International Perspectives:Visualization in Science and Education    Keynote Presentation for CINF Symposium             A...
What should we teach?    How should we teach it?      How do we decide?• Introduction - Learning from images• A Little His...
Audience? Purpose? Developer?                                                                 Public                Inform...
Napoleon’s Marchwww.edwardtufte.com/tufte/minard
Statistical Graph - Charles Minard (1861)Adapted by Aaron Walburg and Stephen Hartzog (1996)
Web of Sciencewww.visualcomplexity.com/vc/project.cfm?id=434
Visual Complexitywww.visualcomplexity.com/
The Visual Elements Periodic Table      www.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements
www.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements/pages/ionisation.html
Periodic Landscapes
Ionization Energy Landscapeshttp://www.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements/pages/ionisation.html
Visual Elements Animation Linkswww.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements/pages/animate.html
Decoding…What are those balls?                                            DNA-binding domain of the GAL4 transcriptional r...
Multiple Representations What do students see?       > 8 million!      Google Images: “DNA”
Bruce Alberts“The Cell as a Collection of Protein Machines:Preparing the Next Generation of MolecularBiologists.” Bruce Al...
Virtual Museum of Minerals and Molecules             Chime ->Jmol       virtual-museum.soils.wisc.edu/displays.html
MDL Cool Chime Sites - 1997
Levels of Representation           Symbolic                 Macroscopic             H2O                      Sub-         ...
Google: “Dissolving NaCl”NCSSM: Flash Animation from North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics
What do students see?  www.ccds.charlotte.nc.us/mackenzie/Chem/
Google Images: “NaCl dissolving”
What do students see?     Molecules?        Ions?  Colored spheres?  How do we know?
“Representational Competence?”                        Roy Tasker        Tom Greenbowe
Alex Johnstone: JCE 1983How many chunks? •   Miller number 7 •   Working memory              Organic Chem Topics          ...
Ed Psych & Visualization• Miller - Magic #7 (1956)• Pavio - Dual Coding (1980s)• Sweller et. al. (1980s)  - Cognitive Load...
NSF Workshop
Peter Atkins (Oxford) – GRC Speaker 1994, 2007Loretta Jones (U Northern Colorado) – Speaker 1998           www.rsc.org/Pub...
www.grc.org/conferences.aspx?id=0000385
The Conference brings together:• physical and biological scientists• graphics specialists• cognitive scientistsIn a forum ...
Visualization in Science & EducationCognitive scientists’understanding of humanperception and cognition guides the researc...
Visualization in Science & Education•   Biology•   Chemistry•   Physics•   Engineering•   Psychology•   Computer Science/G...
2007 GRC Speaker:  Donna Cox, NCSA &UIUCaccess.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Stories/supertwister/                                        ...
2005 GRC Speaker:  Pat Hanrahan (Stanford)Computer Graphics ResearchDeveloper of RenderMan software Winner of two Academy ...
2005 GRC Speaker:             Mary Hegarty, Psychology                UC Santa Barbara           www.psych.ucsb.edu/~hegar...
2003 & 2009 GRC Speaker     Barbara Tversky, Psychology   Stanford & Columbia University      “Animation, Does it Facilita...
2005 GRC Speaker:     Shaaron Ainsworth, Psychology           University of NottinghamLearning with Visual & Multiple Repr...
Ainsworth
“On the Surface of Things”          Felice Frankel & George Whitesides2007 ACS Priestly Medalist2005 GRC Speaker
“She Calls It ‘Phenomena’                Everyone Else Calls It Art”Felice Frankel, NYT June 20072001 GRC Speaker
Donald Sadoway, MIT (with Felice Frankel)Department of Materials Science and Engineering        web.mit.edu/i-m/picturing/...
MIT-NSF: “Picturing to Learn”       web.mit.edu/i-m/picturing/pict_students.html“We compared scores on the final exams 200...
Collaborative Environments     SRI: Robert Kozma  chemsense.org/about/papers.html
2003 GRC Speaker:      Marcia Linn, UC BerkeleyWeb-based Inquiry Science Environmen(WISE)Making             complex scienc...
Chemical Reactions:           Visualize & Reflect                                                             Jennifer Chi...
Student Results  Increased connections among symbolic and molecular  representations, limiting reactants, and conservation...
Opportunities to participate• TELS/WISE tested modules are free and available over theinternet (http://www.wise.berkeley.e...
GRC Viz  Mt. Holyoke     2001    Oxford2003, 2005, 2009  Rhode Island  2007 + 2011  www.grc.org
Learning in a Virtual World: Medical Education          www.slideshare.net/ldorland
Learning & Instruction                      Cognition & Instruction    Journal of Research in Science Teaching  Internatio...
Links•   http://www.stereo3dgallery.net/cgi_bin/gallery/view.cgi?username=jhart&catid=2•   http://geowall.geo.lsa.umich.ed...
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Visualization: ACS Sp 2010 CINF Keynote

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Edited and revised: Overview of the international and interdisciplinary Gordon Research Conference on Visualization in Science and Education and info on key cognitive science and other visualization researchers. History of the conference, NSF workshop, and research on learning with visualizations.

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  1. 1. International Perspectives:Visualization in Science and Education Keynote Presentation for CINF Symposium ACS National Meeting San Francisco - Spring 2010 Liz Dorland Washington University in St. Louis dorland@wustl.edu slideshare.net/ldorland (revised version)
  2. 2. What should we teach? How should we teach it? How do we decide?• Introduction - Learning from images• A Little History• NSF Workshop on Visualization (2001)• Gordon Research Conference on Visualization in Science and Education• Interdisciplinary Participants& Research
  3. 3. Audience? Purpose? Developer? Public Informal Science Understanding Education Education of Science Scientific Visualization Scientific Public Research PublicUnderstanding Understanding of Science of Science
  4. 4. Napoleon’s Marchwww.edwardtufte.com/tufte/minard
  5. 5. Statistical Graph - Charles Minard (1861)Adapted by Aaron Walburg and Stephen Hartzog (1996)
  6. 6. Web of Sciencewww.visualcomplexity.com/vc/project.cfm?id=434
  7. 7. Visual Complexitywww.visualcomplexity.com/
  8. 8. The Visual Elements Periodic Table www.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements
  9. 9. www.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements/pages/ionisation.html
  10. 10. Periodic Landscapes
  11. 11. Ionization Energy Landscapeshttp://www.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements/pages/ionisation.html
  12. 12. Visual Elements Animation Linkswww.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements/pages/animate.html
  13. 13. Decoding…What are those balls? DNA-binding domain of the GAL4 transcriptional regulatory protein. Lysine 18 sits in the major groove of DNA, recognizing the DNA sequence CGG. Polyview-3DAdrenergic G-protein coupled receptorfunctionally solubilized by self-assemblyinto a 10 nm diameter Nanodisc. Normal transcription requires both theSteve Sligar - U of Illinois DNA-binding domain (BD) and the activation domain (AD) of a transcriptional activator (TA). Science Creative Quarterlywww.scq.ubc.ca
  14. 14. Multiple Representations What do students see? > 8 million! Google Images: “DNA”
  15. 15. Bruce Alberts“The Cell as a Collection of Protein Machines:Preparing the Next Generation of MolecularBiologists.” Bruce Alberts - Cell 92: 291-4. (1998) ~ 300 citations
  16. 16. Virtual Museum of Minerals and Molecules Chime ->Jmol virtual-museum.soils.wisc.edu/displays.html
  17. 17. MDL Cool Chime Sites - 1997
  18. 18. Levels of Representation Symbolic Macroscopic H2O Sub- Microscopic
  19. 19. Google: “Dissolving NaCl”NCSSM: Flash Animation from North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics
  20. 20. What do students see? www.ccds.charlotte.nc.us/mackenzie/Chem/
  21. 21. Google Images: “NaCl dissolving”
  22. 22. What do students see? Molecules? Ions? Colored spheres? How do we know?
  23. 23. “Representational Competence?” Roy Tasker Tom Greenbowe
  24. 24. Alex Johnstone: JCE 1983How many chunks? • Miller number 7 • Working memory Organic Chem Topics After repeated attempts • Chunking • Perception filter • Information Processing Model
  25. 25. Ed Psych & Visualization• Miller - Magic #7 (1956)• Pavio - Dual Coding (1980s)• Sweller et. al. (1980s) - Cognitive Load Theory• Mayer & Moreno (1990s) - Multimedia Principles
  26. 26. NSF Workshop
  27. 27. Peter Atkins (Oxford) – GRC Speaker 1994, 2007Loretta Jones (U Northern Colorado) – Speaker 1998 www.rsc.org/Publishing/Journals/RP/issues/2005_3/
  28. 28. www.grc.org/conferences.aspx?id=0000385
  29. 29. The Conference brings together:• physical and biological scientists• graphics specialists• cognitive scientistsIn a forum for the critical examination of:• the uses of visual images in the physical and biological sciences and in mathematics• the tools used to create these images, and of• their effectiveness in conveying scientific information to specialist and novice audiences
  30. 30. Visualization in Science & EducationCognitive scientists’understanding of humanperception and cognition guides the research andeducational application of visualizations.Recent Conferences have been preceded byworkshop tutorials on evaluating and creating bettervisualizations.Small, peer-reviewed mini-grants have been awardedpost-Conference tofoster the multidisciplinaryresearch needed to create effective visualization.
  31. 31. Visualization in Science & Education• Biology• Chemistry• Physics• Engineering• Psychology• Computer Science/Graphics• Earth Sciences• Mathematics• Cognitive Science & the Learning Sciences
  32. 32. 2007 GRC Speaker: Donna Cox, NCSA &UIUCaccess.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Stories/supertwister/ Museum of Science &IndustryVisualization by Donna Cox, Robert Patterson,Stuart Levy, Matt Hall, Alex Betts, NCSA
  33. 33. 2005 GRC Speaker: Pat Hanrahan (Stanford)Computer Graphics ResearchDeveloper of RenderMan software Winner of two Academy Awards
  34. 34. 2005 GRC Speaker: Mary Hegarty, Psychology UC Santa Barbara www.psych.ucsb.edu/~hegarty/visual_displays.php“We are interested in how people make sense of thesecomplex visual-spatial displays and how they use them inlearning, reasoning and problem solving.”“Eye tracking provides an online measure of the informationthat a viewer is accessing while reasoning and solvingproblems with complex visual displays.”
  35. 35. 2003 & 2009 GRC Speaker Barbara Tversky, Psychology Stanford & Columbia University “Animation, Does it Facilitate Learning?” www-psych.stanford.edu/~bt/ Diagrams:www-psych.stanford.edu/~bt/diagrams/papers/ Space: www-psych.stanford.edu/~bt/space/papers/ Events: www-psych.stanford.edu/~bt/events/papers/• Animations have not been proven more effective than equivalent static graphics.• Animations that are invented and used in exploring phenomena and data, often by experts in pursuit of understanding, may be effective.• Creating animations may confer benefits to the creators.• Expertise in the specific content and animation may make some animations effective.
  36. 36. 2005 GRC Speaker: Shaaron Ainsworth, Psychology University of NottinghamLearning with Visual & Multiple Representations and Interactive Technologies • examine how different combinations of representations influence learning • identify a set of design principles for successful multi-representational software • develop a model of how people learn with multiple representations
  37. 37. Ainsworth
  38. 38. “On the Surface of Things” Felice Frankel & George Whitesides2007 ACS Priestly Medalist2005 GRC Speaker
  39. 39. “She Calls It ‘Phenomena’ Everyone Else Calls It Art”Felice Frankel, NYT June 20072001 GRC Speaker
  40. 40. Donald Sadoway, MIT (with Felice Frankel)Department of Materials Science and Engineering web.mit.edu/i-m/picturing/pict_stu04.html
  41. 41. MIT-NSF: “Picturing to Learn” web.mit.edu/i-m/picturing/pict_students.html“We compared scores on the final exams 2004 vs 2005 and sawevidence in support of deeper understanding of conceptsaddressed in the picturing homework assignments."
  42. 42. Collaborative Environments SRI: Robert Kozma chemsense.org/about/papers.html
  43. 43. 2003 GRC Speaker: Marcia Linn, UC BerkeleyWeb-based Inquiry Science Environmen(WISE)Making complex science visible
  44. 44. Chemical Reactions: Visualize & Reflect Jennifer Chiu How did making water molecules in Molecular Workbench relate to the balanced equation of 2H2+ O2 ->2H2O“They are related because in order to have no atoms leftover in the workbench, we had to get a certain amount ofoxygen atoms and hydrogen atoms. This number is thesame as the ratios in the balanced equation (2 H2, 1 O2,and you end up with 2H2O molecules).”
  45. 45. Student Results Increased connections among symbolic and molecular representations, limiting reactants, and conservation of mass. Pretest Post testIf only the molecules in theclosed container below react (1)according to the equation, KRdraw the expected products inthe box: 2S + 3O2 ->2SO3 RB (1) BW (2) Draw the container after the reaction.
  46. 46. Opportunities to participate• TELS/WISE tested modules are free and available over theinternet (http://www.wise.berkeley.edu)• TELS software is available and open source(SAIL: http://sail.sourceforge.net)• TELS Assessments are available and have acceptedpsychometric properties; TELS Professional development modelenables teachers to quickly begin using modules and designtheir own additional supports(see http://TELSCenter.org)• TELS Design Principles database is on-line and available foruse in courses, customization activities, and design(see http://www.design-principles.org)
  47. 47. GRC Viz Mt. Holyoke 2001 Oxford2003, 2005, 2009 Rhode Island 2007 + 2011 www.grc.org
  48. 48. Learning in a Virtual World: Medical Education www.slideshare.net/ldorland
  49. 49. Learning & Instruction Cognition & Instruction Journal of Research in Science Teaching International Journal of Science Education Applied Cognitive Psychology Journal of the Learning Sciences Cognitive Science Journals with Research on Visualization Ed. Technology Research & Development Journal of Science, Ed & Technology British Journal of Educational Technology Technology, Pedagogy and EducationLiz Dorland Canadian J of Learning TechnologyWashington University in St. Louis Computers & Human Behaviordorland@wustl.edu Learning, Media & Technology
  50. 50. Links• http://www.stereo3dgallery.net/cgi_bin/gallery/view.cgi?username=jhart&catid=2• http://geowall.geo.lsa.umich.edu/visualization.html• http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/~hegarty/visual_displays.php• http://www.telscenter.org/confluence/display/TIC/Using+Technology+Mediated+Visualizatio ns+to+Support+Chemistry+Learning• http://www.springerlink.com/content/y781h1p7561p3h71/?p=4fd759ee01aa46d7a9899a56 783a9b45&pi=2• http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&safe=active&domains=vis.berkeley.edu&q=Marcia+Li nn+visualization&btnG=Search&sitesearch=• http://www.slideshare.net/ldorland/acsbostonvizlrn• GRC agendas - http://www.grc.org/conferences.aspx?id=0000385• http://www.grc.org/programs.aspx?year=2007&program=visualiz• http://www.rsc.org/Education/CERP/issues/2005_3/p2_jones.asp#• http://pro3.chem.pitt.edu/workshop/

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