Biological molecules intro to the carbohydrates

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  • 1. Stanmore College Interview Presentation Introduction to Biological Molecules Lyndsae Drury Biology Lecturer
  • 2. Biological molecules• 1. Water• 2. ions• 3. Sugars, Carbohydrates• 4. Proteins• 5. Lipids
  • 3. CarbohydratesCarbohydrates contain 3 elements:• Carbon (C)• Hydrogen (H)• Oxygen (O)
  • 4. • Carbohydrates are found in one of three forms:• Monosaccharides• Disaccharides (both sugars)• Polysaccharides• Monosaccharides• General formula:.
  • 5. • Trioses: (e.g. glyceraldehydes), intermediates in respiration and photosynthesis.• Tetroses: rare.• Pentoses: (e.g. ribose, ribulose), used in the synthesis of nucleic acids (RNA and DNA), co- enzymes (NAD, NADP, FAD) and ATP.• Hexoses: (e.g. glucose, fructose), used as a source of energy in respiration and as building blocks for larger molecules.• All but one carbon atom have an alcohol (OH)
  • 6. • Mono Saccharides
  • 7. • Examples of Disaccharides• Sucrose: glucose + fructose,• Lactose: glucose + galactose,• Maltose: glucose + glucose.• Maltose: glucose + glucose.
  • 8. Disaccharides
  • 9. Starch made of two polysaccharides
  • 10. Differences between Glycogen andAmylopectin polysaccharides.The branches are formed by linking C # 1 to a C # 6 through an acetallinkages. In glycogen, the branches occur at intervals of 8-10 glucoseunits, while in amylopectin the branches are separated by 12-20glucose units
  • 11. Other Novel PolysaccharidesChitin polysaccharide foundin crabs and sea shellswhereas Lignin in wood