IntroduceWaterCan – Leslie/Andrea – mention when started working with OSRA (200?)Introduce OSRA - Getu – Who we are and mission
Second largest population on the continent, boats unparalleled ethnic and linguistic diversityLocated in the Horn of Africa, Ethiopia is a prominent and strategically located nation that has become a major player in African affairs. With the second largest population on the continent, Ethiopia boasts unparalleled ethnic and linguistic diversity. Ethiopia has made significant strides in its social and economic development since the world’s attention focused on its terrible plight during the 1984-85 famine. however, high percentage of population lives in poverty, and only 2% have access to clean water and a mere 13% access to basic sanitation The country WC has worked in the longest
With key stakeholders, help people to help themselves, in partnership with beneficiary communities and community based organizations at the grass roots level, local NGOs, government institutions and donor agencies
- Has one of the lowest rates of access to water supply, sanitation and hygiene in the world, WHO Stats: 13% access to sanitation, 22% to water ???But before I go into the work OSRA does in Ethiopia, let me put this into context globally
IMPACT of WASH interventions on U5 child morbidity71 studies Measurement: the incidence of endemic (non-outbreak) diarrhoea among children (over 130.000) Use an infant or child as the unit of observation, defined as aged under 12 and 71 months in most cases; Were conducted in 35 developing (low- or middle -income) countries; across Africa, Asia and Latin AmericaUpdating the existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses + new evidence + rectifying methodological shortcomings (outcome variable, comparison groups, estimation procedures, internal validity).
Talking Points:This slide tells us where the 2.6 billion people who still lack improved sanitation are.The World will miss the sanitation MDG target by almost 1 billion people
The global WASH crisis claims significantly more lives than wars;
While the need for clean water is well understood, the need for basic sanitation facilities like toilets and latrines is not. BUT they are closely connected to the need for clean water. One of the greatest pollutants of water is human waste, or untreated sewage.-90% of sewage in developing countries in released untreated into local water sources, contaminating water and the food chain, making bathing a health risk and breading flies that spread disease.
- In some areas, women and girls must wait until after dark to defecate, which not only leads to discomfort and serious disease, but can place them at risk for harassment and violence
- This is a crisis that hinders nearly every aspect of international development and the fight against poverty. If children are sick from diarrheal diseases because they drink dirty water or are required to fetch water during school hours, how will they get an education and escape poverty? If women need to spend hours fetching water each day, how will they pursue adult education, start small businesses and become equals in their communities? If half of the worlds hospital beds in developing countries are filled with people suffering from water and sanitation related diseases how will the workforce in these countries be able to sustain economic growth?
-Despite strong commitment to its national poverty reduction plan, the country still contends with shockingly low water and sanitation coverage rates. Majority of the people especially from the rural settings collect water from unprotected sources such as uncapped springs, rivers, traditional hand dug wells, etc Sanitation and hygiene related diseases are among the most commonly deadly diseases in Ethiopia. 20% of under 5 child mortality (123/1000) is related to diarrheal diseases associated with poor hygiene, sanitation, and unsafe waterWhile the situation in Ethiopia is dire, and challenging, change is happening.
There are strong national water supplies and sanitation policies and key agencies have clear roles and strategies. National policies are set by the Ministry of water resources (MWR) for water supply and by the Ministry of Health for sanitation.-The government has ambitious plans for Universal Access Plan (2005-2012) for 100% latrine coverage & 98% safe water coverage by 2012 - Though there has been a significant increase in access for water supply and sanitation, which spans both urban and rural areas:
-The official figures indicate potable water coverage in 2009/2010 is 68.5%. Urban potable coverage (within 0.5KM) and rural coverage (within 1.5Kms) are 91.5 and 65.8, respectively -The latest government figure puts the national latrines access to 60%, while WHO & UNICEF suggest a figure of 40%
-like the case in most rural areas in the country, water, sanitation and hygiene is one of the critical problems in OSRA’s intervention areas-main sources of water for the community and schools are rivers and unprotected hand dug wells -for most of the people access to water gets deteriorated during the dry season as the hand dug wells and rivers dried up, hand dug wells usually collapse due to lose nature of the soil
-as a result women and children (who shoulder the burden of collecting water) have to walk long distance for about 2 hours to fetch unpotable water -water related and water borne diseases are among the top diseases that endanger the lives of children, women and men -access to sanitation facilities and improved hygiene practices is almost non exist, people take shower and wash clothes in the same source from which they collect water for consumption; most of the people do not use latrine and exercise open defecation
-schools do not have child and gender friendly latrines and other sanitation facilities -simple pit latrines poorly constructed with locally available materials and wooden slab -not sufficient to serve all the communities in the schools and not hygienic and safe for students to use, as the slabs are not well constructed and have no doors. - --->This has resulted in absenteeism and increased school dropout rates
Thus to address these specific needs, OSRA is experienced in developing shallow wells with hand pumps, springs, and motorized deep wells with reservoir and distribution pointsThe choice of technology depends on the geological formation of specific target areas and available resourcesIn areas where we work with WC, we developed a number of shallow wells with hand pumps as the ground water table is shallowRegarding sanitation, focus is on promotion of household latrines constructed using locally available materials-simple technology that can easily be constructed Promote construction of community managed washing basins and shower blocks, which are integrated with water supply Depending on the specific contexts, connect schools to available water sources (extension from existing sources)through pipe and construction of water tanks; develop shallow well fitted with hand pumps, elevated water tank and water distribution pointSanitation: promote child and gender friendly VIP latrines along with hand washing and urinals (for boys)
Community Training Lack of knowledge and practices related to hygiene and sanitation is one of the critical problems in the community we are working withTraining and/or capacity building is an integral components of WASH interventionsOur community training can broadly be classified into two: software & hardware
Software training basically focuses on hygiene promotion and sanitation, which is concerned with promoting hygiene behaviorsThe emphasis is on the following five key hygiene behaviors (hygiene domains): personal hygiene, safe disposal of human excreta, environmental and domestic hygiene, water hygiene, and food hygieneProvide training to communities, and hygiene education communicators, on the promotion of improved hygiene practices such as construction and utilization of latrines; hand washing at critical times; personal hygiene, food and water hygiene, environmental sanitationDemonstrate to the communities the relationship between hygiene behavior, sanitation and health statusIn addition to hygiene and sanitation training, establish and train WATSAN committees on management of community based water supply and sanitation facilities
Level of awareness on water, hygiene and sanitation challenges and the resulting health and economic benefits from improved hygiene and sanitation practices improved.Improved personal and environmental hygiene and sanitation practices: people have started constructing and using latrinesImproved health and living situation as a result of reduced prevalence of water related diseases; People have less water and hygiene related diseases and don’t have to go to the clinics very often anymore, which saves them time and money.Reduced workload for women and children, increased involvement of women in community affairs including management of community and school based Water & sanitation facilities
Reduced open defecation in the villages and schools because people have learned the importance of using latrines and practicing improved hygiene behaviorConducive teaching learning environment created for school children and contributed to better quality of educationThe rate of absenteeism and dropouts due to lack of water and sanitation facilities has been reduced;Increased time for productive purposes
We Unite for Water
We Unite for Water:An African Speaking TourMarch 2011<br />Presented by WaterCan with Special Guest <br />Mr. Getu Hunde<br />