次比赛期之后加入了 or you included a Transition period following “过渡期”(顺便插一句,这是种很不错的 13
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 8 THE TRAINING YEAR 第 8 章 训练年度 your first Race period of the season (which, by 做法)。 the way, is a very good idea), It’s unlikely that the Build-Peak period 不过,在两次比赛期之间的发展期和高 between your two Race periods will work out 峰期的时间安排不太可能正好是每个阶段分 exactly with this number of weeks assigned to 配好的周数。一旦定好了第二个比赛期,你 each period. Once you have the second Race 也许必须得修改相关的几个训练期的长度, period scheduled, it may be necessary to change the lengths of the various periods to 以便你既可以增强身体素质又能够有计划地 make it work out so that you both improve your 安排休息时间。要记住我们划分训练期的目 fitness and allow for scheduled rest weeks. 的是为了保证你能为 A 级赛事做好准备。只 Remember that our purpose in assigning 有你能最终确定各个训练时期对你的意义, periods at this point is to make sure you are 因为只有你自己知道你的身体素质需要在赛 ready for the A-priority races. Only you can 季的某个时候达到是什么样子。为了达到赛 determine what this means in terms of training 季的第二个高峰期,你很可能需要根据你当 since you are the only one who knows what 时的情况临时调整原先的计划。重申一下, your fitness is like at a given point in the season. It may well be necessary to change 我们在年初制定的年度训练计划只是用来带 your plan for the second peak of the season 领你起步的,随着当年训练的提高和深入, once you reach that point. Again, the Annual 要准备好随时根据情况的变化修改它。 Training Plan as we develop it early in the year is merely a guide to get you started. Be prepared to change it as you progress through the year. It’s a good idea to schedule a five- to 另外,最好能在第一个比赛期之后安排 seven-day Transition after your first Race 一个 5-7 天的过渡期,这会让你的身体得 period to allow for recovery and to prevent 到恢复从而避免引起赛季中的衰竭现象。到 burnout later in the season. This always pays 了赛季后期你会得到回报的,那时你会有更 off with higher enthusiasm for training and greater fitness for late-season races. Following 高的训练热情和更好的身体素质。在赛季的 the last Race period of the season, schedule a 最后一个比赛期结束后,要安排一个较长的 longer Transition period. 过渡期。 If this step in the planning process seems 如果你仍对以上这些步骤感到困惑,你 confusing, you may want to look ahead to 可以直接跳到第 11 章,那里介绍了关于年 Chapter 11 where case studies describe the 度计划的具体实例分析。 annual plan further. Step 6: Assign Weekly Hours 第六步 分配每周的训练时间 Throughout the season there is a wave-like 在整个赛季中,训练量的增减以波浪形模式 pattern of increasing and decreasing volume. 上下变化,如图 7.3 所展示的那样。这种模 Figure 7.3 also illustrates this. The purpose of 式是为了确保你的耐力的同时,能够增加训 this pattern is to make sure your endurance is 练强度而不至于使你的身体过度劳累。在这 maintained, but also to permit increases in intensity without overly stressing your body’s 一步,我们要以表 8.5 作为参考,记下每周 systems. In this step, you’ll write in the weekly 的训练小时数。 training hours using Table 8.5 as a guide. 14
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 8 THE TRAINING YEAR 第 8 章 训练年度 阶段 周 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 准备期 全部 3.5 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 7.5 8.5 9.0 10.0 11.0 基础期 1 1 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 12.5 2 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.5 9.5 10.5 12.0 13.0 14.5 15.5 3 5.5 6.5 8.0 9.5 10.5 12.0 13.5 14.5 16.0 17.5 4 3.0 3.5 4.0 5.0 5.5 6.5 7.0 8.0 8.5 9.0 基础期 2 1 4.0 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 12.5 12.5 13.0 2 5.0 6.5 7.5 9.0 10.0 11.5 12.5 14.0 15.0 16.5 3 5.5 7.0 8.5 10.0 11.0 12.5 14.0 15.5 17.0 18.0 4 3.0 3.5 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.5 7.0 8.0 8.5 9.0 基础期 3 1 4.5 5.5 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.5 13.5 14.5 2 5.0 6.5 8.0 9.5 10.5 12.0 13.5 14.5 16.0 17.0 3 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 11.5 13.0 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.0 4 3.0 3.5 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.5 7.0 8.0 8.5 9.0 发展期 1 1 5.0 6.5 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.5 12.5 14.0 15.5 16.0 2 5.0 6.5 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.5 12.5 14.0 15.5 16.0 3 5.0 6.5 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.5 12.5 14.0 15.5 16.0 4 3.0 3.5 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.5 7.0 8.0 8.5 9.0 发展期 2 1 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.5 9.5 10.5 12.0 13.0 14.5 15.5 2 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.5 9.5 10.5 12.0 13.0 14.5 15.5 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.5 9.5 10.5 12.0 13.0 14.5 15.5 4 3.0 3.5 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.5 7.0 8.0 8.5 9.0 高峰期 1 4.0 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 11.5 13.0 13.5 2 3.5 4.0 5.0 6.0 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.0 11.0 比赛期 全部 3.0 3.5 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.5 7.0 8.0 8.5 9.0 过渡期 全部 3.0 3.5 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.5 7.0 8.0 8.5 9.0 15
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 8 THE TRAINING YEAR 第 8 章 训练年度 阶段 周 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 准备期 全部 12.0 12.5 13.5 14.5 15.0 16.0 17.0 17.5 18.5 19.5 20.0 基础期 1 1 14.0 14.5 15.5 16.5 17.5 18.5 19.5 20.5 21.5 22.5 23.5 2 16.5 18.0 19.0 20.0 21.5 22.5 24.0 25.0 26.0 27.5 28.5 3 18.5 20.0 21.5 22.5 24.0 25.5 26.5 28.0 29.5 30.5 32.0 4 10.0 10.5 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.5 14.0 14,5 15.5 16.0 17.0 基础期 2 1 14.5 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0 21.0 22,0 23.0 24.0 25.0 2 17.5 19.0 20.0 21.5 22.5 24.0 25.0 26.6 27.5 29.0 30.0 3 19.5 21.0 22.5 24.0 25.0 26.5 28.0 29.5 31.0 32.0 33.5 4 10.0 10.5 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.5 14.0 15.0 15.5 16.0 17.0 基础期 3 1 15.5 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0 21.0 22.5 23.5 25.0 25.5 27.0 2 18.5 20.0 21.5 23.0 24.0 25.0 26.5 28.0 29.5 30.5 32.0 3 20.5 22.0 23.5 25.0 26.5 28.0 29.5 31.0 32.5 33.5 35.0 4 10.0 10.5 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.5 14.0 15.0 15.5 16.0 17.0 发展期 1 1 17.5 19.0 20.5 21.5 22.5 24.0 25.0 26.5 28.0 29.0 30.0 2 17.5 19.0 20.5 21.5 22.5 24.0 25.0 26.5 28.0 29.0 30.0 3 17.5 190 20.5 21.5 22.5 24.0 25.0 26.5 28.0 29.0 30.0 4 10.0 10.5 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.5 14.0 15.0 15.5 16.0 17.0 发展期 2 1 16.5 18.0 19.0 20.5 21.5 22.5 24.0 25.0 26.5 27.0 28.5 2 16.5 18.0 19.0 20.5 21.5 22.5 24.0 25.0 26.5 27.0 28.5 16.5 18.0 19.0 20.5 21.5 22.5 24.0 25.0 26.5 27.0 28.5 4 10.0 10.5 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.5 14.0 15.0 15.5 16.0 17.0 高峰期 1 14.5 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0 21.0 22.0 23.5 24.0 25.0 2 11.5 12.5 13.5 14.5 15.0 16.0 17.0 17.5 18.5 19.0 20.0 比赛期 全部 10.0 10.5 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.5 14.0 15.0 15.5 16.0 17.0 过渡期 全部 10.0 10.5 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.5 14.0 15.0 15.5 16.0 17.0 Table 8.5 Weekly Training Hours 表 8.5 每周训练小时数 16
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 8 THE TRAINING YEAR 第 8 章 训练年度 Now that you know annual hours and have 现在你已经知道了年度总训练小时数, divided the year into periods, you’re ready to 并把整个年度按周期性做了划分,这样你就 assign weekly training hours. Find the annual 可以开始分配每周的训练小时数了。在表 hours column in Table 8.5. In that column 8.5 中找到年度小时数那一列,那一列中的 weekly hours are in half-hour increments. On the left side of the table are all of the periods 小时数是以半个小时为单位的。在表的左边 and weeks. By reading across and down, 列出了全部的周期及其周数。查阅这张表得 determine the number of hours for each week 到每周的小时数,填入年度训练计划的“小 and write those in under “Hours” on the 时数”那一栏。如果你的年龄超过了 40 岁 Annual Training Plan, If you are over forty 或者在赛季里安排了一些三周长的训练期, years of age or have scheduled some three- 那么就省略表中的第三周的内容。在第 14 week periods during the season, leave out week 章有针对年老车手如何训练的完整讨论。 3 for each of these periods. There is a more complete discussion of training for older riders in Chapter 14. You’ve now completed the Annual 现在你已经基本完成了年度训练计划, Training Plan with the exception of the 除了训练内容部分以外,我们将会在第 9 章 workouts portion, which we will tackle in 解决那一部分。 Chapter 9. 17
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 9 Planning Workouts 第 9 章 计划训练内容 Chapter 9 PLANNING 第9章 计划训练内容 WORKOUTS The novelty of riding thirty-hour weeks wore off a 很久以前我就对每周骑 30 个小时车不抱任何新 long time ago. 鲜感了。 – STEVE LARSEN ――STEVE LARSEN If there's one thing you're getting out of this 如果到目前为止你从本书中只学到了一样东 book so far, I hope it's that training should be 西,那么我希望你学到的是训练应该是有目 purposeful and precise to meet your unique 的地精确地满足你的独特需要。随意的训练 needs. Training haphazardly brings results 只能带来初步的效果,但要想达到最高水平 initially, but to reach the highest level of racing fitness, carefully planned workouts are 的比赛能力,你必须小心地计划你的训练内 necessary. Before starting any training session, 容。开始本赛季的任何训练之前,不管是最 from the easiest to the hardest, you must be 简单还是最难的训练,你必须要回答这样一 able to answer one simple question: What is the 个简单问题:这项训练科目的目的是什么? purpose of this workout? When training for high performance, that 为了达到更高的比赛能力的训练,其目 purpose is one of three possibilities: 的无非是以下三者之一:改善能力,保持能 improvement of ability, maintenance of ability, 力,或积极地恢复。怎样把这三种训练目标 or active recovery. How these three are mixed 揉合起来变成每周的训练内容将最终决定你 into every week of training ultimately determines how well you race. This chapter 的比赛成绩。本章就将介绍如何设计你每周 provides a method for designing your training 的训练内容。 week. ATP Workout Categories 年度计划中的训练分类 In the last four chapters, I've described a 在前面四章中,我已经描述了一个基于力量 system of planning based on strengths and 和限定因素的训练系统。本章将教你根据你 limiters. In this chapter, you will complete the 的限定因素来计划每周的训练内容,从而完 training plan by scheduling daily workouts 成整个训练计划的编制。为了更明智地选择 determined by your limiters. To intelligently select workouts, it's important that you know 训练科目,你需要知道你的限定因素所在。 what your limiters are. If you haven't read 如果你还没有读过第 5 章和第 6 章,那么请 Chapters 5 and 6, do so before planning 先阅读它们。了解你努力的目标所在能够使 workouts. Knowing what you need to work on 你的计划更有目的性,也更精确。 will make your plan purposeful and precise. You are not going to schedule every 你不需要为 52 周的年度训练计划中的 workout for all fifty-two weeks on your Annual 每一周编制训练内容。除了耐力保持科目之 Training Plan now. With the exception of 外,你只需要规定“突破性”的训练科目就 endurance-maintenance workouts, you will 行了。这类科目能带来身体压力以及前面描 only be determining the “breakthrough” (BT) workouts. These are the ones that provide the 述过的身体适应恢复过程。积极恢复性的训 stress to start the adaptive process described 练是你需要在两次“突破性”训练之间完成 1
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 9 Planning Workouts 第 9 章 计划训练内容 earlier. Active recovery workouts, the ones you 的,这类训练不需要写进计划,但你马上就 do between the BTs, will not be scheduled 会看到,这也是你每周计划的一部分。 now, but will be a part of your weekly plan as you will soon see. You should base these workouts on the 你应该基于年度训练计划(图 8.1)顶 abilities listed at the top of the Annual Training 端的能力列表来决定训练科目。注意除我们 Plan (see Figure 8.1). Notice that there are two 前面已经讨论过的各项能力以外,还有两类 categories of workouts added to the abilities 训练科目:“举重阶段”和“测试”。在开 we've discussed before: “Strength Phase” and “Testing”. It may be helpful before you start 始做该步骤的计划之前,让我们先重温一下 this planning step to review all of the workout 表中训练内容的每一列的含义。 columns listed. Strength Phase 举重训练阶段 In this column you will schedule weight room 在这一列你需要计划健身房里的训练。这是 workouts. This is an aspect of cycling training 单车训练计划中常常被忽略的方面,特别是 that is often neglected, especially by riders 那些限定因素是力量能力的车手。我的经验 whose limiter is force. It has been my 是:对于那些踩踏力量不足的车手来说,该 experience that measurable results on the bike are more evident from this type of training than 项训练给骑车能力带来的可测量的效果要比 any other in athletes who lack the ability to 其他训练的效果更明显。经过一个冬天的举 apply force to the pedals. They are always 重训练后,到了春天他们常常会惊诧地发现 amazed at how strong they feel riding in the 自己骑车时会感觉如此地有力量。 spring after a winter of weights. The details of the strength phases listed 以下列出的力量训练的各个阶段在第 below are discussed in Chapter 12, but with a 12 章中会详细讨论,不过现在你只需要其 little information you can complete the 中一点信息就足够完成举重阶段的计划了, Strength Phase column now by penciling in the 然后用铅笔在该列中相关位置记下不同阶段 abbreviations for the various phases. Here's how to determine the duration of each weight 的缩写代号。以下将介绍怎么确定各个举重 room phase. If you're a bit confused, flip ahead 阶段的时间跨度。如果你感觉有疑问的话, to Chapter 11 for examples of completed 可以跳到第 11 章参考已完成的年度训练计 Annual Training Plans. 划的例子。 Preparation Period: Anatomical Adaptation 准备期:解剖学适应(AA)和最大过渡阶 (AA) and Maximum Transition (MT) 段(MT) On your Annual Training Plan, for the first two 在你的年度训练计划表格中,在准备期的前 or three weeks of the Preparation period, write 2 或 3 周的举重一栏写上“AA”。该举重阶 in “AA” under the Strength column. This weight room phase prepares the body for the 段能让身体为接下来更大压力做好准备。准 stresses that are to follow. For the last week of 备期的最后一到两周是最大过渡阶段 the Preparation period include one or two (MT)。顾名思义,MT 阶段是让你做好 weeks of MT (Maximum Transition). As the 准备更顺利地过渡到负荷更重的最大力量阶 name implies, MT is a transitional phase that 段。 better prepares you for the heavier lifting of the 2
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 9 Planning Workouts 第 9 章 计划训练内容 MS phase. Base 1 Period: Maximum Strength (MS) 基础期 1:最大力量阶段(MS) Write in “MS” for each week of Base 1. If you 在基础期 1 的每周写下“MS”。如果你是 are a master who is training in three-week 个老将,每个训练周期为 3 周,则需要延伸 periods, extend MS by one week into the Base 到基础期 2 的第一周,以保证 MS 的计划时 2 period so that you schedule four total MS weeks. 间有完整的 4 周。 All Other Periods: Strength Maintenance 所有其他周期:力量保持阶段(SM) (SM) 在赛季的剩余时间里,需要短时间和大重量 For the remainder of the season, basic strength 的举重训练来保持基础力量。20 多岁的骑 is maintained with brief workouts and heavy 手如果本身力量较强也许可以从基础期 1 之 loads. Riders in their twenties with good force may omit weight room strength training from 后就忽略这类健身房里的力量训练。但我建 their schedules starting with Build 1. All 议所有的女性和年龄超过 40 岁的人在整个 women and men over about forty years of age 赛季里坚持 SM 阶段的举重训练。在 A 级赛 are advised to continue the SM phase of 事举行的那一周不要安排举重训练。 weights throughout the season. During the week of A-priority races schedule no weight training. Endurance 耐力 Racing on the roads is primarily an endurance 公路比赛主要是一项耐力运动。在长距离骑 sport. The ability to delay the onset of fatigue 行中延缓疲劳发作的能力是公路车手与场地 during long rides is what sets road racers apart 赛车手之间的分野。因此,年度训练计划表 from track racers. For this reason, the 中的耐力一栏会常常被选中。在全年每个礼 Endurance column will be frequently selected on the Annual Training Plan form. You will 拜里你都要以某种形式进行耐力练习,因为 work on endurance in some form nearly every 一旦你失去了耐力能力,想要全面恢复它所 week of the year, for once you have lost 花的时间是相当长的。这并不是说在整个赛 endurance, the time required to fully restore it 季中你的耐力都不能有任何波动。经过一个 is exorbitant. That's not to say that there won't 长时间的比赛周期之后,你的耐力有可能会 be fluctuations in your endurance throughout 衰退,这时你必须重回基础期的训练来重建 the season. Following an extended Race period, 耐力,然后你才能够获得第二个身体素质的 your endurance is likely to wane, and you must 高峰期。 work to rebuild it by returning to the Base period before you are able to attain another high peak. Force 力量 This Force column refers to on-bike workouts 力量一栏指的是诣在改善肌肉动力的车上训 intended to improve muscle dynamics, while 练内容,而举重阶段一栏指的是在健身房里 the Strength Phase column consists of off-bike 进行的无车训练。如果你住在地形有起伏的 3
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 9 Planning Workouts 第 9 章 计划训练内容 workouts usually done in the weight room. If 地区的话,就用爬坡做为车上的力量训练项 you don't live in a vertically challenged region, 目。在本章稍后部分的训练科目清单里,我 use hills for on-bike force training. Later on in 会提到山峰的坡度。以下的解释能够帮助你 the workout menu section of this chapter, I'll 为专门的训练科目选择合适坡度的山峰。 refer to hills by percentage grades. Here's a guide to help you select the proper types of hills for specific workouts. 2-4 percent grade: Slight hill. In a car on 坡度 2-4%:缓坡。在汽车里面,你 a 2 percent grade you may not even know 也许感觉不到它正驶在这样的坡上。你可以 there's a grade. You could easily ride these hills 用大牙盘轻松地爬上这样的山坡。这种坡常 in the big chainring. These are often described 被描述为“轻柔起伏的山峰”。 as “gently rolling hills.” 4-6 percent grade: Moderate hill. These 坡度 4-6%:中等坡。在比赛中这种 hills get your attention in races, but are seldom 坡会引起你的注意,但很少会是比赛结果的 determining factors. You could ride them in the 决定因素。你仍可以用大牙盘骑上去,但到 big chainring, but may drop down to the small 后来也许会换成小牙盘。 chainring. 坡度 6-8%:陡坡。这是你在州际或 6-8 percent grade: Steep hill. These are 联邦高速公路上能找到的最陡的坡了。这些 the steepest hills you generally find on state 山坡,尤其是比较长的那种,常常决定了最 and federal highways. Such hills, especially if 终的冠军归属。爬这种坡一般都需要用小牙 they're long, often determine the winning move. These are usually climbed in the small 盘。 chainring. 坡度 8-10%:非常陡的坡。这些山峰 8-10 percent grade: Very steep hill. 常常是比赛的决定因素。你只能用小牙盘爬 These hills are always a determiner in a race. 上去。在这种山峰上的训练对所有的车手来 They are climbed only in the small chainring. 说都是很有挑战性的。 A workout on such a hill is challenging for 坡度 10%+:极其陡峭的坡。这些山 riders of all abilities. 峰大多隐藏在崇山峻岭的深处。而在人口众 10+ percent grade: Extremely steep hill. 多的地区,这类坡一般都很短。爬坡时不管 These hills are most often found in remote areas or in the mountains. In more populated 是谁都得用上小牙盘,而有些车手甚至根本 areas, they are usually quite short. Everyone 就爬不上去。爬这类坡会让你哭爹喊娘。 climbs in the small chainring. Some riders have difficulty just getting over them. They make you cry for your mother. If you do live in a vertically challenged 如果你住在地形平缓的地区――比如堪 environment – the plains of Kansas or Florida's 萨斯大平原或佛罗里达平坦的海滨地区―― flat coastal terrain – don't despair. The real 也不必绝望。爬坡的真正好处在于能提供较 benefit of hills is that they offer greater 大的阻力。你可以通过大齿比或顶风坐着踩 resistance. You can achieve a similar result with big gears and head winds while sitting up, 车,或用好的室内训练台达到相似的效果。 or on a good indoor trainer. Highway 高速公路的引桥相当于 4%坡度的短坡。多 overpasses offer short hills of about 4 percent 层的停车场也很类似于山坡――别忘了先征 grade. Multilevel parking garages are great 得管理员的同意。 simulated mountains – just remember to ask the attendant's permission first. 4
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 9 Planning Workouts 第 9 章 计划训练内容 Speed Skills 速度技能 Do not get speed skills confused with anaerobic 不要把速度技能和无氧耐力搞混了。在练习 endurance. While working on speed skills you 速度技能时,你不需要做间歇或者在团队训 are not doing intervals or hammering on group 练中领骑。该栏的训练内容的目标是改善你 rides. The purpose of workouts in this column 的灵活性――当快速地平滑地转动曲柄时能 is always to improve mobility – the ability to handle the bike efficiently and effectively 够更有效地更经济地控车的能力。在基础期 while turning the cranks quickly and smoothly. 这类训练科目大多是在训练台或滚筒上进行 In the Base period, many of these workouts 的,做这类练习时一般是以较小的齿轮比和 will be drills on a trainer or rollers that 较高的踏频来重点训练踩踏机制,从而使你 exaggerate the mechanics of pedaling, typically 的踩踏更流畅更圆熟。在公路上的速度技能 in a low gear at a high cadence, in order to 训练包括假冲刺,高速踏频练习,以及冲刺 become more fluid and supple. On the road, 所需的控车技巧。 speed-skill training involves form sprints, high- cadence pedaling, and the handling skills necessary for sprinting. Muscular Endurance 肌肉耐力 Muscular endurance is the ability to turn a 肌肉耐力是指那种能够以相对较高的齿轮比 relatively high gear for a long time, as in time 持续较长时间,如同计时赛时所需的那种能 trialing. In many ways, this ability is at the 力。从许多方面来说,这都是公路赛所需的 heart of road racing. As one of the primary 核心能力。做为公路赛所需的主要身体素质 ingredients of road racing fitness, you need to emphasize this approach throughout the 之一,你需要在整个训练年度里强化这项能 training year regardless of your limiters. All of 力,不管这是否是你的限定因素。所有的传 the legendary champion road cyclists – 奇性公路赛冠军车手――Merckx,Hinault, Merckx, Hinault, LeMond, Carpenter, Indurain, LeMond,Carpenter,Indurain,Longo―― and Longo – had great muscular endurance. 都有很强的肌肉耐力。你需要从基础期开始 This ability will be developed starting in the 培养这项能力并以多种方式持续训练直到比 Base period and continue in various forms right 赛期的到来。 through the Race periods. Anaerobic Endurance 无氧耐力 Anaerobic endurance involves training to 无氧耐力是训练身体在已经非常疲劳时仍能 continue working hard even though the body is 继续强力做功的能力。在长距离冲刺和爬短 crying out for relief. Long sprints and short 坡时常常需要这种能力。如果这是你的限定 climbs are the usual times for this to occur. If it 因素(几乎每个运动员都是如此)的话,那 is known to be a limiter (which is the case for nearly every athlete), schedule workouts for 么在发展期开始时你需要安排这方面能力的 this ability at the start of the first Build period. 专项训练。无氧耐力训练能有效改善有氧能 Anaerobic-endurance training is excellent for 力(VO2max)。 improving aerobic capacity (VO2max). 5
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 9 Planning Workouts 第 9 章 计划训练内容 Power 力度 For the rider whose ability limiter is power, 如果运动员的限定因素是力度能力的话,那 these workouts mean the difference between 么是否进行这类训练就意味着是否会在绕圈 success and failure in criteriums that require 赛中成功或者失败,因为这类比赛需要在出 the ability to accelerate quickly out of corners 弯道时马上加速,并需要比拼场地冲刺。力 and to contest field sprints. Workouts for power depend on speed and force, so these 度能力依赖于速度技能和力量,所以这些更 more basic abilities must be improved first. 基础的能力必须先得到改善。力度训练可以 Power training may be included primarily in 安排在发展期和高峰期进行。 the Build and Peak periods. Testing 测试 Throughout the Base and Build periods, make 在整个基础期和发展期,需要每隔 4-6 个 regular progress checks about every four to six 星期定期地检查你的进步状况。定期了解你 weeks. It's important to regularly know how 的能力发展情况对你调整下一步的训练非常 your abilities are developing in order to make 重要。 adjustments to training. Ability Workouts by Period 不同周期的能力训练 The following will help you complete the 下面的内容将帮助你完成年度训练计划的训 workouts section of the Annual Training Plan. 练内容部分。我将从恢复休息周开始,因为 I'll start with the recovery and rest weeks since 它常常被忽略,但从某种角度说却是最重要 those are usually neglected, but are in some 的。 ways the most important. If there is any confusion on how to mark 如果你对如何记录年度训练计划有任何 the Annual Training Plan, see the examples in 疑问,参考第 11 章的范例。 Chapter 11. R & R Weeks 恢复休息周(R&R) Reserve every fourth week (third week for 在基础期和发展期,你应该把第 4 周保留用 over-forty riders) during the Base and Build 做休息以从前面 3 周所积累的疲惫中恢复体 periods for recovery and rest from the 力。如果没有这样的定期休息来解除疲劳, accumulated fatigue of the previous three 身体素质的提高就不会持久。在为基础期和 weeks. Without such regular unloading of fatigue, fitness won't progress for long. You've 发展期安排每周训练小时数时,你已经减少 already partially incorporated R&R by 了这一周(即 R&R 周)的训练时间。现在 assigning reduced weekly hours during these 我们要为这些训练量较少的礼拜安排合适的 weeks in the Base and Build periods. Now 训练内容。(关于恢复周的更详细的内容, we'll assign the workouts to those low-volume 请参考第 18 章) weeks. (For more detail on recovery weeks, see 6
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 9 Planning Workouts 第 9 章 计划训练内容 Chapter 18.) For each of the R&R weeks, place an “X” 在年度训练计划中的每个恢复休息周 under the Endurance, Speed Skills, and Testing (R&R),对应的耐力,速度技能和测试栏 columns. Other than one weight room session, 里画一个“X”。除了需要安排一次去健身 that's all for those weeks. The idea is to recover 房的举重练习以外,这就是全部的训练内容 from the collected stress; feel rested by week's end; maintain endurance (with a late-week long 了。这样安排的目的是为了让身体从积累的 ride), speed skills, and force; and test progress 压力中恢复,从而在该周结束是感觉良好, once rested. It may take you only three to five 以及保持耐力(在后半周做一次长途骑 days to feel fully recovered so that's when the 行),速度技能以及力量,并在休息期间测 testing should be done. In the Build period, 试进步状态。在发展期,该周周末可以安排 there may be a B or C race at week's end in 一次 B 级或 C 级赛事以代替测试。 place of a test. In the workout menu in Appendix C 在附录 C 的训练科目中(测试部分), (under Testing), I'll describe the tests you will 我会描述你在恢复休息周要做那些测试。 do during R&R weeks. Now you're ready to complete workouts 现在你可以完成年度中其他周的训练内 for the other weeks of the year. The Workout 容了。附录 C 的训练科目在下面需要安排具 Menu in Appendix C will be used at a later 体训练内容时还将会被用到。 time to fill in the details of what you schedule here. Preparation Period 准备期 Place an X in the Endurance and Speed Skills 在准备期各周的耐力和速度技能栏画一个 columns for each week of the Preparation “X”。这一时期的耐力训练重点在于改善 period. Endurance training during this period 心脏,血管和肺的耐力特征。交叉训练如跑 concentrates on improving the endurance 步,游泳,徒步或越野滑雪都能达到所需要 characteristics of the heart, blood, and lungs. Crosstraining by running, swimming, hiking, or 的结果,另外在冬天刚开始时要注意控制每 cross-country skiing accomplishes the desired 周在室内训练台上的训练次数。这是因为室 results while limiting the number of times each 内骑行时间太长是对精神和情绪的折磨。 week that you're on an indoor trainer in the early winter months. Be cautious with your volume of indoor riding as it can be mentally and emotionally draining. Base 1 基础期 1 Again, mark the Endurance and Speed Skills 在基础期 1 的各周,同样是在耐力和速度技 columns for each week of the Base 1 period. 能栏画个叉。在这一时期,耐力训练慢慢转 During this period, endurance training shifts 化为更多时间的车上训练以及更少的交叉训 slightly toward more time on the bike and less 练。但是,天气常常在这个时候成为耐力训 in crosstraining modes. Weather, however, is often the determining factor for the type of 练方式的决定因素。如果公路和天气不肯配 7
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 9 Planning Workouts 第 9 章 计划训练内容 endurance training done now. A mountain bike 合的话,山地车是个很棒的替代方式。另外 is an excellent alternative during this period 一个好的室内训练台,特别是电脑控制的训 when the roads and weather don’t cooperate. A 练台,也是一种很不错的训练方式,如果你 good indoor trainer, especially CompuTrainer, 在基础期不能在公路上训练的话。 is also an excellent way to train throughout the Base period when you can't get on the roads. Base 2 基础期 2 Place an X in the Endurance, Force, Speed 在基础期 2 的各周的耐力,力量,速度技能 Skills, and Muscular Endurance columns for 和肌肉耐力各栏画一个叉。如你在训练科目 each week of the Base 2 period. As you will (附录 C)中所见,你需要在这一时期引入 see in the Workout Menu (Appendix C), you 中等心率范围和大功率输出的力量和肌肉耐 should conduct force and muscular-endurance workouts at moderate heart rates and power 力练习。现在的耐力训练应该主要在公路上 outputs during this period. Endurance training 进行,很少采用交叉训练。力量训练的形式 should be mostly on the road by now with very 可以是在滚筒上的耐力骑行,或坐在鞍座上 little crosstraining. You will be doing some 爬山。它也可以作为耐力训练的某个组成部 Force work in the form of endurance rides on 分。 rolling courses, staying in the saddle on the uphill portions. This can be an integral part of endurance training. Base 3 基础期 3 Mark the Endurance, Force, Speed Skills, and 在基础期 3 的各周的耐力,力量,速度技能 Muscular Endurance columns for each week of 和肌肉耐力各栏画一个叉。该时期的训练量 the Base 3 period. Training volume tops out 将达到顶峰。训练强度也会稍有加强,比如 during this period. Intensity has also risen 会安排更多的爬坡练习,以及更大强度的肌 slightly with the addition of more hill work and higher effort muscular-endurance work. 肉耐力训练。 Build 1 发展期 1 Schedule workouts for Endurance and 在发展期 1 各周的耐力和肌肉耐力栏安排训 Muscular Endurance for each week of the 练内容,除此之外还要在你的最大的限定因 Build 1 period. Also select your greatest limiter 素对应的栏做记号。如果你拿不准应该安排 and mark that column. If unsure of which 哪个限定因素的话,就选择力量。如果你没 limiter to schedule, choose Force. If you don't select Power or Anaerobic Endurance, also 有选择无氧耐力或力度的话,就要在速度技 mark Speed Skills. A criterium may take the 能栏也要做记号。绕圈赛需要无氧耐力或力 place of an Anaerobic Endurance or Power 度的训练。公路赛和计时赛可以替代力量和 workout. Road races and time trials are 肌肉耐力训练。该时期的赛季早期的比赛最 substituted for Force and Muscular Endurance. 好是 C 级赛事。对于年度训练计划中的每个 Early-season races in this period are best as C- 发展期 1 都要用同样的方式安排训练。 priority. Schedule each Build 1 period on your Annual Training Plan in this same way. 8
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 9 Planning Workouts 第 9 章 计划训练内容 Build 2 发展期 2 Check off Endurance and Muscular Endurance 在发展期 2 的各周,除了在耐力和肌肉耐力 for each week of the Build 2 period. Then mark 栏做标记以外,还要加上你的两个限定因 two of your limiters. If unsure, or if you have 素。如果拿不准的话,或者你只有一个限定 only one limiter, mark Force and Anaerobic 因素,那么就标记力量和无氧耐力。无论无 Endurance. Speed skills will be maintained either with Anaerobic Endurance or Power 氧耐力还是力度训练都需要保持速度技能。 training. If there are B or C races scheduled 如果在这一时期安排有 B 级或 C 级赛事, during this period, substitute them for 那么就用比赛代替训练。进行一次绕圈赛相 workouts. A criterium takes the place of either 当于一次力度或无氧耐力训练。根据地形的 a Power or Anaerobic Endurance workout. 差别,你也许可以用公路赛或个人计时赛代 Depending on the terrain, you may substitute a 替力量或肌肉耐力训练。B 级赛事发生的那 road race or time trial for a Force or Muscular- 一周你只需安排一种限制因素的训练。而在 Endurance workout. The week of B-priority C 级赛事那一周你的训练要照常进行。对于 races, schedule only one limiter. Remember that you're training through C-priority races. 年度训练计划中的每个发展期 2 都要用同样 Mark all Build 2 periods on your plan in the 的方式做安排。 same manner. Peak 高峰期 Place an X in the Muscular Endurance column 高峰期的各周你要画叉的是肌肉耐力栏以及 and that of your next greatest limiter for each 除此之外的最大的限制因素所在的栏。如果 week of the Peak period. If unsure of your next 你不清楚除此以外的最大限制因素是什么, limiter, select Anaerobic Endurance. You may 就选择无氧耐力。你可以象在发展期时所做 substitute races for workouts using the same criteria as in the Build periods. C races in the 的那样以比赛代替训练。高峰期的 C 级赛事 Peak period are excellent tune-ups for the 是绝佳的为 A 级赛事调整状态的方式,因 approaching A-priority races as they get you 为它们能让你进入比赛时的状态。如果没有 back into a racing mode again. If there are no 比赛,但可以参加俱乐部级的艰苦骑行,那 races, but you have a hard club ride available, 么就应该进行无氧耐力方面的训练。在高峰 that may be one of your Anaerobic Endurance 期每 72-96 小时就应该有一次比赛级强度 sessions. There should be a race-specific 的训练。对年度计划中的所有高峰期都要照 intensity workout every 72 to 96 hours in a 此方式处理。 Peak week. Mark all Peak periods in this same way. Race 比赛期 During each week of this period either race or 在这一时期你要么参加比赛,要么就是做比 complete a race-effort group ride. If there is no 赛级强度的团队骑行。如果没有比赛,也无 group ride or race available, substitute an 法参加团队骑行的话,就用无氧耐力训练代 Anaerobic Endurance workout. Also mark 替。另外还要标记速度技能栏和除了耐力以 Speed Skills and your strongest ability other than Endurance. If unsure about your strength, 外的你最强的能力的对应栏。如果你不了解 mark Muscular Endurance. All Race periods 你的强项,那么就标记肌肉耐力栏。所有比 9
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 9 Planning Workouts 第 9 章 计划训练内容 should be marked just as the first one was. 赛期的安排都照此办理。 Transition 过渡期 Mark Endurance, but keep in mind that this is a 标记耐力栏,但要记住这一时期的计划是最 mostly unstructured period. By “mostly,” I 缺乏结构性的。一般来说,我觉得你的唯一 mean that your only purpose is to stay active, 目标就是想办法保持活力,特别是参加除骑 especially in sports that you enjoy other than 车以外的你最喜欢的运动。比如说集体运动 cycling. These are often team games such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, or hockey. Such 项目,如足球,篮球,排球,或曲棍球。这 sports require some endurance and also 类运动需要一些耐力并需要快速移动。不要 encourage quick movement. Don't become a 终日懒散在家,但也不要训练地太刻苦。 couch potato, but also don't train seriously. Weekly Routines 每周的例行安排 Now that your Annual Training Plan is 现在你的年度训练计划已经完成了,剩下的 complete, the only issue left to decide is the 唯一问题就是确定每周的日常活动――哪天 weekly routine – on what day to do which 做哪些训练以及多长时间。这不是小事情。 workout and for how long. That's no small 也许你的计划很完美,但如果你不能在其中 thing. You could have the best possible plan, but if you do not blend workouts in such a way 融入合适的训练科目以及恢复和适应期,那 as to allow for recovery and adaptation, then 么这个计划就没有用处。关键是你需要把长 it's all for nothing. The problem is that you 距离和短距离的训练以及高强度和低强度的 must blend both long and short duration 训练有机地融合在一起。 workouts with workouts that are of high and low intensity. Chapter 15 will provide you with a weekly 在第 15 章将给你介绍每周训练日志, training journal on which to record the days’ 其中记录了每天的训练安排以及训练结果。 scheduled workouts and their results. For now, 现在,让我们先把每天的训练安排搞定。 let’s examine ways to determine each day’s routine. Keep in mind that the workout options 记住图 9.1 中列出的训练科目的建议只 listed in Figure 9.1 are just that -- options. 是建议而已。这并不是唯一的组织方式,还 These are not intended to be the only ways to 有很多其他的选择。如果需要为某一天选择 organize a week. There are many possibilities. 一项训练科目的话,就选择其中一个――而 When it comes to selecting a workout for a given day choose one option – do not do all of 不是完成所有的选项。选择哪一个就看你的 the options. The option you select is 限定因素是什么了(在第 6 章介绍了限定因 determined by your limiters as discussed in 素) Chapter 6. 10
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 9 Planning Workouts 第 9 章 计划训练内容 11
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 9 Planning Workouts 第 9 章 计划训练内容 12
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 9 Planning Workouts 第 9 章 计划训练内容 13
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 9 Planning Workouts 第 9 章 计划训练内容 Figure 9.1 Weekly training patterns 图 9.1 每周训练模式 14
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 9 Planning Workouts 第 9 章 计划训练内容 Patterns 模式 Figure 9.1 illustrates a suggested pattern for 图 9.1 展示了把训练时间(或训练量)和训 blending duration (or volume) and intensity for 练强度相结合的建议模式,这种模式可以用 each week of the training periods plus the R&R 于各个训练时期,包括恢复休息周和比赛 and race weeks. Duration and intensity are 周。训练时间和强度被分为高,中,低或恢 indicated as high, medium, and low or recovery. Obviously, what is high for one 复。显然,对于某个车手的“高”也许对另 cyclist may be low for another, so these levels 一个车手却是“低”,所以这种分类只适用 are meaningful only to you. Also, what is high 于你自己。另外,基础期 1 时的高强度或高 duration or high intensity in the Base 1 period 训练量到了发展期 1 时,因为你的身体素质 may be moderate by Build 1 as your fitness 的提高也许就显得不够高了。恢复日可以是 improves. Recovery days may be active 积极恢复(在车上)或消极恢复(完全休 recovery (on the bike) or passive (complete 息),根据你的经验级别而定。 rest), depending on your experience level. Notice in the Base period that duration is 请注意,在基础期时训练量是高或中 high or medium, four times each week, while 等,每周 4 次,但训练强度是中或低等,除 intensity is either medium or low, except for 了基础期 3 会引入高强度训练以外。另外请 Base 3 when one high-intensity day is 注意,在发展期随着训练强度增加训练量会 included. Also note in the Build period that intensity increases and duration decreases. In 逐步减少,到了发展期 2 就没有中等强度训 Build 2 there are no moderate workouts – 练了――所有训练的强度要么高要么低。原 everything is either high or low. The reason for 因是这一时期的高强度训练很多,所以需要 this is to allow for adequate recovery since 足够的时间做恢复。在发展期 2,首次引入 there is so much high intensity during this 每周一次的高强度长时间的训练。这一时期 period. In Build 2, both high duration and high 的训练有很多比赛的色彩。请注意这里所说 intensity are combined once each week for the 的“高训练量”和“高强度”是针对你要参 first time. Training in this period takes on many 加的 A 级赛事而言的。绕圈赛的平均强度 of the characteristics of racing. Note that “high duration” and “high intensity” are relative to 一般来说要比公路赛大,而公路赛一般来说 the A-priority event you are training for. The 持续时间较长。高训练量的下限是 2 个小 average intensity of a criterium is typically 时。 higher than that of a road race whereas road races generally are higher-duration events. The minimum high-duration workout is two hours. Figure 9.1 also suggests a blending of 图 9.1 还介绍了如何安排 A 级和 B 级赛 duration and intensity for A- and B-race weeks. 事所在的周的训练量和强度。当然,A 级赛 Of course, A-race weeks immediately follow a 事前一周应该是在高峰期或前一个比赛期, Peak period or a previous Race period week, so 所以休息比较多。而 B 级赛事前一周就不会 rest would be greater. B-race weeks would not necessarily have that advantage. 有这种事发生。 Workouts are suggested for each day by 图中建议的每天训练科目使用的代号是 the alpha-numeric codes used in the “Workout 在附录 C 的“训练菜单”中定义的。健身房 Menu” in Appendix C. Weight room training 训练不包括在每周建议模式中,因为有的车 has not been included in the suggested weekly 手一周举重 3 次,而有的人只做 1 到 2 次。 patterns since some cyclists lift three times per 15
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 9 Planning Workouts 第 9 章 计划训练内容 week and others only once or twice. Also, 另外,有些骑手,比如老将们,也许需要全 some riders, such as masters, may lift year- 年不间断地举重,而其他人在比赛期开始时 round, while others will stop once racing 就停止了。需要举重训练时,最好是替换耐 begins. It is best to substitute a weight room 力类(E 开头的)的训练科目。举重练习最 workout for "E" category workouts. Weight training is best done the day after a long or 好是安排在长距离或突破性训练之后的那 “BT” workout. Try to avoid doing weights the 天。不要把举重练习安排在突破性训练前一 day before a BT. If weight training muse be 天。如果必须要安排在同一天的话,先做突 done the same day as a BT workout, lift after 破性训练,然后做举重练习。 riding. Daily Hours 每日训练小时数 In the Hours column of your Annual Training 在年度训练计划的小时一栏,你已经写下了 Plan, you've indicated the volume for each 赛季中每周的训练小时数。剩下要做的就是 week of the season. All that remains is to 把这些小时数分配到一周的每一天中。表 decide how those hours should be spread 9.1 提供了如何细分的建议。在最左边一 during the week. Table 9.1 offers a suggested breakdown. In the left-hand column, find the 栏,找出你为赛季第一周制定的小时数。从 hours you scheduled for the first week of the 这一行向右看,周训练小时被细分为每天的 season. By reading across to the right, the 训练小时。例如,在“每周训练小时数”一 weekly hours are broken into daily amounts. 栏找到 12:00,它右边是 7 个每天的训练小 For example, find 12:00 in the Weekly Hours 时数,在本例中分别是:3:00,2:30, column. To the right are seven daily hours – 2:00,2:00,1:30,1:00 和 Off。所以,本周 one for each day of the week. In this case, 3:00, 的最大训练量是 3 小时,需要连续骑这么长 2:30, 2:00, 2:00, 1:30, 1:00, and Off. So, the 时间――而不是做两次训练,每次 1 个半小 long workout that week is three hours. Do this as a continuous ride -- not as two workouts of 时。其他的每日训练小时数也许可以分配在 1:30 each. The other daily hours may be 同一天里的两次训练当中,特别是在基础 divided between two workouts in the same day, 期,因为训练量比较大。实际上,每天训练 especially in the Base period when volume is 两次好处多多,比如可以提高每次训练的质 high. In fact, there are some advantages to 量。 working out two times a day, such as an increase in quality for each workout. When it comes time to schedule hours for 在为每一周安排每天小时数时,使用表 a given week, use Table 9.1 along with Figure 9.1 和图 9.1 来为每周的每一天分配高, 9.1 to assign high, medium, and low durations 中,低的训练量。 for each day of the week. 每周训练 长距离骑 其他训练(也许一天两次) 小时数 行时间 3:00 1:30 0:45 0:45 Off Off Off Off 3:30 1:30 1:00 1:00 Off Off Off Off 4:00 1:30 1:00 1:00 0:30 Off Off Off 4:30 1:45 1:00 1:00 0:45 Off Off Off 5:00 2:00 1:00 1:00 1:00 Off Off Off 5:30 2:00 1:30 1:00 1:00 Off Off Off 6:00 2:00 1:00 1:00 1:00 1:00 Off Off 7:00 2:00 1:30 1:30 1:00 1:00 Off Off 16
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 9 Planning Workouts 第 9 章 计划训练内容 7:30 2:30 1:30 1:30 1:00 1:00 Off Off 8:00 2:30 1:30 1:30 1:30 1:00 Off Off 8:30 2:30 2:00 1:30 1:30 1:00 Off Off 9:00 3:00 2:00 1:30 1:30 1:00 Off Off 9:30 3:00 2:00 1:30 1:30 1:00 0:30 Off 10:00 3:00 2:00 1:30 1:30 1:00 1:00 Off 10:30 3:00 2:00 2:00 1:30 1:00 1:00 Off 11:00 3:00 2:00 2:00 1:30 1:30 1:00 Off 11:30 3:00 2:30 2:00 1:30 1:30 1:00 Off 12:00 3:00 2:30 2:00 2:00 1:30 1:00 Off 12:30 3:30 2:30 2:00 2:00 1:30 1:00 Off 13:00 3:30 3:00 2:00 2:00 1:30 1:00 Off 13:30 3:30 3:00 2:30 2:00 1:30 1:00 Off 14:00 4:00 3:00 2:30 2:00 1:30 1:00 Off 14:30 4:00 3:00 2:30 2:30 1:30 1:00 Off 15:00 4:00 3:00 3:00 2:30 1:30 1:00 Off 15:30 4:00 3:00 3:00 2:30 2:00 1:00 Off 16:00 4:00 3:30 3:00 2:30 2:00 1:00 Off 16:30 4:00 3:30 3:00 3:00 2:00 1:00 Off 17:00 4:00 3:30 3:00 3:00 2:00 1:30 Off 17:30 4:00 4:00 3:00 3:00 2:00 1:30 Off 18:00 4:00 4:00 3:00 3:00 2:30 1:30 Off 18:30 4:30 4:00 3:00 3:00 2:30 1:30 Off 19:00 4:30 4:30 3:00 3:00 2:30 1:30 Off 19:30 4:30 4:30 3:30 3:00 2:30 1:30 Off 20:00 4:30 4:30 3:30 3:00 2:30 2:00 Off 20:30 4:30 4:30 3:30 3:30 2:30 2:00 Off 21:00 5:00 4:30 3:30 3:30 3:30 2:00 Off 21:30 5:00 4:30 4:00 3:30 2:30 2:00 Off 22:00 5:00 4:30 4:00 3:30 3:00 2:00 Off 22:30 5:00 4:30 4:00 3:30 3:00 2:30 Off 23:00 5:00 5:00 4:00 3:30 3:00 2:30 Off 23:30 5:30 5:00 4:00 3:30 3:00 2:30 Off 24:00 5:30 5:00 4:30 3:30 3:00 2:30 Off 24:30 5:30 5:00 4:30 4:00 3:00 2:30 Off 25:00 5:30 5:00 4:30 4:00 3:00 3:00 Off 25:30 5:30 5:30 4:30 4:00 3:00 3:00 Off 26:00 6:00 5:30 4:30 4:00 3:00 3:00 Off 26:30 6:00 5:30 5:00 4:00 3:00 3:00 Off 27:00 6:00 6:00 5:00 4:00 3:00 3:00 Off 27:30 6:00 6:00 5:00 4:00 3:30 3:00 Off 28:00 6:00 6:00 5:00 4:00 3:30 3:30 Off 28:30 6:00 6:00 5:00 4:30 3:30 3:30 Off 29:00 6:00 6:00 5:30 4:30 3:30 3:30 Off 29:30 6:00 6:00 6:00 4:30 3:30 3:30 Off 30:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 4:30 4:00 3:30 Off 30:30 6:00 6:00 6:00 5:00 4:00 3:30 Off 31:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 5:00 4:00 4:00 Off 31:30 6:00 6:00 6:00 5:00 4:30 4:00 Off 32:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 5:30 4:30 4:00 Off 32:30 6:00 6:00 6:00 5:30 4:30 4:30 Off 33:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 5:30 5:00 4:30 Off 33:30 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 5:00 4:30 Off 34:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 5:30 4:30 Off 34:30 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 5:30 5:00 Off 35:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 6:00 5:00 Off Table 9.1 Daily Training Hours 表 9.1 每日训练小时数 17
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 9 Planning Workouts 第 9 章 计划训练内容 18
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 10 STAGE RACING TRAINING 第 10 章 多站式比赛的训练 Chapter 10 STAGE 第 10 章 多站式比赛的训练 RACING TRAINING There’ a lot of feelings about racing you can never s 有很多关于比赛的感觉是无法用语言表达的。它 communicate. They're your own, and only you can 们只属于你个人,只有你才能认同它们。 identify with them. ――ALEXI GREWAL -- ALEXI GREWAL, 1984 年公路赛事金牌得主 1984 Gold Medalist, road cycling For the serious cyclist, a stage race is often 对严肃的车手来说, 一场多站式比赛通常是 the most important event of the year. With a 一年中最重要的比赛。因为整个赛季里的大 season made up mostly of one-hour crits and 部分比赛都是 1 小时左右的绕圈赛和 100 公 60-or-so-mile circuit races, few riders are ready 里左右的环绕赛,所以几乎没人能够做好准 to take on five or more days of back-to-back races including time trials, 90-minute 备参加至少 5 天的连轴转的比赛,其中还包 criteriums, 75-mile circuits, and 100-mile road 括 90 分钟的绕圈赛,120 公里的环绕赛以及 races in the mountains. Throw in the toughest 需要爬山的 160 公里的公路赛。再加上本地 competitors in the region, prize money, and 区最强悍的车手都会参加竞争,以及高额的 crowds, and it's easy to see why stage races are 奖金和大量的观众,这就很容易解释为什么 often the high point of the season and the 多站式比赛往往是赛季的高潮,以及对车手 ultimate measure of a road racer. 们的终极考验。 Separate stage races into two broad 为了训练方便,我们把多站式比赛分成 categories for training purposes –short events 两大类――由最多 4 个单站比赛组成的小型 with four or fewer stages and long events with 比赛和由 5 个以上单站比赛组成的大型比 five of more stages. Short stage races require 赛。小型的多站式比赛对于那些经常在周末 no specific preparation for the cyclist who frequently competes in two races on the same 参加两场比赛的车手来说并不需要做特殊的 weekend. Long stage races, however, are a 准备。然而大型多站式比赛却是完全不同的 whole different game demanding exceptional 比赛,它需要超乎寻常的原始耐力,肌肉耐 raw endurance, muscular endurance, and 力,通常还需要爬坡的力量。 除了这些以 usually force for climbing. Combine that with 外,还需要快速的身体恢复能力从而为下一 the need to recover quickly in order to be ready 站的比赛做好准备。这也就清楚地解释了为 for the next stage and it's apparent why long 什么长距离多站式比赛的淘汰率这么高,能 stage races have such a high attrition rate, It's 坚持下来的都是体格最棒的。 survival of the fittest. Training to race well in a long stage race 为了备战大型多站式比赛,我们需要一 requires a focused six- to eight-week training 段为期 6 周或 8 周的集中式训练,其间将按 program to prepare for the unique stresses. 计划准备比赛所需的压力。多站式比赛不仅 Stage races not only require a rider's fitness to 要求车手的身体素质处于高峰期,而且恢复 be at peak, but recovers' methods must also be perfected. All of this, of course, happens within 疲劳的方法也必须是完美的。当然,所有这 the context of an ongoing weekly race 些都得安排在一个有序衔接的以周为单位的 schedule. 赛事计划中。 It is important not to take stage race 重要的是不能对多站式比赛的赛前准备 preparation lightly. The stress resulting from 掉以轻心。 由大运动量,高强度以及较短恢 high volume, intensity, and short recoveries 1
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 10 STAGE RACING TRAINING 第 10 章 多站式比赛的训练 threatens health, fitness, work performance, 复时间而产生的压力会威胁到你的健康,身 and family relations. Overtraining is a definite 体素质,运动水平和家庭关系。训练过度很 possibility. Approach this training with great 有可能发生,在采用这种训练的时候必须非 caution. 常小心。 Crash Cycles 破坏式骑车 Training for a long stage race is much like 针对大型多站式比赛而定制的训练就如同在 doing a short-stage race several times in the 数周内进行几个小型的多站式比赛一样。高 weeks building to the event. High-quality 质量的赛前训练的效果会逐渐接近使身体负 workouts are gradually brought closer together 荷过载的目的,而且还会产生延缓身体恢复 with the purpose of overloading the body's systems. That results in a delay in recovery, 的速度,从而进一步加大身体的压力。这个 further increasing the stress load. This process 过程有时被称之为“破坏式训练”――一个 is sometimes called “ crashing”–a descriptive, 形象的描述,虽然听上去有点吓人。 if somewhat threatening title. With the inclusion of a recovery period 在破坏式训练之后的恢复期里,你会在 following the crash, there is a greater-than- 身体适应之后得到超出常规训练的所谓“超 normal training adaptation known as 额补偿”。 “supercompensation” . Two studies looked at supercompensation 有两项研究观察了从破坏式骑行训练得 resulting from crash cycles. In 1992, a group of 到的超额补偿。1992 年,一个由 7 个荷兰车 seven Dutch cyclists crashed for two weeks by 手组成的小组在 2 周里将他们原本每周 12.5 increasing their training volume from a normal 小时的训练量骤增至 17.5 小时。与此同时, 12.5 hours per week to 17.5. At the same time, their high intensity training went from 24 to 63 他们的高强度训练在总训练量中所占的比例 percent of total training time. The immediate 也从原来的 24%提升至 63%。训练后的即时 effect was a drop in all measurable aspects of 反应是他们所有的可测试身体素质指标都有 their fitness. But after two weeks of recovering 所下滑。然而经过 2 周的低强度训练的恢复 with light training, they realized a 6-percent 休息期后,他们的输出功率提高了 6%,计 improvement in power, their time trial 时赛能力也提高了 4%,相比于破坏式训练 improved by an average of 4 percent, and they 之前,在极速骑行时他们的血乳酸盐水平也 had less blood lactate at top speed compared 下降了。2 周的艰苦训练看起来效果还不 with pre-crash levels. Not bad for two weeks of hard training. 错。 A similar study in Dallas put runners 另一个在达拉斯进行的类似研究中,几 through a two-week crash cycle with positive 名跑步运动员进行了为期 2 周的破坏式训 results similar to the Dutch study, plus an 练,并得到了与荷兰车手们相似的正面成 increase in aerobic capacities. Again, it took 果,而且还取得了最大摄氧量的提高。当然 two weeks following the crash cycle to realize the gains. Other studies suggest an increase in 破坏式训练后也要用 2 周的时间恢复身体来 blood volume, greater levels of hormones that 落实上述成果。其它的研究中还发现大强度 cause muscle growth, and an improved ability 的破坏式训练加上恢复期带来的超额补偿能 to metabolize fat result from a high-stress crash 够引起血液总量的提高,增加荷尔蒙分泌从 and recovery period and the subsequent 而使肌肉快速增长,以及加快代谢脂肪的速 supercompensation. 度。 2
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 10 STAGE RACING TRAINING 第 10 章 多站式比赛的训练 Be careful with crashing. The risk of 但是得小心对待此类训练。这类训练所 overtraining rises dramatically during such a 带来的过度训练的风险将大大增加。如果出 build-up. If the typical signs of overtraining 现了过度训练的典型征兆的话,比如在恢复 appear, such as a greatly changed resting heart 期心率骤增,或是情绪低落,那么必须马上 rate or feelings of depression, cut back on the intensity of training immediately. High- 中止高强度的训练。相对于低强度训练而 intensity training is more likely to magnify or 言,高强度的训练加大了造成过度训练的风 cause overtraining than is low-intensity work. 险。 Planning 计划 Designing a stage race training plan is a 为多站式比赛制定训练计划是一个复杂的工 complex task –almost as complex as designing 作――和制订整个赛季的训练计划一样难。 an entire season. The key is to decide, just as 关键问题和你在整理自己的年度训练计划时 you did when putting your Annual Training 遇到的一样,你必须决定:在期望的多站式 Plan together, what it takes to achieve your goals in the targeted stage race and how those 比赛中你要达到的目标,到达这个目标所需 demands match with your own strengths and 的能力,以及如何让你个人的强项和弱项符 limiters. The key limiters for long stage races 合这样的需求。 大型多站式比赛的关键限定 typically are endurance, muscular endurance, 因素一般是耐力,肌肉耐力和爬坡力量。而 and force for climbing. Speed skill, power and 速度技巧,力度和无氧耐力相对不太重要, anaerobic endurance play a lesser part, 要视具体比赛中短距离绕圈赛的相对重要性 depending on the number and relative 而定,实际上它们很少会对最终的总排名产 importance of criteriums, which seldom play a 生显著影响。然而如果你的目标是要在多站 significant role in the outcome on the general classification. The objective of winning a 式比赛中赢得单站绕圈赛的话,那就必须在 criterium stage, however, would increase the 训练计划中增加无氧耐力训练的重要性。除 importance of anaerobic endurance in stage 此以外,你的耐力,肌肉耐力以及力量的综 race planning and preparation. Otherwise, the 合训练成果将会直接决定你是否能在比赛中 amount of endurance, muscular-endurance, and 取得成功。 force training you do will primarily determine your success. For an A-priority stage race, start by 为了备战一场 A 级多站式比赛,首先你 finding out exactly what the stages will be, 要准确了解每一站比赛的具体内容,各站比 their order, how much time separates them, the 赛的顺序,各站比赛间的时间间隔,地形以 terrain, and what the weather is expected to be 及预计的气候状况――特别是炎热程度,空 –especially heat, humidity, and wind. Then try to simulate these conditions as closely as 气湿度和风向情况。然后在备战其间,尝试 possible during the build-up weeks. 模拟尽量相似的训练环境。 Table 10.1 provides an eight-week stage 表 10.1 提供了一份为期 8 周的多站式比 race build-up emphasizing the above limiters. 赛的备战计划,其重点放在上述的那些限定 This suggested plan assumes that base fitness is 因素上。该计划假定的前提是你的基础身体 well established. That means you have been 素质已经很好地建立了。这意味着你已经骑 putting in adequate miles, hills, pedaling drills, and weight room training, if appropriate, for at 了足够长的距离,爬了足够的山路以及踏频 least six weeks before starting. 训练和健身房里的举重训练,如果可能的 话,这段基础准备期起码要 6 周的时间。 3
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 10 STAGE RACING TRAINING 第 10 章 多站式比赛的训练 第 1周 发展期 1 第 2周 发展期 1 第 3周 休息恢复 第 4周 发展期 2 第 5周 发展期 2 第 6周 休息恢复 第 7周 高峰期 第 8周 比赛期 Table 10.1 Eight-Week Stage Race Preparation 表 10.1 8 周的多站式比赛准备期 Notice that quality workouts are clumped 注意在这份计划中,发展期集中了所有 together in two Build weeks of high volume 的高质量训练以及高强度大运动量的训练, and intensity and then followed by a week of 紧跟在 2 周发展期训练之后的是 1 周的恢复 recovery. The workload (combined volume and 休息期。发展期 1 的训练负荷(训练量+训 intensity) in Build 1 period is not as great as in Build 2, so the first recovery period is only one 练强度)没有发展期 2 大,所以发展期 1 之 week. A recovery week and a reduced-volume 后的恢复休息期只有 1 周。 而发展期 2 之后 Peak week follow Build 2, allowing fitness to 是 1 周的休息恢复外加 1 周低训练量的高峰 soar. 期,从而让你的运动能力充分提高。 Three-week cycles are used instead of the 3 周循环模式将替代典型的 4 周循环模 more typical four-week cycles due to the 式,因为累积的身体压力更大,所以需要更 greater accumulated stress and more frequent 频繁的恢复休息。假如你对是否已经准备好 need for recovery. If there's any question about 进行突破式训练心存疑虑的话, 那就不要开 your readiness for a breakthrough workout, don't do it. Better to be mentally and physically 始。最好是在精神和身体都处于良好状态, sharp, but somewhat undertrained, rather than 甚至是训练不足而不是相反的情况下开始进 the opposite. As always, when in doubt, do less 行这类训练。还是那句话,有什么不适的 intensity. 话, 就降低训练强度。 Also, note in Figure 10.1 that the most 另外从图 10.1 中可以看出,在发展期 2 intense workouts are clumped closer together 中高强度训练更多,排得也更紧密。这就是 in Build 2 than in Build 1. This is the basis of 破坏式训练的本质――在短时间内大量增加 crash training –providing increasing dosages 训练强度,然后让身体全面休息恢复。 of high intensity within short spans of time and then allowing for complete recovery. During the Build weeks, be sure to 在发展期,一定要保证每次高强度训练 practice recovery techniques following each of 后采用有效的体能恢复手段。这些恢复手段 the intense workouts. This includes massage, 包括按摩,拉伸活动,饮食补给,抬高双 stretching, fuel replacement, elevating legs, 腿,喝大量的水,放松双腿以及其他休息方 high fluid intake, staying off your feet, and extra rest (see Chapter 18 for a complete 法(请参考 18 章内有关于恢复手段的完整 discussion of recovery methods). Find out what 讨论)。找出最适合你的恢复方式, 然后在 works best for you, and be ready to use the best 真正比赛中,就在单站比赛之后采用这种方 options between stages when it comes time to 式休息恢复。在身体素质已经建立之后,快 race. Once you have built your fitness, quick 速恢复身体就成了赢得多站式比赛的关键。 recovery is the key to stage racing success. 4
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 10 STAGE RACING TRAINING 第 10 章 多站式比赛的训练 5
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 10 STAGE RACING TRAINING 第 10 章 多站式比赛的训练 Figure 10.1 Weekly training patterns to prepare for 图 10 .1 为备战多站式比赛的每周训练模式 a stage race Following the stage race, while the glow 正式的多站式比赛结束以后,趁你的成 6
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 10 STAGE RACING TRAINING 第 10 章 多站式比赛的训练 of the accomplishment is still fresh, take one or 就感依然新鲜火热的时候,花 1-2 周的时 two weeks to transition back into normal 间将你的训练过渡到正常训练状态。你的生 training. You've just had a major physiological 理系统刚刚承受了一次严重的破坏,所以需 crash and the body needs to recover from it 要从中全面地恢复。还是那句话,过渡期是 fully. As always, a Transition period should be a break from structured training that allows the 系统化训练后的短暂休息,用来帮助身体和 mind and body to recover, rest, and refresh. 精神恢复,休息以及重新焕发。 If you don't reduce training to allow the 假如你不减少训练来让身体从它已承受 body to “ catch up”with all of the stress it has 的全部负荷中完全适应的话,就有可能会造 experienced, you are likely to wind up 成过度训练和力竭现象。多站式比赛必须被 overtrained or burned out. Stage races must be 严肃地对待! created with respect. If your endurance was good going into the 假如在比赛来临时你的耐力状况非常 stage race, you're likely to find that once 好,那么你会发现在重回训练场时,你的身 returning to training your fitness is greater than 体素质会比以前更加出色。这就是超额补偿 it was before. That's the supercompensation 又一次起到的作用。假如你的耐力不太好, kicking in again. If you finished all the stages, despite questionable endurance, recovery is 但也最终完成了整个比赛,那么你的恢复期 likely to be longer than two weeks, and you 也许需要 2 周以上的时间,并且你会感觉好 may feel as if you lost fitness. That's called 象身体素质下降了似的。这就是我们所谓的 overtraining. This is a good reason not to 过度训练。这解释了为什么在你不确信已准 attempt a stage race until you know you're 备就绪之前,最好不要参加多站式比赛。 ready. 7
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 11 CASE STUDIES 第 11 章 案例分析 Chapter 11 CASE STUDIES 第 11 章 案例分析 If I trained the same way two years running, the 如果我用同样的训练方法连续训练两年的话,这 results weren't ever the same. Something always 两年的训练效果肯定是不一样的,总会有一些情 changes. 况发生了变化。 ――MIGUEL INDURAIN -- MIGUEL INDURAIN By now it should be clear that there is no single 现在我们都已经清楚了,没有一个适合所有 training plan for all athletes. Not only do 运动员的训练计划。不仅是个人能力和限定 individual abilities and limiters vary, but so do 因素,还包括目标,可供训练的时间,比赛 goals, time available, race schedules, experience, 日程,经验,等等因素的变化。当你把所有 and on and on. By the time all of these variables are mixed, the resulting schedule can not be 这些因素考虑在内并反映在训练计划中时, readily used by another rider. Training must 这个计划对其他运动员来说就变得不适用 match the individual's unique needs. The Annual 了。训练必须适合个体的独特需要,而你的 Training Plan you've been developing is for your 年度训练计划也只能是为你一个人所用。 use only. While it may have seemed easy to design a 制定计划看上去简单,其实不然。我已经 schedule, there is more to it than that. As I said 说过,训练更象是艺术而不是科学。到目前 earlier, training is as much an art as a science. 为止我讲的内容全都是科学方面的,你按部 What I've described so far is the science. The 就班地订出的计划基本上都是基于一些科学 schedule you've written is largely based on scientific principles, and will undoubtedly serve 原则,毫无疑问这样的计划应该会满足你的 your needs well. As you become more 需要。但是,当你变地更有经验的时候,你 experienced at writing your own schedules, 会发现歪曲甚至违反这些规则有时候反而是 however, it will become apparent that bending or 必要的,甚至会更加契合你的需要。本章就 even breaking the rules is sometimes necessary 将提供一些案例,来分析根据不同骑手的特 to better fit your needs. This chapter provides 殊需要而设计的训练计划。这些计划针对的 examples of designing the plan to match the 是四个完全不同的车手。制定计划时他们也 individual rider's unique needs. The following 采用了和你完全一样的步骤,但是考虑到他 plans were developed for four very different cyclists. The same steps you used were applied, 们特殊情况,我们需要对原则在某种程度上 but each of these athletes had a unique set of 做一些变通。 circumstances that required bending the rules in some way. Case Study 1: Single Peak 案例 1:单高峰期的赛季 Season Profile 背景情况 Tom Brown, 39, is a sales manager for an 汤姆·布朗,39 岁,电器零售店的销售经 electronics retail store. He works six days 理;他每周工作 6 天,平均工作时间超过 50 weekly, averaging over fifty hours a week. 小时;已婚,并有两个女儿,分别是 8 岁和 10 1
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 11 CASE STUDIES 第 11 章 案例分析 Married with two daughters, ages 8 an10, Tom is 岁。这是汤姆的第三个赛季,他参加的基本 in his third year of racing. He races with masters, 上都是中老年组的公路赛,因为他很不适应 mostly in road races, as he is uncomfortable with 绕圈赛中的高速过弯。在前两个赛季中,他 the high-speed cornering of criteriums. In his 的目标仅限于能够正常完赛,但是在上赛季 first two years, he was satisfied with simply finishing road races, but at the end of last season 末尾时,也许是因为耐力水平提高了,他开 he began to see improvement, probably due to 始看到了成绩的进步。 increased endurance. Tom's greatest limiter for cycling is 汤姆最大的限定因素是耐力,主要是因为 endurance, due primarily to many missed 在过去两年里他错过了很多的训练。工作的 workouts in the past two years. His job promises 压力使他无法指望在本赛季安排更多的训练 to place fewer demands on his time this season, 时间,但他现在下定决心要在这个赛季保持 and he has a greater commitment to riding consistently now. With regular training, his 训练的连续性。毫无疑问,有规律的训练肯 endurance will undoubtedly improve. 定能让他的耐力水平得到改善。 The Mental Skills Profile pointed out that 心理测试结果显示缺乏自信心是汤姆的一 lack of confidence is a serious limiter for Tom. 个严重的限定因素。即使他为自己将要参加 Even though he set goals around three of the 的三场最重要的比赛设定了目标,但谈到这 biggest races he could participate in, he lacks 些比赛时他仍然缺乏自信。他在测试中表现 confidence when talking about them. Testing revealed that he has the ability to achieve the 出的能力显示他的目标是可以达到的,这给 goals, which seemed to bolster his self-esteem. 了他一些信心。我给他的建议是要读一些培 He has been asked to read books on mental skills 养运动员自信心方面的书籍,并运用这些技 training for athletes and apply the techniques. In 巧。到 8 月份他还要进行一次心理测试来检 August, he will repeat the Mental Skills Profile. 验成果。 His maximum power tested high, but his 测试中他的最大输出功率很高,但乳酸极 power at lactate threshold was relatively low. He 限心率时的输出功率却很低。肌肉耐力不足 is limited by low muscular endurance, a major 也是他的限定因素,这在即将到来的比赛中 weakness when it comes to road racing. 是个很大的弱点。 Plan 计划 Due to the weather in Regina, Saskatchewan, 汤姆生活在加拿大 Saskatchewan 省的 Regina where Tom lives, training in the winter is 市,那里的天气使冬天的训练很难实行。所 difficult at best. He prefers to cross-country ski 以从十月份到次年二月这段时间里他宁愿用 from October through February rather than ride 越野滑雪代替室内骑行台。到了晚冬――在 an indoor trainer. He participates in a few ski races, mostly in the late winter, which in Regina Regina 地区大约是三月份――他还会参加一 extends into March. Winter is also the busiest 些滑雪比赛。冬天也是他生意上的旺季,所 time of year for his business, so he has less time 以他也没多少时间训练。反映在他的训练计 to train then. His Annual Training Plan, 划上,如图 11.1 所示,就是那个比一般人长 illustrated in Figure 11.1, projects a longer-than- 得多的准备期。 normal Preparation period for these reasons. I encouraged Tom to train more than the six- 我还建议汤姆在冬季的准备期里,只要有 hour weeks scheduled through the winter 机会就不必拘泥于计划中的每周 6 小时的训 2
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 11 CASE STUDIES 第 11 章 案例分析 Preparation period whenever he could. As this 练时间。由于他大部分时间在滑雪,所以我 will be mostly on skis, I suggested he get on the 建议他每周在训练台上做一到两次的速度技 trainer once or twice each week to do speed-skill 能练习。 drills. Since the road racing season is so short in Regina 地区的公路赛季太短了,而汤姆的 Regina, and all of Tom's A-priority races are 所有 A 级赛事全集中在赛季的最后,所以他 clumped near the end of the season, there is only 只需要一个高峰期。注意在第 33 和 35 周,训 one Peak period. Notice that in weeks 33 and 35, 练时间增加了,并增加了耐力训练。对比赛 his hours are increased and endurance workouts are added. This change to the usual Race period 期计划做这样的变化是为了帮助他保持耐 layout is to help maintain his endurance, which 力,因为所有这些比赛都很容易使耐力水平 could easily erode with all of the races. This will 受损;另外这样也可更好地备战第 36 周的世 better prepare him for a century in week 36. By 纪骑车赛。到那时候他的无氧耐力水平应该 that week his anaerobic endurance will be better 更加适合 50 英里的公路赛而不是 100 英里的 suited for 50-mile road races than for 100-mile 世纪赛,所以比赛时应该适当放慢些速度。 efforts, so the century will be done at a conservative speed. 3
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 11 CASE STUDIES 第 11 章 案例分析 Figure11.1 Tom Brown’ training plan s 图 11.1 汤姆·布朗的训练计划 4
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 11 CASE STUDIES 第 11 章 案例分析 Case Study 2: Lots of Time and 案例 2:很多时间和很多弱项 Limiters Profile 背景情况 Lisa Harvey is a 27-year-old Category II who 莉萨·哈维,27 岁,已经有 4 年参赛经验, has been racing for four years. She works full- 二级运动员。她有一个全职工作,是亚里桑 time as an engineer with an aeronautics company 那州凤凰城的一家航空公司的工程师。通常 in the Phoenix, Arizona, area. She usually puts 她每周需要工作 45 小时,周末两天休息。除 in forty-five hours per week on the job and has weekends off. She lives with a roommate, has 了一个合住的室友,没有其他社交关系或家 few family or community-related commitments, 庭义务,所以可以自由支配时间用来骑车。 and is able to ride with few restrictions on her 过去她的训练是自由式的――随心所欲地想 time. Her training in the past was free form –she 骑就骑,想停就停。结果她的很多基本能力 did what she wanted, when she wanted, if she 都很弱。 wanted. As a result, many of the basic abilities are weak. Lisa has good power due primarily to her 莉萨的输出功率不错,主要是因为她能够 ability to turn the cranks at high cadence. She 高频率地踩踏曲柄。她本来就是个很好的冲 has always been a good sprinter. Her limiters are 刺手,她的弱项是力量,爬坡和肌肉耐力。 force, climbing, and muscular endurance. Her 她的耐力相比之下不算太弱,但仍然需要进 endurance is not as bad as the other limiters, but nevertheless it needs improving as well. 一步提高。 Plan 计划 While someone of Lisa's age with few 虽然有些象莉萨这样年纪的没什么时间限制 restrictions on her time should be able to train on 的人通常能够每年训练 500 小时,但在过去 a 500-annual hour basis, she has broken down 两年中由于感冒和喉痛她常常中断训练。这 frequently over the past two years with colds and 可能是因为她习惯于把太多的艰苦训练集中 sore throats. It may be due to her habit of piling on too many hard workouts without adequate 在一起而缺乏足够的休息。另外她在饮食方 rest. Diet is also suspect. She trained about 400 面也有些问题。根据她的记录去年她训练了 hours last year, based on her records, so she will 400 小时,所以今年她仍将从这一水平起步; start at the same level. Her ability to cope with a 她要学习包括频繁的休息恢复在内的结构式 structured training regimen that includes 训练体系从而避免类似问题发生;到了基础 frequent recovery and rest should allow her to 期 2 的最后,我们将评估她是否已经掌握了 avoid such problems. At the end of Base 2, we 这种平衡训练量的能力。如果评估结果可以 will evaluate her capacity for handling the 的话,就增加训练量。 workload to that point and increase the volume if it seems manageable. Lisa has two Race periods planned, the first 莉萨的计划中有两个比赛期:第一个在 6 in June with two A-priority races in five weeks, 月份,5 周之内有两个 A 级赛事;第二个在 9 and the second in September with back-to-back 月份,连续两个 A 级赛事。在两个比赛期之 5
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 11 CASE STUDIES 第 11 章 案例分析 A races. There will be a short Transition period 间将安排一个短暂的过渡期来让她恢复身体 following the first Race period to allow her to 并达到一个更高的高峰期。这个过渡期可以 recover in order to reach a higher peak later on. 是仅仅 5 天的无车的充分休息,这对她这个 It's possible that this Transition period will be 年纪的人来说是足够了。从过渡期结束到第 only five days off the bike, as that should be adequate at her age to fully recover. With only 二个高峰期到来之前只有 7 周,所以发展期 2 seven weeks from the end of the transition to the 被缩短到 1 周。当然恢复休息周不能省略。 start of the second peak, Build 2 was shortened 发展期 1 也保持不变,因为她的基本能力需 by one week. The recovery week was, of course, 要较长的时间来培养。如果到那时她的耐力 not removed. Build 1 was left intact, as her basic 和力量仍然无法达到满意的结果的话,我们 abilities need more time to develop. We may 甚至需要重新回到基础期 3 去。 even decide to go back to Base 3 at this point if her endurance and force are not responding to training to the extent that we would like them to. In this seven-week Build period, there will 在这 7 周的发展期里,当然会有一些其他 undoubtedly be other races that weren't known 的未被列入计划的比赛。她可以用这些比赛 of when she drafted the plan. She can substitute 替代训练。如果在休息恢复周之外的某一周 these for workouts. If a B race falls in a non-R 有一个 B 级赛事,则该周的训练量可以减少 &R week the volume will be reduced by about 20 percent so that she goes into these races fairly 20%,这样她就能较好地在比赛后恢复体 well-recovered. 力。 The last Race period is five weeks finishing 最后一个比赛期有 5 周时间,并以一个 C with a C race — the last race of the season. 级赛事收尾――全赛季最后一战。在第 37 周 There's no reason with only three weeks 的州级公路赛结束后,距离最后一战只有 3 remaining in the race season following the state 周时间,所以不需要继续发展更好的比赛能 road race in week 37 to try to build to a higher level of fitness. Therefore, Lisa's C race is being 力。实际上莉萨的这个 C 级赛事的准备工作 treated like an A face, except more endurance 和 A 级比赛差不多,除了在赛前两周安排了 work is added in the preceding two weeks. 更多的耐力训练以外。 6
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 11 CASE STUDIES 第 11 章 案例分析 Figure11.2 Lisa Harvey’ training plan s 图 11.2 莉萨·哈维的训练计划 7
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 11 CASE STUDIES 第 11 章 案例分析 Case Study 3: Three Race Peaks 案例 3:三个比赛期和高峰期 Profile 背景情况 Sam Crooks, 37, is a dentist in Johnson City, 山姆·克鲁克,37 岁,田纳西州强森城的一 Tennessee. He is married and has two children, 名牙医,已婚,而且和前妻有过两个孩子。 by a former marriage, who sometimes spend the 有时这些孩子会在周末前来拜访他和现任妻 weekend with him and his wife. When the kids 子,每当这个时候,山姆都会减少训练和比 are visiting, Sam reduces his training and racing schedule in order to spend more time with them. 赛计划从而有更多的时间陪他们。 Sam is a Category III and has been racing 山姆是三级运动员,并且已经参加了 4 年 for four years in both Category III and masters 的三级和中老年组的比赛。他参加的基本上 races. He competes mostly in criteriums. He is 是绕圈赛。只要能抽出时间,他都会全心扑 dedicated to racing and training and fits in 在比赛,训练以及身体素质的提高上。这就 workouts whenever he can around his busy schedule. This means training on lunch hours 意味着在吃中饭时间训练,或者在工作之前 and before and after work. He rarely misses a 或之后训练。他几乎不会错过一次训练。 workout. Maximum power and speed skills are Sam's 山姆的强项是最大功率输出和速度技能, strong points, making him an excellent criterium 这使他成为一个出色的绕圈赛选手,但是他 racer, but his marginal endurance, climbing and 在耐力,爬坡以及肌肉耐力方面的短处在公 muscular endurance limit his performance when 路赛和个人计时赛中限制了他的水平发挥。 it comes to road races and time trials. He has what it takes to win the district masters 他能够赢得本地区的中老年级别的绕圈赛, criterium, but will be taken to his limits with his 但是要完成他的下列目标:强森城多站赛的 goals: a top-five finish in the Johnson City Stage 前 5 名,Greenville 公路赛的前 20 名的话,他 Race and a top-twenty at the Greenville Road 就必须克服这些限制因素。 Race. Plan 计划 Sam has a long season with races starting in 山姆的比赛季很长,从 3 月上旬直到 10 月中 early March and extending into mid-October. 旬。他的 A 级赛事分布得很散,5 月下旬有一 His A-priority races are widely separated with 次,7 月有两次,最后一次在 10 月份。由此 one in late May, a pair in July, and the last in 我为山姆计划了三个比赛期。第一个比赛期 October. Because of this spread, I scheduled Sam for three Race periods. For his first race 安排在 5 月下旬,另外我决定让他继续在第 peak in late May, I decided to maintain his peak 21 周的地区个人计时赛中保持其高峰状态, for the district time trial in week 21 since he 因为他需要更专注于肌肉耐力的训练,对个 needs to concentrate more on muscular- 人计时赛投入更多一些可以帮助达到这个目 endurance training. A bit more focus on time 标。 trial training will help accomplish that. 8
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 11 CASE STUDIES 第 11 章 案例分析 The second Race period is followed by a 第二个比赛期之后是一周的过渡期――看 one-week transition, which comes fairly late in 上去来得有点晚。过渡期也许会延长 3-5 the season. This Transition period may be 天,如果山姆在 Greenville 公路赛后感觉热情 extended by another three to five days if Sam 消退的话。通过比赛期间的休息以及随后的 loses enthusiasm after completing the Greenville Road Race. With a break in the racing and ten 10 周时间,恢复体力应该不成问题。 weeks until the next A race, that shouldn't present a problem. In the second Race period, endurance 在第二个比赛期的第 27 和 28 周,将增加 workouts have been added to weeks 27 and 28, 耐力训练内容,因为他将在第 29 和 30 周连续 since he will be coming into two road races in 参加两次公路赛――其中一个是需要耐力的 weeks 29 and 30 — one is an A race, and A 级赛事,而这正是他的弱项。如果第 27 和 endurance is one of his limiters. If the week 27 and 28 criteriums are on Saturdays, he will ride 28 周的绕圈赛是安排在周六的话,他就需要 long on the two Sundays. If they're Sunday 在两个周日骑得长一些。如果比赛是在周日 races, he'll do endurance rides following the 的话,他也需要在赛后做耐力骑行。长距离 races. He has increased his hours for these two 骑行训练会使这两周的骑行小时数增加。 weeks to allow for the longer rides. The last peak of the season (early October) 本赛季的最后一次高峰期将安排在一次四 will be preceded by a four-week Build 2 period 周的发展期 2 之前(大约在 10 月上旬),因 because the last race is a group of criteriums and 为赛季最后的比赛是一组绕圈赛,所以那时 he will want to emphasize anaerobic endurance 他将会把重点放在无氧耐力训练方面。依照 coming into them. By that point, Sam will have solidly established endurance and muscular 这样的计划,到那时山姆应该已经建立了坚 endurance. 实的耐力和肌肉耐力水平。 After such a long season, Sam may be in 这样一个漫长的赛季结束以后,山姆也许 need of a longer transition starting in October, so 需要一个较长的过渡期,所以从 10 月份开始 it has been extended to six weeks. 的过渡期被延长到了 6 周。 9
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 11 CASE STUDIES 第 11 章 案例分析 Figure11.3 Sam Crooks’training plan 图 11.3 山姆·克鲁克的训练计划 10
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 11 CASE STUDIES 第 11 章 案例分析 Case Study 4: Summer Base 案例 4:安排在夏季的基础期训练 Training Profile 背景情况 Randy Stickler, 25, is a college student living in 兰迪·斯迪克勒,25 岁,大学生,住在科罗 Fort Collins, Colorado. He has been racing since 拉多州的科林斯堡,从 14 岁开始就参加比 age 14 and has been on the national team 赛,一级运动员,已经代表国家队参加了一 participating as a Category I in several high- 些全国和国际性的高级别比赛。他在科罗拉 profile races in the United States and in international competition. He carries a full load 多州立大学就读全日制课程,专业是流域管 at Colorado State University, majoring in 理。上课和学习限制了他平时练习骑车的时 watershed management. Classes and studying 间,只有在周末完全属于训练。暑假期间, limit his available riding time during the week, 他要参加一次实习,在此期间他无法在除周 but on the weekends time is available to train. In 末以外的时间自由地骑车。 the summer, he will be doing an internship that keeps his time to ride somewhat restricted on weekdays. Randy's greatest abilities are endurance, 兰迪的最大强项是耐力,力量,肌肉耐 force, muscular endurance, power, and climbing. 力,力度以及爬坡。拥有这么多的能力,难 With so much on his side, it's no wonder that he 怪在他参加的每次比赛中都能成为不容忽视 is a force to be reckoned with in every race he 的竞争者。他觉得自己的弱项是无氧耐力, enters. He believes his limiter is anaerobic endurance, but since he determined that from 这是他在冬天早期的测试中得出的结论。但 early-winter testing, that concern is somewhat 是冬天的时候几乎每个人的无氧耐力都很 suspect. Nearly everyone has poor anaerobic 差,所以这一结论很值得怀疑。不管怎样, endurance in the winter months, However, 兰迪的短距离冲刺相当棒,但比赛中的长距 Randy's short sprint is excellent, but his longer 离冲刺要弱一些。 sprints fade in races. Plan 计划 Randy is capable of training about 1,000 hours a 兰迪一年中能够投入的训练时间大约 1000 小 year. However, with restrictions on his free time, 时。但是由于业余时间的限制,他的训练量 his volume has been limited to only 800 hours. 只能限制在 800 小时左右。过去 11 年的比赛 With the massive base he's built during eleven 生涯给他积累了雄厚的基础,所以这点限制 years of racing that should not present any problems. With his age and muscular strength as 也不算什么问题。根据他的年纪以及强壮的 a strong ability, a primary emphasis on force 肌肉力量,以力量为重点的训练阶段将在三 training will end the last week of March. But it 月底结束。但在整个赛季期间都将继续保持 will be maintained throughout much of the 力量的训练。 remainder of the season. The first A race of the season for Randy will 本赛季兰迪的第一个 A 级赛事是 4 月底的 be the Bisbee Stage Race in late April, a five-day Bisbee 多站赛,5 天的赛程并有众多好手参 11
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 11 CASE STUDIES 第 11 章 案例分析 event that attracts a strong field. He will train 赛。他将通过 Boulder 绕圈赛以及其他 3 月和 through the Boulder Criterium Series and other 4 月上旬的比赛进行训练,不断增加强度并在 races in March and early April, using them in Bisbee 开始时达到高峰。他完全能够达到总排 combination with a build-up of intensity to peak 名前 10 位的水平。 for Bisbee. A top-ten placement in the general classification is well within his reach. Following the Bisbee Stage Race, Randy Bisbee 多站赛之后,兰迪将重新回到发展 will return to Build 1 as he is preparing for the 期 1,为第 23 周的科罗拉多州公路锦标赛做 Colorado State Road Race Championship in 准备。这场比赛距离 Bisbee 赛很近,所以他 week 23. With this race coming so soon after 的状态应该不错。 Bisbee, he should be in excellent form. The greatest challenge in Randy's race 兰迪的最大挑战是在赛季末尾的为期 3 天 schedule is maintaining race form for the three- 的科罗拉多自行车多站赛(第 39 周),如何 day Colorado Cyclist Stage Race at the very end 保持比赛状态是个大问题。由于距离前两场 of the season (week 39). With fourteen weeks A 级赛事有 14 周的时间,所以最好在 7 月份 separating his last two A races, it's best to re- establish his basic fitness by repeating Base 3 重新回到基础期 3 来重建他的基础身体素 training in July, even though that may be seen as 质,虽然这个时候进行基础训练看上去有点 an unusual time to work on base. The events 怪。这一时期的所有比赛全是 C 类赛事,所 during this period are all C races, so he can 以他可以利用这些比赛进行训练,或者干脆 either train through them or even skip a few. 放弃其中一些比赛。 With no races in the three weeks preceding 科罗拉多自行车多站赛前的 3 周里没有任 the Colorado Cyclist Stage Race it's important 何比赛,所以兰迪必须在这段时间里利用小 that Randy make best use of dwindling group 团队的骑行以及比赛级强度的训练达到他身 rides at that time of year and race-intense 体素质的高峰期。 workouts to peak his fitness. Not having done any strength training since 4 周的过渡期之后,从第 44 周开始举重训 March, six weeks of AA phase weight work will 练,6 周的 AA 阶段练习,因为从 3 月份开始 begin in week 44 following a four-week 就没有做过力量训练。在 6 周的准备期期 Transition period. During the six-week 间,兰迪将根据天气情况选择骑山地车,跑 Preparation period Randy will mountain bike, run, and cross-country ski, as the weather allows. 步或者越野滑雪。 12
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 11 CASE STUDIES 第 11 章 案例分析 Figure11.4 Randy Sticker’ training plan s 图 11.4 兰迪·斯迪克勒的训练计划 13
    • The Cyclist’ Training Bible (3rd edition) s 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 11 CASE STUDIES 第 11 章 案例分析 I hope you noticed that in each of these case 我希望你能注意到:在上述案例分析中,有 studies I occasionally changed the procedures for 时我没有遵循在第 8,9,10 章中讨论的制定 designing a training plan as discussed in 训练计划的步骤。生活中的比赛,工作,休 Chapters 8, 9, and 10. Life rarely presents you 假和其他事情不会跟着你的训练计划转的。 with races, work, vacations, and other events spaced to neatly fit into annual plans. Don't be 所以有时需要对原则做适当的从权处理,这 afraid to bend the rules a little so you can design 样你的计划才能更加适合你的需要。 a plan that exactly fits your needs. 14
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 Golf pros hit balls on the range; swimmers practice 职业高尔夫球手在练习场内练习击球;游泳运动 with wooden paddles on their hands, and athletes in 员在训练中使用木质划板;其他项目的运动员也 other sports do other things that improve 做类似的事情来增强肌肉的记忆从而提高运动能 performance by enhancing muscle memory. Too 力,而太多的自行车手却只知道骑车。 many cyclists just ride their bikes. -- MIKE KOLIN, cycling coach ――MIKE KOLIN,自行车教练 There are many factors that go into 能够影响谁先到达终点的因素实在太多了, determining who gets to the finish line first, not 同样,影响运动员的连接组织――肌肉和肌 the least of which is the condition of the 腱的状态的因素也非常多。 athlete’s connective tissues – muscles and tendons. The human body has more than 660 人体有超过 660 块肌肉,体积占整个身 muscles, making up some 35 to 40 percent of 体的 35-40%。这些肌肉的发达和柔韧程度 its mass. How strong and flexible these 极大地影响了运动员的比赛成绩。在保持大 muscles are will contribute immensely to the 范围的动作中产生更多的力量,意味着更快 athlete's race performance. Developing the ability to produce great force while maintaining 的比赛速度以及减少受伤的风险。如果肌肉 a wide range of motion means greater racing 有点无力或不够柔软,那么这个车手永远也 speeds and a reduced risk of injury. If the 不会达到他(她)的最大潜能,因为爬山和 muscles are even a bit weak or inflexible, the 控车所需的力量不足往往会导致拉伤或扭 rider never realizes his or her full potential, as 伤。增强肌肉也许能够全方位地大幅度地改 power for climbing and handling the bike is too 进你的比赛成绩。我训练过的每个成功的运 low and muscle pulls and strains are likely. 动员都会花部分赛季时间用来举重。那些力 Developing the muscles will provide the 量最弱的人往往在比赛中进步最明显。另 potential to significantly improve racing at all levels. Every successful athlete I have trained 外,我们也发现,肌肉力量也是个人计时 has lifted weights for at least part of the season. 赛,爬坡和冲刺的主要决定因素。对踏板施 Those with a force limiter have improved their 加的力量最大的车手,他的一只脚已经站上 race performances the most. And, as we have 领奖台了。 seen, muscular force is a major component in time trialing, climbing, and sprinting. The rider who can apply the greatest force to the pedal has a leg up on the competition. There was a time when endurance athletes 有一段时期,耐力运动员就象逃避瘟疫 avoided strength training like the plague. 一样抗拒力量训练。直到今天这些理由仍然 Today there are still reasons why some don't 是他们不做力量训练的原因――很多车手非 strength train – Many riders have a great fear of 常害怕增加体重。虽然确实有些人有增加肌 gaining weight. While there are those who have a tendency to increase their muscle mass, very 肉体积的遗传倾向,但几乎没有哪个车手会 few cyclists have a genetic predisposition to 因此变成金刚怪兽,特别是从事耐力运动项 become hulking monsters, especially on an 目的。如果你因为举重训练而增加了三四 endurance-based program. If three or four extra 磅,那么,你增加的力量完全可以抵消体重 pounds result from weight training, however, 带来的负面影响。对大多数车手来说,力量 the increased power typically more than offsets 训练不会带来可感知的体重变化。但是,因 1
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 the mass to be carried. For most riders, strength 为大多数人在冬天练习举重,而这时他们骑 training does not cause appreciable weight 车较少,但吃的还象比赛期间一样多,由此 changes. But since it's winter when most of 导致了脂肪堆积。到了春天,随着骑行距离 them are lifting, and they are riding 的恢复,这些多余的脂肪又被消耗掉了。于 infrequently while eating as much as they do during the racing season, fat accumulates and 是他们就把体重增加归咎于力量训练上了。 they blame it on weight training. By spring when the mileage goes back up, this excess blubber will disappear. Strength Training Benefits 力量训练的好处 Research has demonstrated positive gains in 研究发现力量增加后骑车的耐力水平会有提 cycling-endurance performance resulting from 高,但有氧能力(VO2max)却没有变化。 strength increases, but no change in aerobic 对这种看上去相互矛盾的现象的解释可能 capacity (VO2max). A possible reason for this 是:慢肌纤维的力量增强了,肌肉的耐力也 apparent contradiction is that the greater strength of the slow-twitch, endurance muscles 因此增强,能负担更多的踩车带来的压力, allows them to carry more of the burden of 从而较少使用快肌。因为快肌更容易疲劳, powering the bike, thus relying less on the fast- 所以减少它们的参与做功就意味着更强的耐 twitch muscles. Since the fast-twitch muscles 力水平。 fatigue rather quickly, reducing their contribution to the total force created means greater endurance. One study done at the University of 马里兰大学的一项研究表明:举重带来 Maryland showed that improved strength from 的力量改善与较高的乳酸盐阈值相关连。因 weight lifting was associated with a higher 为乳酸盐阈值是决定竞赛能力的主要因素, lactate threshold. Since lactate threshold is a 所以提高它对我们很有好处。这项发现也许 major determiner of performance in an event such as bike racing, anything that elevates it is 是因为运动员在骑车做功时使用了更多的慢 beneficial. This finding may have resulted from 肌,较少的快肌。因为快肌制造大量的乳 the athletes using more slow-twitch and less 酸,较少使用它们来做功就意味着给定功率 fast-twitch muscle to power the bike. Since 输出下血液中有较少的乳酸盐,所以乳酸盐 fast-twitch muscles produce abundant amounts 阈值也相应提升了。 of lactic acid, using them to provide less of the pedaling force means there will be less lactate in the blood at any given power output, therefore raising lactate threshold. Lifting weights also has the potential to 举重也有可能提高每次踩踏所需要的总 increase the total amount of force that can be 的力量。也许你还记得第 4 章所述,在给定 applied to the pedal in every stroke. As you 踏频下,力量增加后,功率就增加了。更大 may recall from Chapter 4, as force rises at any 的功率输出往往关系到更快的速度。 given cadence, power increases. Greater power outputs are always associated with faster riding. 2
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 Nearly all the studies show that subjects 几乎所有的研究都显示,被测试者都感 enjoy an increased "time to exhaustion" – 受到“坚持的时间”增加了――这意味着被 meaning the subjects could ride farther at a 测试者能够在给定的运动强度下骑得更 given intensity level – after following a leg- 远――在进行腿部力量训练几周之后。耐力 strength program for a few weeks. The endurance improvements have typically ranged 的改善范围一般是 10-33%,根据运动强度 from 10 to 33 percent, depending on the 的变化而改变。但是,也要指出,这些被测 intensity of the effort. It should be pointed out, 试对象几乎都不是有经验的车手。他们大部 however, that the subjects in these tests are 分都是训练水平一般或很差的大学生,而相 seldom experienced cyclists. It is more likely 比于那些有经验的骑手,力量训练对那些运 they are moderately to poorly trained college 动新手的耐力水平的提高有显著的作用。 students, and weight training will typically provide this endurance enhancement to those who are newest to the sport rather than to the more experienced riders in a given group. The weakest point in a muscle is where it 肌肉最薄弱的地方是靠近肌腱的部分。 attaches to the tendon. Most muscle tears occur 大多数肌肉撕裂发生在这个点上。增强这些 at this point. Increasing the load capacity of 肌肉和肌腱连接点的负载能力,能够减少在 these muscle-tendon unions reduces the risk of 突然变化功率输出时拉伤肌肉的风险,比如 pulled muscles during a sudden change in power, as when accelerating quickly or 突然加速或冲刺时。 sprinting. Strength training also has the potential to 力量训练还有可能改善肌肉失衡。这种 improve muscle imbalances. These may be 失衡状况可能是总体上的,比如上半身较瘦 gross imbalances, such as a weak upper body 弱而下半身很强壮,或者也可能是相对的, and a strong lower body, or they may be 比如对某个关节施加相反作用的两个肌肉群 relative imbalances between muscle groups that have opposing effects on a joint. Again, such 之间的不平衡。同样,改善这种状况可以减 enhancements reduce the chances of an injury. 少受伤的机会。 Whatever the mechanism of improvement 不管改善的机制到底如何,力量训练使 may be, there is a high probability that strength 你更有可能成为更好的车手。即使你只是提 work will make you a better racer. Even if you 高了几个百分点的踩踏力量,想想看在这能 were to improve your pedal force by only a few 在比赛中为你增加多少胜算。在长距离的公 percentage points, think how much better you could race. You would be able to ride faster or 路赛的最后阶段,你会比以前骑得更快,或 feel stronger at the end of a long road race. 感觉更有力气。 Getting Started 准备起步 There are two challenges for the rider 当骑手们决定通过力量训练改善骑行能力 determined to improve his or her racing with 时,他们会面临两个问题。一个是力量训练 greater strength. The first is that there are as 方法多如牛毛,就象运动员,教练,举重和 many strength programs as there are athletes, 骑车的训练书籍一样多。一般的骑手根本不 coaches, weight training and cycling books. The average rider does not know which to 知道如何下手。 follow. 3
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 The second challenge is time. Many of the 另一个问题是时间。许多举重训练计划 weight programs suggested include an 所要求完成的练习数量是不现实的,往往有 unrealistic number of exercises to complete, 12 次或更多。由于工作,家庭,日常生活所 often a dozen or more. Given jobs, family, and 限,大部分骑手不可能有这么多大块时间呆 life in general, most riders just can't afford huge blocks of time in the gym. The program 在健身房里。所以我们对计划做了适当的削 below is pared down to fit into the "normal" 减以适应“普通”运动员的繁忙生活方式。 athlete's busy lifestyle. While you might be 实际上即使你能够挤出更多的时间去健身 able to squeeze in more gym time, the racing 房,你也不会在比赛中得到更多的好处。 benefits would not be much greater. The sport of bodybuilding has had an 在美国,健美运动对力量训练造成了非 unusually heavy influence on strength training 同一般的影响。但对于骑手来说,采用健美 in the United States. But for cyclists, using 运动员式的抗阻力练习却有可能降低耐力水 resistance exercise the same way bodybuilders 平。健美运动员所安排的训练是为了把肌肉 do is likely to decrease endurance performance. Bodybuilders organize training to maximize 块最大化或保存匀称,以修正其体形。他们 and balance muscle mass while shaping their 不考虑肌肉的功能。而耐力运动员的目标是 physiques for display. Function is not a 完全不同的,但在健身房里他们听到了太多 concern. Endurance athletes’ goals are far 的健美运动员的训练方法,他们也只好跟着 different, but all too often they learn the 学,因为不知道更好的训练方式。 bodybuilder's methods at their gym and follow them for lack of a better way. The purpose of strength training for 骑手们的力量训练的目标是为了能在踏 cycling is the application of force to the pedals 板上施加更大的力量并保持更长的时间。为 for a prolonged period of time. To accomplish 了这个目标,骑手们必须要改善肌肉群的同 this, the cyclist must improve the 步和激发模式 ―― 而不是其大小和形状。 synchronization and recruitment patterns of muscle groups – not their size and shape. This 这意味着抗阻力练习不但要训练肌肉,而且 means that resistance work must not only 还要训练控制肌肉的中枢神经系统。 develop the muscles, but also the central nervous system that controls muscle use. Rules to Lift By 举重原则 Based on comments from the athletes who I 根据我多年来训练过的运动员的感受以及训 train and their results over the years, I have 练的效果,我慢慢总结出了这套推荐给大家 slowly refined the weight training program that 的举重训练方式。我的训练方式遵循同样的 I recommend. The basic rules of my program 基本原则。不管你采用的什么训练方式―― have stayed the same. Whatever program you follow as far as sets, reps, and load, be sure to 比如做多少组,重复多少次,负荷多重―― lift by these rules. 一定要符合以下原则: Rule 1: Focus on prime movers. 原则 1:重点锻炼主驱动肌肉群 Prime movers are the big muscle groups that do 主驱动肌肉群是驱动自行车前进的主要的大 the major work on the bike. Cycling's prime 肌肉群。骑车使用的主驱动力来自股四头 movers are the quadriceps, hamstrings, and 肌,腿窝肌,和臀大肌。虽然发达的三角肌 4
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 gluteals. While having well-developed deltoids 看上去很酷,但除了提起车子以外没什么用 may look nice, they're only good for lifting 处――而公路赛中这样的动作很少用到。 your bike – not a common movement in road racing. Rule 2: Prevent muscle imbalances. 原则 2:防止肌肉失衡 Some of the injuries common to riders result 有些常见的骑车损伤是因为控制运动的肌肉 from an imbalance between muscles that must 失衡导致无法协调工作所造成的。比如,大 work in harmony to produce a movement. For 腿外侧的股外侧肌过度发达,而中间连接膝 example, if the lateral quadriceps on the outside of the thigh is overly developed relative 盖内部和上部的中部股四头肌不够发达的 to the medial quadriceps above and inside the 话,就有可能导致膝部损伤。 knee, a knee injury is possible. Rule 3: Use multi-joint exercises whenever 原则 3:尽可能地做多关节参与的练习 possible. 肱二头肌屈臂是单关节练习,只有肘关节参 Biceps curls are a single-joint exercise, 与活动。这是健美运动员常做的典型的肌肉 involving only the elbow joint. This is the type 隔离式练习。而半蹲――基本的骑车类力量 of muscle-isolation exercise bodybuilders do. Squats, a basic cycling exercise, include three 训练动作――包括了 3 个关节:髋关节,膝 joints – the hip, knee, and ankle. This comes 关节和踝关节。另外这个动作也很近似地模 closer to simulating the dynamic movement 拟了单车运动的活动模式,从而减少了在健 patterns of the sport of cycling and also reduces 身房里的锻炼时间。 time in the gym. Rule 4: Mimic the positions and movements 原则 4:尽可能地模拟车上的姿势和动作 of cycling as closely as possible. 举重时尽量把你的手和脚放置在骑车时所在 Position your hands and feet when lifting 的相似位置。比如说,在练习躺式蹬举动作 weights so they are in similar positions to when 时,你的两脚间距应该和你的车子的两个踏 you are on the bike. On a leg-press sled, for example, the feet should be placed about the 板之间的间距相同。你在骑车时不会把两只 same width as the pedals. You don't ride with 脚分开 18 英寸(45cm)或者把脚趾外分 45 your feet spread 18 inches (45 cm) and your 度。另一个例子是:在练习坐姿划船动作 toes turned out at 45 degrees. Another 时,双手放的位置应该和你握车把时相同。 example; When holding the bar for seated rows, position your hands as you would on handlebars. Rule 5: Always include the “core” – 原则 5:“核心”――腰腹部分的锻炼要始 abdominals and lower back. 终坚持 The forces applied by your arms and legs must 你的上肢和下肢施加的力量都会传到你的身 pass through the core of your body. If it is 体重心。如果身体的这部分软弱无力,许多 weak, much of the force is dissipated and lost. As you climb or during a sprint, it takes a 力量就会卸掉或消散。在你爬山或冲刺时, strong core to transfer more of the force 你需要强有力的腰腹力量的帮助把摇车把的 generated by pulling against the handlebars to 力量传递到踏板。软弱的腹肌和背肌会使你 5
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 the pedals. Weak abdominal and back muscles 的爬坡和冲刺绵软无力。 make for wimpy climbing and sprinting. Rule 6: As the race season approaches make 原则 6:随着比赛的临近,力量训练要更有 strength training more specific and less time 针对性,时间要更少。 intensive. 培养力量的关键时期是在冬天的最大力量阶 While a crucial period in developing force is 段,这一时期培养出的力量必须要在以后转 during the winter Maximum Strength phase, the strength developed then must be converted 化成力度和肌肉耐力――在公路车比赛中体 to power and muscular endurance later – forms 现出的力量形式。这一转换过程最好是在车 of strength usable in road racing. These 上完成,转换的同时需要在健身房里让最大 conversions are best accomplished on the bike 力量得到保持。如果你读过本书的早期 版本 while max strength is maintained in the weight 的话,你就会发现在这方面我对原先提出的 room. If you read the earlier editions of this 用举重提高骑车能力的训练方式做出了重大 book you will notice that this is the area where 的改变。 I have made significant changes to my recommendations for using weights to improve cycling performance. Rule 7: Keep the number of exercises low. 原则 7:保持较少的练习次数 In order to concentrate on improving specific 为了专注于特定动作的改善,你应该更关心 movements, put greater focus on sets and reps 每次练习做多少组,重复多少次,而不是关 rather than the number of exercises. Following 心去健身房多少次。在初始的解剖学适应阶 the initial Anatomical Adaptation phase, gradually reduce the number of exercises. The 段结束后,要逐步减少练习的次数。目的是 idea is to spend as little time in the weight 为了尽量少地呆在健身房里,但同时仍能改 room as possible and yet still improve race 善比赛能力。 performance. Rule 8: Strength training fitness precedes 原则 8:在赛季的每个训练周期的车上训练 on-bike training within each season period. 开始前做力量训练 Specific exercise demands in the weight room 对于特定身体素质的训练,应该先在健身房 must come before the same or similar demands 里做力量练习,然后再安排针对性的车上训 on the bike. For example, the Maximum Strength training phase should occur in the 练。例如,最大力量训练阶段应该安排在爬 weeks just prior to the start of hill training on 山训练开始之前完成。这样,在开始体验高 the bike. In this way your muscles and tendons 强度的踩车练习之前,你的肌肉和肌腱已经 have been prepared for the workloads that you 为此准备好了,从而使你在进行负荷较大的 will experience on the bike, and you will be 训练时――比如高强度级别的重复式爬 able to start stressful workouts such as hill 坡――不太容易受伤。 repeats at higher levels of performance with a lower risk of injury. The following suggested strength program 以下介绍的力量训练方式综合了上述的这些 complies with the above guidelines. I designed 原则。这种训练模式是专门为公路车骑手设 it specifically for road cyclists. If you have 计的。如果你以前是按照健美运动员的模式 been training like a bodybuilder before, you 训练的话,你也许会感到心虚,因为重量轻 6
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 may feel guilty at times using lighter weights, 了,重复次数多了,练习次数少了。坚持按 higher repetitions, and only a few exercises. 这个计划做,我想你会在比赛中看到进步 Stay with the program and I think you'll see 的。也许在镜子前你的形象不会更酷,但话 improvements in your racing. You won't look 说回来,那也不是你所追求的东西。 much better in the mirror. But then again, that is not what you are after. Strength Training Phases 力量训练阶段 There are three phases through which the 在迎来年度最重要的比赛前,骑手们会经过 cyclist should progress in approaching the most 以下三个阶段的进步。 important races of the year. Preparation Period: Anatomical Adaptation 准备期:解剖学适应(AA)与最大过渡 (AA) and Maximum Transition (MT) (MT) ANATOMICAL ADAPTATION (AA) 解剖学适应阶段(AA) PHASE Total sessions/phase 8-12 该阶段总训练次数 8-12 Sessions/week 2-3 每周训练次数 2-3 Load (% 1RM) 40-60 负荷(%1RM) 40-60 Sets/session 2-5 每次训练完成组数 2-5 Reps/set 20-30 Speed of lift Slow 每组重复次数 20-30 Recovery (in minutes) 1-1.5 举重速度 慢 每组完成后的恢复时间 1-1.5 分钟 EXERCISES (IN ORDER OF COMPLETION): 1. Hip extension (squat, leg press, or step-up) 练习项目(按完成次序): 2. Lat pull-down 1. 臀部伸展(负重半蹲,躺式蹬举,负重上 3. Hip extension (use a different exercise than in 步) #1) 2. 前牵引 4. Chest press or push-ups 3. 臀部伸展(练习项目与#1 不同) 5. Seated row 6. Personal weakness (hamstring curl, knee 4. 卧推或俯卧撑 extension, or heel raise) 5. 坐姿划船 7. Standing row 6. 个人弱项(屈腿,膝部伸展,或提踵) 8. Abdominal with twist 7. 立姿划船 8. 侧身收腹 Sidebar 12.1 工具栏 12.1 Anatomical Adaptation is the initial phase of 解剖学适应阶段是力量训练的初始阶段,一 strength training that usually is included in the 般是在晚秋或初冬开始。该阶段的目标是让 late fall or early winter. Its purpose is to 肌肉和肌腱为后续阶段――最大过渡和最大 prepare the muscles and tendons for the greater 力量――的更大重量做好准备。全年中唯独 loads of the next phases – Maximum Transition and Maximum Strength. More exercises are 这一阶段的力量训练的次数最多,因为目标 done at this time of year than at any other, 是改善一般性的身体力量。这个时期你在车 since improved general body strength is a goal. 上的训练很少,所以在健身房里的时间更多 There is less time spent on the bike at this time 一些。 7
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 of year so more time is available for weight training. Weight machines are convenient, but you 使用举重器械很方便,但你也应该在这 should also use free weight training during this 一时期使用自由式举重训练方式。采用循环 period. Circuit training, involving continuous 训练法,即在不同器械上循环完成各项动 movement from one station to the next, doing 作,每次训练做几次这样的循环,能够在 several circuits in a workout, can add an aerobic element to the AA phase. AA 阶段增加一些有氧锻炼因素。 MAXIMUM TRANSITION (MT) PHASE 最大过渡阶段(MT) Total sessions/phase 3-5 该阶段总训练次数 3-5 Sessions/week 2-3 每周训练次数 2-3 Load (% 1RM) select loads that allow 负荷(%1RM) 选择只能重复 10- only 10-15 reps* 15 次的负荷* Sets/session 3-4 Reps/set 10-15* 每次训练完成组数 3-4 Speed of lift Slow to moderate, 每组重复次数 10-15* emphasizing form 举重速度 慢到中速,强调动 Recovery (in minutes) 1.5-3* 作规范 * Only bold exercises listed below follow this 每组完成后的恢复时间 1.5-3 分钟* guideline. All others continue AA guidelines. * 只有以下打粗体字的练习遵从以上方针,其他 的练习仍遵照 AA 阶段的方针。 EXERCISES (IN ORDER OF COMPLETION): 1. Hip extension (squat, leg press, or step-up) 练习项目(按完成次序): 2. Seated row 3. Abdominal with twist 1. 臀部伸展(负重半蹲,躺式蹬举,负重上 4. Upper body choice (chest press or lat pull- 步) down) 2. 坐姿划船 5. Personal weakness (hamstring curl, knee 3. 侧身收腹 extension, or heel raise) 4. 上半身练习(卧推,或前牵引) 6. Standing row 5. 个人弱项(屈腿,膝部伸展,或提踵) 6. 立姿划船 Sidebar 12.2 工具栏 12.2 The Maximum Transition phase is just 最大过渡阶段其实只是提供了从轻负荷 that – a phase that provides a transition from 高重复的 AA 阶段到高负荷低重复的 MS 阶 the light loads and high reps of the AA phase to 段的过渡。该阶段的训练次数较少,每次训 the heavy loads and low reps of MS. With only 练都少量增加负荷,这样你就为 MS 阶段做 a few of these workouts with the loads increasing slightly each time, you will be ready 好准备了。在增加重量时要保守一些,特别 to begin MS. Always be conservative when 是在 MS 阶段。 increasing loads, especially in the MS phase. In the AA and MS phases the athlete 在 AA 和 MS 阶段,运动员可以在 4-5 should be able to increase loads by about 5 次训练后,增加 5%左右的负荷。 percent every four or five workouts. 8
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 Base 1 Period: Maximum Strength (MS) 基础期 1:最大力量(MS) MAXIMUM STRENGTH (MS) PHASE 最大力量阶段(MS) Total sessions/phase 8-12 该阶段总训练次数 8-12 Sessions/week 2-3 每周训练次数 2-3 Load (% 1RM) BW goals * 负荷(%1RM) 按体重* Sets/session 2-6 每次训练完成组数 2-6 Reps/set 3-6+* Speed of lift Slow to moderate 每组重复次数 3-6+* Recovery (in minutes) 2-4* 举重速度 慢到中速 * Only bold exercises listed below follow this 每组完成后的恢复时间 2-4 分钟* guideline. All others continue AA guidelines. * 只有以下打粗体字的练习遵从以上方针,其他 的练习仍遵照 AA 阶段的方针。 EXERCISES (IN ORDER OF COMPLETION): 1. Hip extension (squat, leg press, or step-up) 练习项目(按完成次序): 2. Seated row 1. 臀部伸展(负重半蹲,躺式蹬举,负重上 3. Abdominal with twist 步) 4. Upper body choice (chest press or lat pull- down) 2. 坐姿划船 5. Personal weakness (hamstring curl, knee 3. 侧身收腹 extension, or heel raise) 4. 上半身练习(卧推,或前牵引) 6. Standing row 5. 个人弱项(屈腿,膝部伸展,或提踵) 6. 立姿划船 Sidebar 12.3 工具栏 12.3 As resistance is gradually increased and 随着负荷慢慢增加,重复次数慢慢减少,身 repetitions decreased, more force is generated. 体就产生了更多的力量。在这一阶段必须要 This phase is necessary to teach the central 让中枢神经系统学会轻松地调动大量的肌肉 nervous system to easily recruit high numbers 纤维参与做功。如果你是刚开始做举重训 of muscle fibers. If you are new to weight training, omit this phase the first year and focus 练,那么在第一年先忽略这一阶段,在基础 just on the MT phase throughout Base 1 and 期 1 把重点放在 MT 阶段以及后续的阶段。 following. This is the most dangerous phase of 这是所有举重训练中最危险的阶段,很可能 training and injury, possibly severe, is likely. 造成受伤甚至是严重的受伤。在这一阶段的 Be particularly careful during this phase, 训练必须非常小心,特别是在自由重量练习 especially with free weight exercises such as 时,比如负重半蹲。如果你的后背,膝部或 the squat. If there is any question about 其他关节不适,使你对是否继续做负重半蹲 whether or not you should do the squat exercise 练习产生疑问时,那么就先把它搁下,转而 due to a questionable back, knees or any other joints, leave it out and do one of the 去做其他的替换动作(比如躺式蹬举或负重 alternatives (leg press or step-up). Don't take 上步)。在 MS 阶段不要冒险,要保守一 any risks during the MS phase. Be 些。比如说,在阶段刚开始时,或每次训练 conservative. This includes selecting your 做第一组练习时,选择重量要保守一些。你 loads conservatively at the start of this phase 可以在整个阶段中慢慢增加负荷。 and in the first set of each workout. You can gradually increase the loads throughout this phase. Loads are gradually increased throughout 整个 MS 阶段里负荷都在慢慢地增加, 9
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 MS up to certain goal levels based on your 一直达到某个基于你的体重的目标水平。在 body weight (BW). These are summarized in 工具栏 12.4 中综合了这些指标。一般来说, Sidebar 12.4. Generally, women will aim for 女性应该以范围的下限为目标,而男性以上 the lower ends of the ranges and men the upper 限为目标。另外那些刚开始做 MS 阶段训练 ends. Those new to the MS phase of training should also set load goals based on the lower 的人也应该以范围的下限为目标设定负荷。 ends of the ranges. MS PHASE LOAD GOALS BASED ON 基于体重的最大力量阶段的负荷目标 BODY WEIGHT (BW) NOTE: The goal is to complete three sets of six 注:目标是在最大力量阶段临近结束时,以每组 repetitions each at these loads by the end of the MS 重复 6 次,总共完成 3 组所能达到的重量。如果 phase. If a goal is achieved early, maintain the load 该目标已经达到,则在该阶段剩余时间里保持该 and increase the repetitions beyond six for the 重量并尝试增加重复次数。 remainder of the MS phase. Freebar squat 自由式负重半蹲 1.3-1.7 × 体重 1.3-1.7 × BW Leg press (sled) 躺式蹬举 2.5-2.9 × 体重 2.5-2.9 × BW Step-up 0.7-0.9 × BW 负重上步 0.7-0.9 × 体重 Seated row 0.5-0.8 × BW 坐姿划船 0.5-0.8 × 体重 Standing row 0.4-0.7 × BW 立姿划船 0.4-0.7 × 体重 Sidebar 12.4 工具栏 12.4 It is tempting for some athletes to extend 对某些运动员来说,在这一阶段超越表 this phase beyond the recommended ranges in 上推荐的负荷的范围很有诱惑力。千万别这 the table. Don't do it. Continuing this phase for 么做!持续数周的该阶段训练很可能会导致 several weeks is likely to result in muscle 肌肉失衡,特别是大腿部分,这可能会引起 imbalances, especially in the upper leg, which may contribute to hip or knee injuries. 臀部或膝部的损伤。 All Other Periods: Strength Maintenance 所有其他周期:力量保持(SM) (SM) STRENGTH MAINTENANCE (SM) 力量保持阶段(SM) PHASE Total sessions/phase Indefinite 该阶段总训练次数 不确定 Sessions/week 1 每周训练次数 1 Load (% 1RM) 60, 80 (last set) * 负荷(%1RM) 60,80(最后一组)* Sets/session 2-3 每次训练完成组数 2-3 Reps/set 6-12* Speed of lift Moderate 每组重复次数 6-12* Recovery (in minutes) 1-2* 举重速度 中速 * Only bold exercises listed below follow this 每组完成后的恢复时间 1-2 分钟* guideline. All others continue AA guidelines. * 只有以下打粗体字的练习遵从以上方针,其他 的练习仍遵照 AA 阶段的方针。 EXERCISES (IN ORDER OF COMPLETION): 1. Hip extension (squat, leg press, or step-up) 练习项目(按完成次序): 2. Seated row 1. 臀部伸展(负重半蹲,躺式蹬举,负重上 3. Abdominal with twist 步) 4. Upper body choice (chest press or lat pull- 10
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 down) 2. 坐姿划船 5. Personal weakness (hamstring curl, knee 3. 侧身收腹 extension, or heel raise) 4. 上半身练习(卧推,或前牵引) 6. Standing row 5. 个人弱项(屈腿,膝部伸展,或提踵) 6. 立姿划船 Sidebar 12.5 工具栏 12.5 Carefully limited high-intensity lifting 有限的谨慎地高强度举重练习能够保持比赛 maintains the raw strength needed for racing. 所需的原始力量。在基础期 2 开始后停止一 Stopping all resistance training once the Base 2 切举重训练可能会导致在赛季中力量和比赛 period starts may cause a gradual loss of 能力的逐步丧失,除非有认真的爬山式的力 strength and performance throughout the season unless serious strength training on hills 量训练做补充。保持力量对女性和年纪超过 is incorporated. Maintenance of strength is 40 岁的车手有特别重要的意义。 particularly important for women and those over the age of forty. Hip extension training (squats, step-ups, 臀部伸展练习(负重半蹲,负重上步, or leg presses) is optional during the 或躺式蹬举)在力量保持阶段是可选的。如 maintenance phase. If you find hip extension 果你觉得臀部伸展练习对比赛有帮助,那么 exercises help your racing, continue doing 就继续做;否则的话,如果这些腿部练习只 them. However, if working the legs only deepens your fatigue level, cut them out. 是加深了你的疲劳程度,那么就把它们砍 Continuing to work on core muscles and 掉。保持力量的另一个做法就是始终坚持 personal weakness areas will maintain your “核心”部分的腰腹肌肉和个人弱项部分肌 strength needs. 肉的锻炼。 To properly time your peak, eliminate all 为了有计划地达到身体的高峰期,在 A strength training for the seven days leading up 类赛事开始前 7 天不要做任何的力量训练。 to A-priority races. Determining Load 确定重量 Perhaps the most critical aspect of lifting 也许举重中最关键的方面就是每个阶段里你 weights is the load you select during each 所选择的重量。虽然建议的负荷重量是基于 phase. While it suggests a load based on the 1RM,即你只能举起一次的最大重量,但是 maximum you can lift for a single repetition 这不是用来确定重量的好办法,因为这样做 (1RM), that is not always the best way to determine weight due to the possibility of 容易导致受伤(特别是后背),以及长久的 injury, especially to the back, and of prolonged 肌肉疼痛,大部分时候这都会使你在 2-3 soreness reducing most, if not all, training for 天里无法正常训练。 two or three days. Another way to decide how much weight 另一种确定重量的方法是:先估计一个 to use is to initially estimate the load and then 初始的重量,然后随着阶段的提高而慢慢调 adjust as the phase progresses. Always start 整。刚开始的时候,每组重复的次数一定要 with less than you think is possible for the 少于你认为能够做到的次数。你可以在以后 number of reps indicated. You can add more 11
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 later, if you do it cautiously. 增加次数,如果你能慎重处理的话。 You can also estimate one-repetition 你也可以基于能够重复更多次数的重量 maximums based on a higher number of reps 估算 1RM(一次举起的最大重量)。先做一 done to failure. Start by doing a warm-up set or 到两组热身,然后选择一个你至少能举 4 次 two. Select a resistance you can lift at least four 但不超过 10 次的重量,你也许需要多试几 times, but no more than ten. You may need to experiment for a couple of sets. If you do, rest 次。做的时候,每次尝试的间隔时间至少 5 for at least five minutes between attempts. To 分钟。然后,查找表 12.1 找到重复次数对应 find your predicted one-repetition maximum, 的 1RM 估算因子,以你举起的重量除以估 divide the weight lifted by the factor below that 算因子,就得到了你的 1RM 预测值。 corresponds with the number of repetitions completed (see Table 12.1). 重复次数 # 1RM 估算因子 4 .90 5 .875 6 .85 7 .825 8 .80 9 .775 10 .75 Table 12.1 Estimating One-Repetition Maximums 表 12.1 1RM(一次举起的最大重量)估算表 Another way of estimating your 1RM 另外附录 A 中也描述了如何根据多次数 from a multiple lift effort is described in 举重的结果来估算 1RM。 Appendix A. During the Maximum Strength phase, free 在最大力量阶段期间,自由式举重很可 weights are likely to bring greater results than 能比举重器械的效果更好,但如果你准备这 machines, but if you use free weights also 么做的话,那么在最大过渡(MT)阶段就 include them in the MT phase. Again, be 要采用自由式举重。另外,使用杠铃和哑铃 cautious whenever using barbells and dumb- bells, especially with rapid movement. 的时候千万小心,特别是动作速度较快时。 Miscellaneous Guidelines 其他指导方针 In carrying out a strength-development 在制定力量培养计划时,你还应该考虑以下 program there are several other factors that you 一些因素。 will want to consider. Experience Level 经验级别 If you are in the first two years of strength 如果你做力量训练的时间不到两年,那么必 training, emphasis must be on building efficient 须把重点放在建立有效的运动模式和连接支 movement patterns and bolstering connective 撑组织上――不需要很大的重量。经验丰富 tissue – not on heavy loads. Experienced athletes are ready to do more maximum 的运动员才需要做更多的最大力量的培养。 12
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 strength development. Days per Week 每周训练日 The weight phase tables suggest a range of 前面介绍的各阶段的举重计划表给出了各个 days per week to lift weights based on the 阶段里每周举重几次的建议。另外你还可以 phase. The period of the season you are in will 根据所处的赛季周期来进一步细化这一数 help you to further refine this number. During Base 3, Build 1, and Build 2, reduce the 字。在基础期 3,发展期 1 和发展期 2,每 number of days of strength training per week 周的力量训练日减少 1 天;在高峰期和比赛 by one. In the Peak and Race periods cut back 期,训练日减少到表中列出的最小值。在有 to the minimum listed on the table. The week A 级赛事的那一周,不要做任何力量训练。 of A races, eliminate strength training altogether. Warm-up and Cool Down 热身和整理活动 Before an individual strength workout, warm 在你开始做力量训练前,先做 10 分钟的有 up with about ten minutes of easy aerobic 氧活动来热身,跑步,划船,爬楼梯或者骑 activity. This could be running, rowing, stair- 车都可以。每次举重训练结束后,在固定自 climbing, or cycling. Following a weight session, spin with a light resistance at a 行车上以低阻力,90 以上的踏频踩 10-20 cadence of 90 or higher for ten to twenty 分钟。这能让你的脚趾放松。不要在力量训 minutes on a stationary bike. Allow your toes 练后马上跑步,这会增加你受伤的风险。 to relax. Do not run immediately following a strength workout, as this raises your risk of injury. Phasing In 逐步调整 As you move into a new phase of strength 当你开始新阶段的力量训练时,对负荷的提 training be cautious with load progression. This 高要谨慎些。在离开了一段时间后重新返回 is as important at the start of the AA phase as 健身房时,你需要从 AA 阶段开始并重视这 you return to weight training after some time off as it is to the MS phase as you progress to 一原则;而在你进入下一个 MS 阶段并开始 heavy loads. If you do it right, soreness will be 更重的负荷时这一原则同样重要。如果你的 minimal and there will be little or no need to 措施得当,肌肉酸痛就会降到最低限度,并 modify any other workouts that week. If you do 且不会对同一周里的其他训练造成影响;否 it wrong you are likely to be quite sore for 则的话,你也许会酸疼好几天,乃至被迫削 several days and be forced to cut back on other 减其他类型的训练内容。 forms of training. Exercise Order 练习顺序 Exercises are listed in the phase tables in the 前述的各阶段举重计划表里的练习项目是按 order of completion to allow for a smooth 完成顺序列出的,以达到平滑地进展和恢 progression and for recovery. In the AA phase 复。在 AA 阶段,你也许愿意采用“循环训 you may want to use "circuit" training to give this phase an aerobic component. To do this 练法”以增加一些有氧锻炼因素。做法是: complete the first set of all exercises before 先完成所有练习项目的第一组,然后开始下 13
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 starting the second sets, moving rapidly 一循环,快速地辗转于不同器械之间,尽量 between stations with little time for recovery. 缩短恢复时间。例如,在 AA 阶段,先做一 For example, in AA, do the first set of squats 组负重半蹲,然后做一组坐姿划。在其他各 followed by the first set of seated rows. In the 个阶段,都是先完成一个练习项目的所有 other phases, all sets of each exercise are done to completion before progressing to the next 组,然后再开始下一个练习项目,这叫做 exercise. This is called "horizontal “水平进阶”。 progression." In some cases, you may do two exercises 有些情况下,你也可以在 MS 阶段把某 as a "superset" in the MS phase – alternate sets 两个练习项目视作一个超集――做下一组时 between two exercises to completion. 可以选择超集中的任何一个项目完成。这种 Supersetting will make better use of your time 超集法可以更好地节约你在健身房里的时 in the gym since you'll spend less time waiting for recovery of a specific neuromuscular group. 间,因为你不需要为了特定神经肌肉群的恢 This does not eliminate the need to stretch 复而等待太长时间。但是,每组结束后的拉 following each set, however. 伸活动仍然需要。 Recovery Intervals 组间恢复期 On the tables, notice that the recovery time 注意在计划表中指定了每组练习之间的恢复 between sets is specified. During this time the 时间。在这段时间里,你的肌肉灼烧感减退 muscle burn fades away, your heart rate drops, 了,心跳降低了,呼吸也恢复到休息时的水 and breathing returns to a resting level as lactate is cleared and energy stores are rebuilt 平,乳酸盐被清除了,并重新储备能量以备 in preparation for the next set. These recovery 下一组练习。这种恢复期很重要,特别是如 periods are important, especially as the weight 果你期望随着重量的增加从力量训练中获得 loads increase, if you expect to derive any 任何收益的话。有些阶段要求的组间恢复期 benefit from strength work. Some phases 比其他阶段更长。在恢复期间要做与力量练 require longer recovery intervals than others. 习相对应的拉伸活动。在第 13 章图示了这 During the recovery time stretch the muscles 里列出的所有拉伸动作。 just exercised. See Chapter 13 for illustrations of stretches listed here. Recovery Weeks 恢复周 Every third or fourth week is a time of reduced 与你的年度训练计划相一致,每 3-4 周训 training volume coinciding with your recovery 练的最后一周都是训练量较少的恢复周。在 weeks scheduled on the annual training plan. 这一周要减少力量训练次数,或者减少每次 Reduce the number of strength workouts that week, or reduce the number of sets within 训练的组数,而练习重量仍保持前一周的水 workouts. Keep the loads the same as in the 平。 previous week. 14
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 Strength Exercises 力量练习项目 Hip Extension: Squat 臀部伸展:负重半蹲 (Quadriceps, Gluteus, Hamstrings) (股四头肌,臀大肌,腿窝肌) The squat improves force delivery to the 负重半蹲能提高踩踏板的力量。对新手来 pedals. For the novice, the squat is one of the 说,负重半蹲是所有练习中最危险的。所以 most dangerous exercise options in this routine. 要特别注意对后背和膝关节的保护。 Great care is necessary to protect the back and knees. Figure 12.1 Squat 图 12.1 负重半蹲 1. Wear a weight belt during the Maximum 1. 在最大力量(MS)阶段要扎练功带。 Strength (MS) phase. 2. 两脚均匀左右分开,间距类似脚踏之间 2. Stand with the feet pedal-width apart, 的距离,大约 10 英寸(25cm),脚尖伸 about 10 inches, center to center, with the 直向前。 toes pointed straight ahead. 3. Keep the head up and the back straight. 3. 保持头部向上,后背伸直。 4. Squat until the upper thighs are just 4. 下蹲直到大腿上部和地面基本平行―― short of parallel to floor – about the 基本相当于踩踏到最高位置时膝关节弯 same knee bend as at the top of a 曲的角度。 pedal stroke. 5. 膝盖向前,并在整个过程中保持其垂直 5. Point the knees straight ahead, maintaining 位置在两脚之上。 their position over the feet at all times. 6. 回到起始姿势。 6. Return to the start position. 7. 拉伸动作:鹤立式,三角式。 7. Stretches: Stork Stand and Triangle Hip Extension: Step-up 臀部伸展:负重上步 (Quadriceps, Gluteus, Hamstrings) (股四头肌,臀大肌,腿窝肌) Improves force delivery to the pedals. The 能够提高踩踏板的力量。负重上步很近似地 step-up closely mimics the movement of 模拟了踩踏板的动作,但是这个练习比负重 15
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 pedaling, but the exercise takes more time than 半蹲或躺式蹬举更费时一些,因为需要分别 the squat or leg press, since each leg is worked 练习两条腿。需要注意的是保证平台的稳定 individually. Caution is necessary to ensure a 并清除台面上所有东西。平台的高度应该等 stable platform and overhead clearance. The 于你的曲柄长度的两倍,大约是 14 英寸 platform should be a height equal to twice the length of your cranks. That's approximately 14 (35cm)。太高的平台会对膝部造成太大压 inches (35cm). A higher platform puts great 力,并增加受伤的风险。 stress on the knee and raises the possibility of injury. Figure 12.2 Step-up 图 12.2 负重上步 1. Use either a barbell on the shoulders or 1. 使用肩扛杠铃,或手拿哑铃的姿势。用 dumbbells in the hands. Use wrist straps 哑铃时要戴上腕带。 with dumbbells. 2. 把左脚完全放在一个结实的平台上,脚 2. Place the left foot fully on a sturdy plat- 趾伸直向前。 form with the toes pointing straight ahead. 3. With the back straight and the head erect, 3. 保持后背伸直,头向上,登上平台,让 step up with the right foot touching the top 右脚碰到平台顶端,然后马上回到起始 of the platform, and immediately return to 姿势。 the start position. 4. 全部完成左腿的一组重复次数,然后换 4. Complete all left-leg reps before repeating 右腿重复同样动作。 with the right leg. 5. 拉伸活动:鹤立式,三角式。 5. Stretches: Stork Stand and Triangle Hip Extension: Leg Press 臀部伸展:躺式蹬举 (Quadriceps, Gluteus, Hamstrings) (股四头肌,臀大肌,腿窝肌) Improves force delivery to the pedals. It is 能够提高踩踏板的力量。这也许是最安全的 probably the safest of the hip-extension 臀部伸展动作,并且最省时间。要注意不要 exercises and generally takes the least time. Be 把蹬举机的踏板 “踹飞”出去,因为当它落 careful not to “throw” the platform, since it may damage knee cartilage when it drops back 下来被双腿接住时你的膝部正处于锁定位 down and lands on legs with locked knees. 置,这有可能会损伤你的膝盖软骨组织。 16
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 Figure 12.3 Leg press 图 12.3 躺式蹬举 1. Center the feet on the middle portion of 1. 两脚均匀左右分开放在蹬举机的踏板 platform about 10 inches (25 cm) apart, 上,相隔大约 10 英寸(25cm)。两脚保 center to center. The feet are parallel, not 持平行,不要外分。两脚在踏板上放置 angled out. The higher the feet are placed 的位置越高,臀大肌和腿窝肌的做功程 on the platform, the more the gluteus and hamstrings are involved. 度越大。 2. Press the platform up until the legs are 2. 向踏板施力,直到双腿几乎伸直,但膝 almost straight, but with the knees short of 关节还没有完全打开的状态。 locking. 3. 屈腿以降低踏板,直到膝盖距离胸部 8 3. Lower the platform until the knees are 英寸(20cm)左右。位置再低的话会对 about 8 inches (20 cm) from the chest. 膝盖造成不必要的压力。 Going lower places unnecessary stress on 4. 在整个练习中膝盖和脚之间保持直线。 the knees. 5. 回到起始姿势。 4. The knees remain in line with the feet throughout the movement. 6. 拉伸活动:鹤立式,三角式。 5. Return to the start position. 6. Stretches: Stork Stand and Triangle. Seated Row 坐姿划船 (Upper and Lower Back, Lower Lats, (上背部,下背部,下背阔肌,肱二头肌) Biceps) 该练习模拟了坐式爬坡时双手拉车把的动 This simulates the movement of pulling on the 作。强化核心部分――下背部。 handlebars while climbing a hill in a seated position. Strengthens the core – the lower back. 17
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 Figure 12.4 Seated row 图 12.4 坐姿划船 1. Grasp the bar with the arms fully extended 1. 双臂完全伸展抓住拉力棒,两手间距与 and the hands about the same width as 握车把的间距相同。 when gripping the handlebar. 2. 把拉力棒向腹部方向拉,保持两肘贴着 2. Pull the bar toward the stomach, keeping 身体。 the elbows close to the body. 3. Keep movement at the waist to a minimum, 3. 腰部尽量保持不动,使用后背肌肉保持 using the back muscles to stabilize the 动作稳定。 position. 4. 回到起始姿势。 4. Return to the start position. 5. 拉伸活动:俯背式,下蹲式。 5. Stretch: Pull-down and Squat Stretch Chest Press 卧推 (Pectorals and Triceps) (胸肌,肱三头肌) The chest press, along with the lat pull-down 卧推,以及前牵引和立姿划船,都是为了在 and the standing row, helps support the 发生碰撞时保护肩部的。在 MS 阶段,进行 shoulders in the event of a crash. With free 自由式举重练习时旁边需要有保护人员。 weights, a spotter is necessary in the MS phase. Figure 12.5 Chest press 图 12.5 卧推 1. Grasp the bar with the hands above the 1. 在肩部以上握住杠铃杆,双手间距与车 shoulders and about as wide apart as when 把同宽。 holding the handlebars. 2. 向下移动杠铃接近胸部,保持双肘靠近 18
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 2. Lower the bar to the chest, keeping the 身体。 elbows close to the body. 3. 保持臀部紧贴长凳,回到起始姿势。 3. Return to the start position without raising 4. 拉伸活动:俯背式。 the butt off the bench. 4. Stretch: Pull-down Push-up 俯卧撑 (Pectorals and Triceps) (胸肌,肱三头肌) The push-up provides the same benefits as the 俯卧撑具有与卧推同样的作用。优势在于它 chest press. The advantage is that no equipment 不需要器械,所以在任何地方都能做。 is necessary, so it can be done anywhere. Figure 12.6 Push-up 图 12.6 俯卧撑 1. Place the hands slightly wider than the 1. 双手摆在比肩稍宽的位置。 shoulders. 2. 保持后背挺直,头部向上。 2. Keep the back straight and the head up. 3. 身体保持直线挺直,向下运动直到胸部 3. Maintaining a straight-line, rigid body 离地面 4 英寸(10cm)左右。力量不足 position, lower the body until the chest is within about 4 inches (10 cm) of the floor. 时,可以让膝盖着地来做。 This may be done with the knees on the 4. 回到起始姿势。 floor as strength is developing. 5. 拉伸活动:侧身式 4. Return to the start position. 5. Stretch: Twister Heel Raise 提踵 (Gastrocnemius) (腓肠肌) This is a “personal weakness” exercise for ath- 这是个人弱项方面的练习,针对的是那些有 letes who experience calf and Achilles tendon 小腿或跟腱问题的运动员。提踵练习可以减 problems. The heel raise may reduce 少这类损伤的可能性,但在刚开始练时要小 susceptibility to such injuries, but be careful to use very light weights when starting, as it may 心地使用非常轻的重量,因为这一练习在起 also cause some calf or Achilles tendon 始阶段同样有可能会引起一些小腿或跟腱的 problems initially. Progress slowly with this 问题。练习过程要慢,如果小腿部分是你的 exercise. Never attempt a 1RM test with this 弱项肌肉,那么不要用这种练习测试 1RM。 exercise if the lower leg is an area of personal weakness. 19
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 Figure 12.7 Heel raise 图 12.7 提踵 1. Stand with the balls of the feet on a 1- to 2- 1. 脚前掌放在 1-2 英寸(2.5-5cm)高起 inch (2.5 to 5 cm) riser, with the heels on 的台阶上,脚后跟着地。 the floor. 2. 两脚平行,分开距离等同脚踏间距。 2. The feet are parallel and pedal-width apart. 3. 膝部伸直,靠脚尖向上掂起。 3. With straight knees, rise up onto the toes. 4. Return to the start position. 4. 回到起始姿势。 5. Stretch: Wall Lean 5. 拉伸活动:推墙式 Knee Extension 膝部伸展 (Medial Quadriceps) (股四头肌中间部分) If you are plagued by a kneecap tracking 如果你正被髌骨偏离性损伤所困扰,这项练 injury, this exercise may help by improving 习也许能帮你改善股四头肌两侧肌肉与中间 balance between the lateral and medial 部分的失衡现象,从而使损伤得到控制。 quadriceps, keeping the injury under control. 20
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 Figure 12.8 Knee extension 图 12.8 膝部伸展 1. Start with the knee fully extended and the 1. 初始动作时,膝部完全伸直,脚尖稍微 toes pointing slightly to the outside. Work 向外。每次锻炼一条腿。 one leg at a time. 2. 踝部向下运动大约 8 英寸(20cm)―― 2. Lower the ankle pad only about 8 inches 不要让脚下降到底,因为这样可能会加 (20 cm) – do not go all the way down, as this may increase internal knee pressure, 重髌骨内部的压力,造成髌骨内侧的疼 making the underside of the kneecap sore. 痛。 3. Return co the start position. 3. 回到起始姿势。 4. Stretch: Stork Stand 4. 拉伸活动:鹤立式。 Leg Curl 屈腿 (Hamstrings) (腿窝肌) Hamstring injuries may result from an 腿窝肌损伤可能是由于股四头肌和腿窝肌之 imbalance between the quadriceps and 间的力量失衡造成的。通过强化腿窝肌,能 hamstrings. By strengthening the hamstrings, 够改善这两块主驱动肌肉群之间的力量比 the strength ratio between these two major movers is improved. Leg curls can be done on 例。屈腿动作可以在俯式或立式器械上做。 either prone or standing machines. 21
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 Figure 12.9 Leg curl 图 12.9 屈腿 1. Bend the leg to about a 90-degree angle at 1. 向后屈腿,膝部弯曲成 90 度左右。 the knee. 2. 回头起始姿势。 2. Return to the start position. 3. 拉伸活动:三角式。 3. Stretch: Triangle Abdominal with Twist 侧身收腹 (Rectus Abdominus, External Oblique) (腹直肌,腹外斜肌) This is a core exercise to improve the transfer 这项核心部分练习可以改善从上半身向下半 of energy from the upper to the lower body. 身传递力量的能力。 1. Sit on a decline board with the knees bent 1. 坐在向下倾斜的腹肌板上,膝部弯曲成 at about 90 degrees and the ankles held 90 度左右,脚踝牢牢勾住腹肌板。 firmly in place. 2. 双臂交叉抱在胸前,也可以抱一个杠铃 2. The arms are crossed over the chest and 片。 may hold a weight plate. 3. Lower the upper body to about a 45-degree 3. 上身向下运动,与地面成 45 度角。 angle from parallel with the floor. 4. 侧身转体,回到起始姿势。向左转体时 4. Return to the start position with a twist. 目光看左肩后面,向右转体时看右肩后 With each repetition, alternate looking over 面,每次重复时交替向左右转体。 the right and left shoulders as the torso 5. 拉伸活动:伸直手臂和腿,向后弯曲背 twists to the right and left. 部。 5. Stretch: Arch the back and extend the arms and legs. 22
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 Figure 12.10 Abdominal with twist 图 12.10 侧身收腹 Lat Pull-down 前牵引 (Latissimus Dorsi, Biceps) (背阔肌,肱二头肌) Just as with the chest press, the lat pull-down 和卧推一样,前牵引能使肩部稳固。 stabilizes the shoulder. Figure 12.11 Lat pull-down 图 12.11 前牵引 1. Grasp a straight bar with the arms fully 1. 双臂完全伸展抓住拉力棒,两手间距与 extended and the hands placed about as 握车把的间距相同 wide as they would be on the handlebars. 2. 把拉力棒向胸部上方拉(不是向脑后 2. Pull the bar toward the upper chest (not 拉) behind the head). 3. Minimize both movement at the waist and 3. 尽量不要移动腰部,或前后摇动来拉动 rocking back and forth to start the weight 重量。保持身体不动,使用后背肌肉来 moving. Keep the body still, using the back 保持姿势。 muscles to stabilize this position. 4. 回到起始姿势。 4. Return to the start position. 5. 拉伸活动:俯背式。 5. Stretch: Pull-down 23
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 12 STRENGTH 第 12 章 力量训练 Standing Row 立姿划船 (Deltoids, Trapezius, Biceps) (三角肌,斜方肌,肱二头肌) The standing row stabilizes the shoulder and 立姿划船使肩部稳固,也提高了跳跃障碍时 improves the ability to lift the front wheel 提起前轮的力量。 when clearing obstacles. Figure 12.12 Standing row 图 12.12 立姿划船 1. At the low-pulley station, or with a barbell 1. 站在有低位滑轮的器械旁,或使用杠铃 or dumbbells, grasp the bar at thigh height 和哑铃,双手在大腿的高度抓住拉力 with the hands handlebar grip-width apart. 棒,两手间距与车上同宽。 2. Pull the bar to the chest. 2. 把拉力棒拉向胸部。 3. Return to the start position. 4. Stretch; Grasp a stationary object, such as a 3. 回到起始姿势。 pole, behind your lower back with the 4. 拉伸活动:背靠一个固定的物体,比如 hands as high up as possible. Lean away 旗杆,双手从背后抓住旗杆,位置尽量 from the pole, allowing your body to sag 靠上,向前倾斜身体,让身体放松尽量 while relaxing. 下垂。 24
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 13 STRETCHING 第 13 章 拉伸活动 Chapter 13 STRETCHING 第 13 章 拉伸活动 It doesn’t get any easier; you just get faster.. 这一点都不简单,但能让你更快 -- GREG LEMOND ―― GREG LEMOND Physiologically speaking, cycling is not a 从生理学上说,骑车不是个完美的运动。当 perfect sport. But then again, no sport is. The 然话说回来,所有的运动都不完美。骑车时 repetitive movements of cycling cause a 的重复性动作会导致部分肌肉变紧变短。踩 shortening and tightening of certain muscles. 车的动作不是全冲程的运动 ―― 腿在达到 Pedaling leg muscles lose elasticity since they don’t go through a full range of motion – the 最大伸展和最大弯曲前就停止了 ―― 这样 leg stops both before reaching a full extension 的运动使得腿部肌肉失去弹性。骑车时保持 and complete flexion. Muscular tension affects 一个姿势数小时之久,这也导致后背,颈 the back, neck, arms, and shoulders on rides 部,胳膊和肩膀的肌肉紧张。这些都会拖你 lasting several hours with little change of 的后腿。 position. Such tightness can hold you back. A good example of how tight muscles 肌肉紧张会限制运动能力,大腿后部的 limit your performance involves the hamstring 腿窝肌肉就是一个很好的例子。这是所有因 muscle on the back of the upper leg. Of all the 骑车引起的肌肉变紧中影响最大的。腿窝肌 tightness that can result from cycling, this may 肉变紧会对大腿的下踩动作起限制作用,因 be the most debilitating. Tight hamstrings restrain the leg during the down stroke. In this 为在这种情况下它的作用就是阻止大腿变 condition they work to prevent the leg from 直,从而抵消了部分大腿产生的力量。为了 straightening, and in doing so, reduce the force 减轻大腿后部的紧张,这些骑手会把坐包降 produced by the leg. In an attempt to alleviate 低。而坐包太低更加影响发力,反而更加降 the tension felt in the back of the leg, the 低功率输出。 affected cyclist will often lower his or her saddle. A saddle that is set too low further reduces force generation, which in turn reduces power output. Benefits of Stretching 拉伸的好处 Tight hamstrings can also contribute to a tight 腿窝肌肉变紧还会造成后背紧张,这个问题 lower back, which haunts some riders on long 常常象幽灵一样困扰一些长途骑手,迫使它 rides as they wonder when it might lock up, 们放弃一些艰苦的训练和比赛。下车以后, forcing them to abandon a hard workout or 后背紧张也许会变成下后背疼痛。坚持不懈 race. Off the bike, this low-back tightness may become lower-back pain. A consistent and 和有效的拉伸活动能够避免,或者说至少能 effective program of stretching can prevent, or, 减轻这些问题。预防往往比治疗更舒服,更 at the least, alleviate such problems. Prevention 省时,更经济。 is always more comfortable, less time consuming, and cheaper than treatment. A study of 1,543 runners in the Honolulu 一项对火奴鲁鲁马拉松赛的 1,543 名长 Marathon found that those who stretched 跑选手的调查发现:那些比赛或训练后总是 regularly following workouts had fewer 做拉伸活动的运动员比那些不做拉伸的运动 1
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 13 STRETCHING 第 13 章 拉伸活动 injuries that those who didn’t. It is noteworthy 员更少受伤,值得关注的是这一调查还发现 that in this same study those who stretched 只在比赛和训练前做拉伸活动的运动员最容 only before workouts had the highest rate of 易受伤。 injuries. Stretching after workouts appears to aid 艰苦训练后的拉伸活动似乎对身体恢复 the recovery process by improving muscle 也有好处,因为它能改善肌肉细胞对氨基酸 cells’ uptake of amino acids. This promotes 的吸收,从而提高肌肉细胞中蛋白质的合 protein synthesis within muscle cells, which is 成。这些对完全和快速的身体恢复,以及保 necessary for full and quick recovery, and maintains the integrity of muscle cells. 持肌肉细胞的完整都是很重要的。 Stretching after a workout takes less than 训练后的拉伸活动耗时不到 15 分钟, fifteen minutes, and you can do it while 而且你可以一边做拉伸一边喝饮料,或和队 downing a recovery drink and chatting with 友聊天。这是锻炼身体柔韧性的最好时刻, your training partners. This is the optimum 因为这时肌肉又暖又软。 time to work on flexibility, as the muscles are warm and supple. Another important time to stretch is during 力量训练是另一个做拉伸活动的重要时 strength workouts. The act of forcefully 机。强制性收缩肌肉来抗拒阻力的动作会造 contracting muscles against resistance creates 成极端的肌肉紧张。前面章节讲到,在力量 extreme tightness. As described in the previous 房中每做一组动作你都应该对刚才使用的肌 chapter, following each strength set in the weight room you should stretch the muscles 肉做拉伸活动。如果力量训练的方法正确的 that were just used. Correctly doing a strength 话,你在健身房里拉伸的时间应该比举重的 workout means spending more time stretching 时间要长。 in the gym than lifting weights. Stretching a little bit throughout the day is 每天做一点拉伸活动也有利于长期保持 also beneficial to long-term flexibility and 身体柔韧性。坐在桌旁工作学习时,你可以 performance. While sitting at a desk working 轻柔地拉伸大肌肉群,比如大腿腿窝和小 or reading, you can gently stretch major muscle 腿。看电视,排队,和朋友聊天,以及早上 groups such as the hamstrings and calves. Work on flexibility while watching television, 醒来但还躺在床上时都可以练习柔韧性。照 standing in line, talking with friends, and first 这样子过一段时间,你也许就会把拉伸练习 thing in the morning while still in bed. After a 变成生活的一部分以及下意识的活动。奇迹 while, you may make it such an integral part of 就这样发生了,你的柔韧性将会达到顶峰。 your life that you no longer even think about stretching. It just happens. That’s when your flexibility will be at its peak. Stretching Models 拉伸模式 Over the past forty years, four stretching 在过去 40 年里,总共流行过 4 种拉伸方法 methods have gained (and sometimes lost) (有些已经销声匿迹了)。 popularity. 2
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 13 STRETCHING 第 13 章 拉伸活动 Ballistic 钟摆式拉伸 When I was in college in the 1960s, ballistic 20 世纪 60 年代我还在念大学的时候,钟摆 stretching was common. Bouncing movements 式拉伸很普遍。来回跳动的动作被认为是使 were thought to be the best way to make 肌肉变长的最好方式。后来我们才发现这么 muscles longer. Later we learned that this 做只有反作用 ―― 肌肉反抗变长,而且会 technique had just the opposite effect – muscles resisted lengthening and could even be 被过度拉伸所损伤。现在几乎没人这样做拉 damaged by overly motivated stretchers. Today 伸活动了。 almost no one stretches this way. Static 静态拉伸法 In the 1970s, Californian Bob Anderson refined 20 世纪 70 年代,加利福尼亚的 Bob a stretching method and in 1980 released a Anderson 完善了拉伸理论并于 80 年代出版 book called Stretching. Anderson’s approach 了一本书 《拉伸活动》。Anderson 提出了静 involved static stretching with little or no 态拉伸法:拉伸肌肉到一种稍微不舒服的程 movement at all: Stretch the muscle to a level of slight discomfort and then hold it in that 度然后保持这个姿势几秒钟。静态拉伸法是 position for several seconds. Static stretching 今天最流行的拉伸方式。 remains the most popular style today. PNF PNF 拉伸法 Another method also surfaced about the same 与静态拉伸法同时出现的有另一种拉伸方 time as static stretching, but never received 法,但直到 90 年代以前还没有得到多少了 much exposure or support until the 1990s. 解和支持。早在 70 年代早期,就有些大学 Several university studies going back to the 的研究发现这种比静态拉伸法更加有效 10- early 1970s found it to be 10 to 15 percent more effective than static stretching. This 15%的方法,这就是“本体感受改善神经肌 approach, called “proprioceptive 肉法”,简称 PNF。最近几年这种方法开始 neuromuscular facilitation”, has started to catch 流行了。 on over the last few years. There are many variations on PNF PNF 拉伸法有很多变种,有些非常复 stretching, some being quite complex. Here are 杂。以下步骤是一种简单易行的版本: the steps in one easy-to-follow version: 1. Static-stretch the muscle of about eight 1. 静态拉伸肌肉大约 8 秒钟 seconds. 2. 收缩该肌肉 8 秒钟(如果是力量训练 2. Contract the same muscle for about 中的拉伸则跳过该步骤,改为静态拉 eight seconds. (Leave out the 伸 15 秒) contraction step when stretching between sets of strength training. 3. 再次拉伸该肌肉 8 秒钟 Instead, hold static stretches for about 4. 继续交替收缩和拉伸动作,总共做 4 fifteen seconds). -8 次静态拉伸,最后总是以静态拉 3. Static-stretch the muscle again for 伸结束。 3
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 13 STRETCHING 第 13 章 拉伸活动 about eight seconds. 4. Continue alternating contractions with stretches until you have done four to eight static stretches. Always finish with a static stretch. You should find that the static stretches 你会发现每次重复后的静态拉伸都比前一次 become deeper with each repeat as the muscles 要更深一些,肌肉好象也更松一些。 seem to loosen up. Using this PNF method, a stretch would 使用 PNF 法的拉伸活动需要 1-2 分 take one to two minutes. The time is well worth 钟,但相比于它的好处,这些时间值得花。 it for the benefit received. Active-Isolated 积极隔离法 A relatively new arrival on the fitness scene, 作为一种相当新的健身场景,积极隔离拉伸 active-isolated stretching involves brief, 法有简短,使用辅助工具,重复多次等特 assisted stretches that are repeated several 点。以下为典型步骤: times. Here is a typical routine: 1. Contract the opposing muscle group as 1. 收缩反向肌肉群以达到拉伸姿势。 you move into a stretching position. 2. 用手,绳子,或毛巾来提高拉伸。 2. Use your hands, a rope, or a towel to 3. 拉伸到轻度紧张状态。 enhance the stretch. 4. 保持 2 秒拉伸后放开。 3. Stretch to the point of light tension. 4. Hold for two seconds and then release. 5. 回到开始动作,放松 2 秒钟。 5. Return to the starting position and 6. 重复以上动作,每次拉伸 2 秒,一组 relax for two seconds. 重复 8-12 次,做 1-2 组。 6. Do one or two sets of eight to twelve repetitions of each two-second stretch. Cycling Stretches 骑车拉伸 The following are a few of the many possible 下面介绍一些骑手们很可能使用的拉伸动 stretches for cyclists. You may find that some 作。你会发现它们对你来说更加重要。因为 are more important for you than others. These 你每次骑车时都会关注这些动作,你也应该 are the ones to focus on every day and every 把它们结合进健身房里的力量训练过程中。 time you ride. You should also blend some of these with your strength training in the gym. 下文中有如何结合的介绍,前一章有力量训 Those combinations are indicated here and also 练示意图。我建议每次训练或比赛完后都按 with the strength exercise drawings in the last 照图示的顺序做一遍拉伸活动。你可以靠自 chapter. I recommend following this stretching 行车保持平衡来完成大部分拉伸活动。 order at the end of a workout. You can do most of these stretches while holding your bike for balance. 4
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 13 STRETCHING 第 13 章 拉伸活动 Stork Stand 鹤立式 (Quadriceps) (股四头肌) 1. While balancing against your bike or a 1. 靠着车子或墙平滑身体,用左手从背 wall, grasp your right foot behind your 后抓住你的右脚。 back with your left hand. 2. 轻轻地把手向上拉离臀部,静态拉 2. Static-stretch by gently pulling your 伸。 hand up and away from your butt. 3. Keep your head up and stand erect – do 3. 保持手拉的位置,站直 ―― 不要弯 not bend over at the waist. 腰。 4. Contract by pushing against your hand 4. 要收缩肌肉,就用脚把手推开,开始 with your foot, more gently at first. 时轻一些。 5. Repeat with other leg. 5. 另一条腿重复以上动作。 Figure 13.1 Stork stand 图 13.1 鹤立式 Use this stretch in the weight room during the 举重房里,在臀部伸展和坐式直膝练习中使 hip extension and seated knee extension 用这种拉伸。 exercises. Triangle 三角式 (Hamstrings) (腿窝肌肉) 1. Bend over at the waist while leaning on 1. 靠着自行车或墙向下弯腰。 your bike or a wall. 2. 把腿向前伸直,前脚离车 18 英寸。 2. Place the leg to be stretched forward 3. 另一脚在正后方。后脚离的越远,拉 with the foot about 18 inches from the 伸的强度也越大。 bike. 3. The other leg is directly behind the 4. 把身体重心移向前脚,把上身向下 first. The farther back your place this 压。你应该感到前腿腿窝处被拉伸。 5
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 13 STRETCHING 第 13 章 拉伸活动 leg, the greater the stretch. 5. 要收缩肌肉,就把前腿收回来。 4. With your weight on the front foot, sag 6. 另一条腿重复以上动作。 your upper body toward the floor. You should feel the stretch in the hamstring of your forward leg. 5. Contract the forward leg by trying to pull it backward against the floor. There will be no movement. 6. Repeat with other leg. Figure 13.2 Triangle 图 13.2 三角式 Use this stretch in the weight room during the 举重房里,在臀部拉伸和屈腿练习中使用这 hip extension and leg curl exercises. 种拉伸。 Pull-down 俯背式 (Latissimus Dorsi, Trapezius, Pectoralis, and (背阔肌,斜方肌,胸大肌,肱三头肌) Triceps) Figure 13.3 Pull-down 图 13.3 俯背式 1. Hold onto your bike or a railing for 1. 抓着自行车或栏杆以保持平衡,把身 balance, with your weight resting on 体重心移向手臂。 your arms. 2. 让头处在伸直的手臂之间尽量下垂从 6
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 13 STRETCHING 第 13 章 拉伸活动 2. Allow your head to sag deeply between 而拉伸背阔肌。 outstretched arms to create a stretch in 3. 要收缩肌肉,就把手放低。 your lats. 3. To contract, pull down with your arms. In the weight room do this stretch with seated 举重房里,在坐式下拉,胸部平推和坐式划 lat pulls to chest, chest press, and seated rows. 船练习中使用这种拉伸。 Squat 下蹲式 (Low Back, Calves, Quadriceps, Gluteus) (下背部,小腿,股四头肌,臀大肌) 1. Using your bike for balance, squat 1. 使用自行车平衡身体,下蹲并保持脚 down keeping your heels on the floor. 踵不离地。 (This is easier with cycling shoes off) 2. 让臀部尽量下落贴近脚踵。保持这个 2. Allow your butt to sag close to your 姿势 30 秒(这个姿势没有收缩动 heels as your rock forward. Hold this position for about thirty seconds. 作)。 (There is no contraction for this stretch) Figure 13.4 Squat 图 13.4 下蹲式 Do this stretch during back extension strength 举重房里,在背部伸展练习中使用这种拉 exercises in the weight room. 伸。 Wall Lean 推墙式 (Calves) (小腿) 1. Lean against a wall with the leg to be 1. 后退伸直,前腿承受重心,斜靠墙。 stretched straight behind you and the 2. 后脚踵保持不离地,脚趾向前。 other forward holding most of your 3. 你的臀部越靠前,小腿的拉伸强度越 weight. 7
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 13 STRETCHING 第 13 章 拉伸活动 2. Keep the heel of the rear foot on the 大。 floor with the toe pointed forward. 4. 要收缩小腿,就推墙好象要用脚把它 3. The farther forward your hips move the 推开。 greater the stretch in your calf. 5. 换另一条腿重复以上动作。 4. To contract the calf, push against the wall as if trying to push it away using your leg. 5. Repeat with other leg. Figure 13.5 Wall lean 图 13.5 推墙式 Use this stretch in the weight room during the 举重房里,提踵练习中使用这种拉伸。 heel raise exercise. 8
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 14 Unique Needs 第 14 章 独特需要 Chapter 14 UNIQUE 第 14 章 独特需要 NEEDS I’m a 42-year-old in a 20-year-old’s body. 我是 42 岁的年龄,20 岁的体格! – KENT BOSTICK, ―― KENT BOSTICK Olympian at age 42 and again at age 46 曾在 42 岁和 46 岁时两次参加奥运会 Wouldn't it be easy if there was a “training 如果有一个“训练公式”的话该多好啊!有 formula”? Sometimes I wish there was. Every 时候我真希望这样。每天我都收到很多运动 day I get questions from athletes asking how 员的问题,询问他们能否在训练中做这个或 they should do this or that in their training. 者做那个。一般他们都是告诉我他们的年 They typically tell me their ages, how long they have been in the sport, and their categories. 龄,从事运动的年头,他们的能力级别。然 Then they present a training problem to me 后向我描述他们在训练中的问题以及问我该 along with a question of how they should deal 怎么解决它。我猜想大部分运动员都以为我 with it. I guess most athletes believe there is a 能凭借这些信息轻易地回答他们的问题,我 body of information out there someplace that 就象一台熟练的机器,而他们的问题则就象 allows me to simply answer these questions “为什么 1993 款的雪佛兰 Caprice 车这么费 much as a skilled auto mechanic might do 油”之类的。其实事情没这么简单。 when asked about a 1993 Chevy Caprice that burns oil. It isn't that easy. On the other hand, I think it's good that we 另一方面,我觉得没有这样一个放之四 don't have such a one-size-fits-all training 海而皆准的训练公式也是件好事。这样每个 formula. That would take all of the fun out of 人都能从他们的训练经历中得到乐趣。就象 the individualized experience of training. As 我在本书中一直说的:训练更象是一门艺 I've said throughout this book: Training is as much an art as a science. A unique blending of 术,而不是科学。这种独特的个人探索的综 personal experiences with research produces an 合体验所造就的“艺术形态”就是运动能 “art form” called performance. While science 力。虽然科学能够在某些人体生理因素和训 can postulate and predict a lot of what to expect 练因素的综合假设下预测很多事情,但是科 when certain elements of human physiology 学还远远没有达到能确定地告诉某个人执行 and exercise are combined, it is not even close 某项训练计划的效果会如何这样的高度。归 to being able to state with certainty the 根到底,我们每个人都是独特的,必须自己 outcomes of a given training program for a 尝试去发现什么最适合自己,这样也增加了 given individual. In the final analysis, we are each unique and must experiment to find what 很多乐趣。 works best. That makes it fun. Much of what is presented in this chapter 本章所述的大部分内容都是根据我做为 is based on my experiences as a coach and not 教练的经验积累,而不是根据科学研究。从 just on scientific research. I have coached male 1971 年至今,我曾经训练过各式各样的运 and female athletes, both young and old and 动员,男女老少都有,经验级别也相差甚 with widely varying experience levels, since 1971. With each of those athletes I’ve had to 远。对每个运动员的训练我都必须要做一些 make some adjustments in training – no two 调整――没有任何两个人的训练计划是相同 followed exactly the same program. Some of 的。有些调整很小,而有些则很大。本章总 the adjustments were small, while others were 结了其中最重要的调整和变化,在前面几章 1
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 14 Unique Needs 第 14 章 独特需要 significant. This chapter summarizes the most 中涉及到女性,老将和青少年的训练时,已 important changes to what you have read in the 经对这些内容有所描述。 previous chapters when it comes to the training of women, masters, and juniors. Women 女性 Throughout most of the twentieth century there 在整个 20 世纪,正式允许女性参加的运动 were few sports that women were officially 项目其竞争的剧烈程度都无法和男人相比。 allowed to compete in on a scale even 女性是“受保护的”,这一时期最流行―― approaching that of men. They were 也是最“文雅的”――运动是网球,高尔 “protected”. The most popular – and “ladylike” – sports throughout most of this period were 夫,体操和花样滑冰。到了 20 世纪中叶, tennis, golf, gymnastics, and figure skating. At 女性开始抗争摆脱这种强加在她们身上的限 about mid-century, women began challenging 制,特别是在耐力型运动项目上。结果到了 the restrictions placed on them, especially 上世纪末取得了重大的进展,如今女性参加 when it came to endurance sports. As a result, 耐力型运动项目已被社会全面接受了。 women made considerable progress toward full acceptance in endurance sports in the latter years of the previous century. The change was quite evident in the sport 在田径项目上这种变化非常明显。例 of track and field. In the 1928 Olympic Games 如,在 1928 年的阿姆斯特丹奥运会上,允 in Amsterdam, for example, the longest race in 许女子参加的最长距离的比赛是 800 米跑。 which women were allowed to compete was 在那届奥运会中,三名女运动员打破了这个 the 800-meter run. In that Olympiad, three female runners broke the world record for the 项目的世界记录,但是结果却是“如此地沮 distance, but finished in “such a distressed 丧”:组委会官员们被这个成绩吓坏了,于 condition” that officials were horrified and 是决定在以后的竞赛中取消这个项目。“女 dropped the event from future competition. 人不会愿意跑这么远的”是很多男性官员甚 “Women just weren't meant to run that far,” 至科学家的观点。直到 1964 年的东京奥运 was the position of many male officials and 会上,女子 800 米跑才重新被恢复为竞赛项 even scientists. It wasn't until the 1964 Tokyo 目。 Games that the women's 800-meter run was resurrected in the Olympics. Cycling has had its ups and downs when it 自行车运动在取得两性平等方面经历了 comes to equality of the sexes but has generally 类似的起起伏伏和社会舆论的压力。在 19 reflected the same attitudes. In the 1890s, the 世纪 90 年代,那是自行车运动的“黄金时 “Golden Age” of cycling, at a time when 代”,也是“软弱的性别”被禁闭和受保护 society often closeted and sheltered the “weaker sex”, women were nonetheless 的时代,女性当然不可能被允许与男人一起 accepted into mass-start races alongside men. It 站在比赛的集体出发线上。一直到很多年以 wasn't until many years later that this attitude 后人们才改变这种近似平等的观点以及不鼓 of near-equality changed and women were 励女性参加自行车赛的态度。而到了二十世 discouraged from racing bikes. Then, in the last 纪的最后几年,人们的观点又有了变化。 few decades of the twentieth century, attitudes began to shift again. 2
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 14 Unique Needs 第 14 章 独特需要 Unique Considerations 独特的需要 A couple of years ago, a particularly thorough 若干年前,某个完全职业化的女自行车运动 female professional cyclist was interviewing 员在给自己寻找教练的时候面试了我。她问 me as a potential coach. One of the questions 了我一个很好的问题:女人和男人在训练方 she asked was a good one: Is there any 面有什么不同吗?我的回答很简单:没有不 difference between the way men and women should train? My answer was simple: No. 同。也许这个回答太简单了,实际上女性确 Perhaps it was too simple. There are some 实有某些不同于男人的用以提高运动能力的 things women could do differently than men to 训练方法。 improve their performance. There is no getting around the obvious 关于男女之间身体上的明显不同没什么 male-female differences. Hip width, short 好说的。臀部宽度,相比于腿长较短的躯 torsos relative to leg length, and a low center of 干,身体重心较低,所有这些都肯定会影响 gravity all certainly affect the equipment a 女性使用的装备。还有其他方面的不同。许 woman uses. There are other differences. Numerous studies have demonstrated that elite 多研究都表明,精英级的女运动员的有氧能 women athletes have aerobic capacities 力比同级别的男运动员低一些。男性最高的 somewhat below that of elite men. The highest VO2max 的记录是 94/毫升/千克/分钟,而女 VO2max ever recorded for a man was 94 性的最高记录是 77/毫升/千克/分钟――二者 ml/kg/min while the highest woman's aerobic 都来自越野滑雪运动员。女性的肌肉输出功 power measured was 77 ml/kg/min – both 率的绝对值也比男性低很多。与男车手相 Nordic skiers. Absolute muscular power 比,女车手的身体脂肪率更高一些,肌肉块 outputs of women are also well below those of 较小所以产生的绝对功率也较少。在世界级 men. In comparison with male athletes, women riders carry a higher percentage of body weight 比赛中,从举重到短跑,到自行车赛这样的 as fat and can generate less absolute force due 耐力型比赛项目,男性与女性的这种差别大 to their smaller muscle mass. These differences 约在 10%左右的范围内变化。 result in about a 10-percent variance in the results of world-class competitions involving males and females, in events ranging from weight lifting to sprinting to endurance sports like bike racing. In the real world of racing, there are 在真实世界的比赛中,相似级别的男女 actually more similarities between male and 运动员之间的共同点实际上比不同点要多。 female athletes at comparable levels of sport 女性可以完成与男性一样的训练量,她们对 than there are differences. Women are capable 训练的反应从本质上说与男性一样。除了训 of training at the same volume levels as men, and they respond to training in essentially the 练负荷的绝对量级的不同以外,两性之间的 same ways. Except for absolute magnitude of 训练方法没有什么大的差别。但是,女性却 workload, there is not much difference in the 有一些男性很少甚至没有机会尝试的改善她 way the two sexes should train. But there are a 们比赛能力的机会。以下内容给你 5 个这方 few opportunities for individual women to 面的提示。 improve relative to their competition that men seldom, if ever, have. Here are five that may give you an edge. 3
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 14 Unique Needs 第 14 章 独特需要 Quantity versus Quality 量 vs. 质 Even though women are fully capable of 即使女性完全能够完成与男性同样的训练 training at the same volume as men, do they 量,她们有必要这么做吗?女子比赛与男子 need to? Women's races typically evolve in a 比赛的方式是不同的。首先,女子比赛没有 way unlike men's. First of all, women's road 那么长――有时只有男子比赛一半的长度。 races aren't as long – sometimes no more than half the men's distance. I have no hard evidence 我没有什么有力的证据支持这种安排,但看 to back this up, but it seems that women's races 起来女子比赛却因此更容易以一种集团冲刺 are, therefore, more likely to end in a pack 的形式收场。这样的话如果某个车手,或者 sprint. But then a rider, or better, a couple of 一组车手足够强壮能够在比赛初期突出大部 riders, who are strong enough to break from the 队的话,她们就更有可能保持领先并一直到 women's field early in the race, are more likely 终点,而在男子比赛中这种情况却不太容易 to stay off the front and finish ahead of the 发生。 field than in a men's race. What all of this means is that women road 所有这些都说明女子公路车手应该更加 racers should concentrate more on the quality 重视训练的质量而不是里程数。这并不是说 of their training than on their mileage. Not that 通过长而稳定的骑行来建立有氧基础是不重 building an aerobic base with long, steady rides 要的――它当然重要,但是女车手必须把重 is unimportant – it certainly is. A woman, however, must place more emphasis on 点放在发展她的肌肉耐力,力度和无氧耐力 developing her muscular endurance, power, 上,以满足她那相对较短速度较快的比赛的 and anaerobic endurance for the unique 独特需要。把训练重点在某种程度上从训练 demands of her shorter and relatively faster 量转移到这些能力的培养上,更有可能在女 race. Somewhat shifting the emphasis of 子公路赛中取得较佳的成绩。 training from volume to these abilities is likely to produce better results in women's road races. Strength 力量 The average woman's total body strength is 女子平均的身体力量比男子少了三分之一, about a third less than the average man's, but 但这种不同不是平均分布的。女子的腿部力 that difference isn't distributed equally. Women 量相对较强,而腹部和手臂力量较弱。但是 are relatively stronger in their legs and weaker 因为女子不是和男子同场竞技,所以这种比 in the abdominal region and arms. While women do not race against men, this 较结果也暗示了一种能够改善女子能力的巨 comparison makes it apparent where a woman's 大机会。通过增进她手臂和腹部的力量,一 greatest opportunity for improvement lies. By 个女骑手就能比她的竞争对手改善更多的爬 increasing the strength of her arms and 坡和冲刺能力。站立式的有力摇车需要力量 abdominal region, a woman can improve her 来稳定上半身对抗躯干施加给腿部的力量。 climbing and sprinting relative to her 象面条一样的手臂以及象手风琴一样的腹肌 competition. Powerful riding out of the saddle 会把腿部产生的力量化为乌有。 requires strength to stabilize the upper body against the torque applied by the legs. Spaghetti arms and an accordion abdominal muscle dissipate the force produced by the legs. 4
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 14 Unique Needs 第 14 章 独特需要 Upper-body strength work to improve this 上半身的力量练习,包括那些使用所有 relative weakness involves pushing and pulling 手臂关节以及后背和腹部肌肉的拉力和推力 exercises that use all the arm joints plus the 练习,能够改善这种相对薄弱的环节。由于 back and the abdominals. Abdominal strength 妇女骨盆的形状和大小的关系,腹部力量也 also needs emphasizing due to the size and shape of the female pelvis. Whenever possible, 需要做为重点。只要有可能,就要做手臂和 work the arms in conjunction with the 腹部背部肌肉相结合的练习,而不要做隔离 abdominal and back muscles, rather than in 式的练习。第 12 章介绍的坐姿划船练习就 isolation. The seated-row exercise described in 是一个很好的结合了多个关节并有利于骑车 Chapter 12 is a good example of a multi-joint 的范例。这个姿势以模拟骑车爬山时的动作 exercise that benefits cycling. This station 来培养手臂和背部的肌肉。卧推动作有助于 builds the arms and back in a way similar to 保持肌肉力量平衡。 climbing on a bike. The chest press will also provide muscular balance. I generally recommend that women riders 一般来说,我建议女车手们全年坚持举 continue to lift weights year-round, even in the 重练习,即使在夏天的比赛时期。否则的 summer racing months. Otherwise, strength 话,经过一个冬天在健身房强化训练出的力 may soon be lost after a winter of focused 量会很快地丧失。 weight room work. Psychology 心理状态 Society expects less of women in sports and 在体育方面,大众对女性寄往甚少,当然支 offers less – less media coverage, less prize 持也甚少――较少的媒体鼓励,较少的奖 money, less crowd support, and less time to 金,较少的拥趸支持,以及被更多的家庭责 train due to greater family responsibilities. That 任拖累的较少的训练时间。女性要靠她们坚 women make it in sport is a testament to their perseverance and dedication. 定不移的信念和奉献精神才能在体育方面做 出成绩。 Despite the socio-cultural obstacles, I have 除了社会文化方面的障碍,我发现女性 found that women have a somewhat healthier 对于胜负的看法比男性更健康一些。因为女 view of winning and losing than do men. Since 性常常要为达到个人的目标而奋斗,很少会 women typically strive to attain personal 满脑子想着要战胜其他对手,所以她们很少 standards and are less preoccupied with defeating other riders, they are less devastated 会被失败击倒并能很快恢复情绪。男人则很 by losing and recover faster emotionally. Men 难面对失败,特别是在他们感觉应该取胜的 take losing, when they feel they should have 时候,这也是判断他们是否“成熟“的标志 won, as a mark against their “manhood”. 之一。 Women, however, carry even heavier and 但是,女性在另一些方面比男人承受了 deeper psychological baggage than men in 更多的心理负担。人们更容易把女人和能力 another area. Women are more likely to 差联系起来。毕竟社会对大多数女性的教育 associate poor performance with lack of ability. 是:体育是给男孩子玩的,女孩对此并不很 After all, society taught most women that sport was for boys, and girls were not particularly 擅长。如果男人在比赛中表现很糟,他们总 good at it. When men have a bad race, they 倾向于认为问题在于自己努力不够――而不 tend to view the problem as a lack of effort -- 会怀疑自己的能力有问题。 ability is not the issue. 5
    • The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 14 Unique Needs 第 14 章 独特需要 Confidence is as important for success in 自信对于成功有着与生理能力同样的重 sport as physical ability. No matter how 要性。不管你的天赋如何,如果