Helping Students Persist - History of Advising & Counseling in Higher Ed


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This is my part of a collaborative presentation on the history of advising and counseling for the Sp2006 section of CC620 from Northern Arizona University. My background is as a faculty member, so the history and theories of advising and counseling were new to me. I updated the links as a contribution to the #FutureEd conversation around higher education reform.

Course Description: CC 620 is an overview of historical developments, current practices, and future trends in teaching, implementing, and administering programs for access and opportunity in higher education.

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Helping Students Persist - History of Advising & Counseling in Higher Ed

  1. 1. Helping Students Persist History of Advisement & Counseling Benefits, misconceptions, and differences… Prepared for NAU CC620 (Feb. 2006) Liz Dorland - Mesa Community College (now WUSTL)
  2. 2. History of Academic Advising • Early American (British) model: instruction by paternalistic clergy to be clergy • American Revolution: Evolution to "students as free thinking gentlemen" • Confined to law, theology or medicine • 1800s: Expanded to journalism, chemistry, art, music, business, and engineering • 1st "Faculty Advisors": Johns Hopkins in 1877
  3. 3. NACADA: History of Academic Advising • Progressive Education Movement (1920s) • focus on self-direction of student • emphasis on role of educators as "mentors"
  4. 4. NACADA: National Academic Advising Association Statement of Core Values: Provides a framework to guide professional practice and reminds advisors of their responsibilities to students, colleagues, institutions, so ciety, and themselves.
  5. 5. And then there was Counseling... The Early Days of Vocational Guidance
  6. 6. Origins of the Debate: The Politics of Ability Testing Diverse Views on the Value and Meaning of IQ and Other Tests
  7. 7. Psychology, Society, and Ability Testing (1859-2002): Transformative alternatives to Mental Darwinism and Interactionism Paul F. Ballantyne 2002© (an online book in 9 chapters)
  8. 8. Frank Parsons: "Choosing a Vocation" (1909) Three Imperatives for personal development • clear understanding of yourself, aptitudes, abilities, interests, resources, lim itations, and other qualities • knowledge of the requirements and conditions of different professions • opportunities and advantages of each field
  9. 9. World War I: Industrial Psychology Recruit testing: Occupations in U.S. Army based on skills and intelligence
  10. 10. And meanwhile, on the Advising front... Things were getting progressive. And Industrial Psychology marched along.
  11. 11. Does this sound familiar? “It is a common topic to repeat that our teaching, on the whole or very nearly, needs to be changed... “Workers accuse it of being too much abstract, not taking the real life into consideration…” Early Applied Psychology: Carpintero & Herrero, 2002: Quoting Fontègne: Manualisme et Éducation, 1923
  12. 12. The Additive Educational Ladder (1920s) Meanwhile... • Universities: adopt study of psychometrics in personnel placement • Vocational guidance centers: use occupational aptitude assessments
  13. 13. The Hawthorne Effect (192x-193x): …the tendency under conditions of observation for worker productivity to steadily increase... Ballantyne, P.F. (2000) Hawthorne Research. Reader's Guide to the Social Sciences. London: Fitzroy Dearborn.
  14. 14. The Goose Step: A Study of American Education • Upton Sinclair (1922) • "Interlocking Dictatorships" • Censoring novel or critical thought • 'American college system covertly run by and for a "bandit crew" of capitalist cronies’ •
  15. 15. Who is this man? “... People with great passions, people who accomplish great deeds, people who possess strong feelings, even people with great minds and a strong personality, rarely come out of good little boys and girls.” from Educational Psychology (a practical manual for teachers) Lev Vygotsky (1926)
  16. 16. Beginning the Modern Era American Council on Education Student Personnel Point of View (1949)
  17. 17. American Council on Education "Student Personnel Point of View" (1949)
  18. 18. "The central purpose of higher education is the preservation, transmittal and enrichment of culture by means of instruction, scholarly work, and scientific research." Student Personnel Point of View • Education for a fuller realization of democracy in every phase of living • Education directly and explicitly for international understanding and cooperation • Education for the application of creative imagination and trained intelligence to the solution of social problems and to the administration of public affairs
  19. 19. Post-World War II Student Population Explosion • 1950s: Gis and the GI Bill • 1960s: growth of the community college movement • Increase in 1st generation and lower income students, some underprepared • 1970s: Carnegie Commission on Higher Education recommends enhanced emphasis on advising • Developmental Advising: concept spreads
  20. 20. Origins of Developmental Advising: Crookston and O'Banion Icons of the Student Services Movement
  21. 21. Burns B. Crookston • “A Developmental View of Academic Advising as Teaching" (1972) • Journal of College Student Personnel (now J of Coll. Student Development) • Advising as teaching • Differences from prescriptive advising • Student takes responsibility
  22. 22. Crookston: Advising is... "...concerned not only with a specific personal or vocational decision but also with facilitating the student’s rational processes, environmental and interpersonal interactions, behavioral awareness, and problem-solving, decision-making, and evaluation skills."
  23. 23. Terry O'Banion: Dimensions of the Process of Academic Advising "An Academic Advising Model" Community and Junior College Journal (1972) Republished (1994) in NACADA Journal along with Crookston’s article (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) exploration of life goals exploration of vocational goals program choice course choice scheduling classes
  24. 24. Update from O'Banion (1999?) ...identify the skills, knowledge, and attitudes required of academic advisors for completing the five steps in the advising process... Who first used those three terms? They're everywhere!!
  25. 25. Developmental Advising: Continuing Evolution Grounded in theory: • cognitive developmental theory • psychosocial theory • person-environment interaction theory • But…the debate continues…
  26. 26. Is Theory Necessary? • • • • Comments in “The Mentor” Advising Forum: “Scientific notions of a paradigm or theory do not work with academic advising.” “We’ve been advising students for decades without such theories.” “We have theories of advising whether we want them or not.” “Without an understanding of why and how we need to advise, how can we be effective advisors?”
  27. 27. The Hegemony of Developmental Advising? • Marc Lowenstein (1999) in The Mentor • “An Alternative to the Developmental theory of Advising” • Prescriptive Advising as a “Straw Man” • Developmental Advising is a “theory about the CONTENT of advising” • Opposite of “Prescriptive” is “Colloborative”
  28. 28. Theory vs Style Does embracing “Colloborative Style” require acceptance of “Developmental Theory” of CONTENT? Lowenstein: “No” Alternative: “Academically Centered Advising”
  29. 29. Academic vs Developmental Paradigms • Academic: focuses on student’s academic learning • Developmental: focuses on student’s personal growth and development • Both are collaborative approaches
  30. 30. The Liberal Arts Focus? Lowenstein: • “Granting that advising can be enhanced by some knowledge of student development is a far cry from saying that facilitating the student’s growth and development is the PURPOSE of advising.”
  31. 31. Modern Counseling Trends Career Counseling Advisment Counseling
  32. 32. ICAN: Advising Model for Central Piedmont Community College (2006)
  33. 33. ICAN Model: Role of Advisor • helps students with program planning, course selection and scheduling; • helps students plan strategies or approaches to successful goal achievement; • helps students gain an understanding of the complete requirements of a program; • helps students maintain satisfactory academic progress; • refers students as needed to Counseling Services for educational, personal or emotional difficulties; • assists students in the development of functional educational action plans; and • interprets placement tests results and recommends appropriate classes.
  34. 34. ICAN: Role of Counselor • helps students clarify goals; • offers career exploration and college success classes; • makes students aware of the wide range of educational and career options available to them; • assists students with program planning, course selections, and scheduling; • helps students deal with issues that may be adversely affecting them in attaining their goals; • connects students to the total resources of the College, and provides referrals for resources in the community; • helps students understand the relationship of program requirements to transfer requirements; • provides orientations to the College and general information.
  35. 35. Reforming Education (presentation adapted for #FutureEd) • Who is part of the conversation?
  36. 36. Hyperlinks • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •