Political Parties


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Political Parties

  1. 1. Political Parties <ul><li>What is the difference between the Republicans and the Democrats? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are political parties important in a democracy? </li></ul>
  2. 2. Presidential election Results
  3. 3. Political Socialization <ul><li>Source of political beliefs and attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family and the Social Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders’ Influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Great Depression </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>60’s and the Vietnam War Era </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What are political parties? <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political party is an organization that seeks to attain political power within a government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually by participating in electoral campaigns. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parties often support a certain ideology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subgroups interests are integrated </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Institutional Constraints on Political Parties <ul><li>Structure and Strength of Parties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Majoritarian or Proportional Representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential or Parliamentary System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws and Constitution </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Theory: Lipset and Rokkan <ul><li>Theory on Political Cleavages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parties that were formed in the aftermath of political, religious, and economic revolutions are frozen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State vs. Church </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worker vs. Owner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land vs. Industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Center vs. Periphery (Fed vs. State) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These have and will continue to exist in the political arena despite new issues and challenges. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Constitution <ul><li>Says nothing about political parties. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Founding fathers felt parties were wicked and corrupt. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not want parties to control politics. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not want to pervade the entire country and create factions. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Today’s Major US Political Parties and Ideology <ul><li>Republican Party (GOP)- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered the more socially conservative and economically neoliberal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laissez-Faire Economics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Party Chairman- Ken Mehlman </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Democratic Party- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered more socially liberal and economically interventionist. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Party Chairman- Howard Dean </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. US Parties: First Party System (before 1824) American Revolution <ul><li>Federalist </li></ul><ul><li>Founded by Hamilton </li></ul><ul><li>Supported strong central government </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial interest: merchants and large planters </li></ul><ul><li>Anti federalist </li></ul><ul><li>Founded by Jefferson </li></ul><ul><li>Supported more state autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as the Republicans </li></ul>Jackson split into a Democratic party Adams remained in the Republican party, but latter called the Whigs Hamiltonian vision for modernizing the United States
  10. 10. Era of Good Feelings (1817-1825) <ul><li>One Party Dominance (the Republicans) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federalist virtually collapsed in 1816 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1817-1825 no real competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republicans opposed big government </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. US Parties: Second Party System (1824–1854) Prelude to Civil War <ul><li>Democrats </li></ul><ul><li>Strong state govt </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for common man </li></ul><ul><li>Hostile to blacks </li></ul><ul><li>Needed slavery for economy </li></ul><ul><li>Whig party (National Republicans ) </li></ul><ul><li>Active federal. govt, </li></ul><ul><li>Laissez-Faire economics </li></ul><ul><li>Against the expansion of slavery </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Southern Whigs ceased to exist (dealigned) Northern Whigs realigned, and united with antislavery Democrats and radical antislavery Free Soil party thus creating Lincoln’s Republicans party
  12. 12. US Parties: Third Party System: Post Civil War (1854–1896) Post Civil War <ul><ul><li>Democrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feared strong central govt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not want to give free slaves rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominated the white south for decades </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sought to increase the power of the federal govt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted economic growth and businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted evangelical protestant morals and values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public schools w/ protestant curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation in check to maintain working class wages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited/prohibited the sale of alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Democrats embraced populism. Advocated for small farmers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sought high inflation for debt relief. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. US Parties: Fourth Party System/ Progressive Era (1896–1932) Industrial Revolution <ul><ul><li>Democrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional small govt. policy was realigned and opened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to govt. intervention in the economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilson was able to win presidency because the Republican </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>split </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honest Impartial Govt could regulate the economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more effectively </li></ul></ul>1912 split : T. Roosevelt ran on the Bull Moose Ticket The platform based non progressive ideals. Protect women, children, and immigrants. Reform corrupt govt, and give people more voice.
  14. 14. US Parties: New Deal and Fifth Party System Great Depression and New Deal <ul><ul><li>Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laissez Faire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State govt and private organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To ease the suffering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United whites and blacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both sought relief from hardships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong federal govt </li></ul></ul>60’s Democrats split from economic and social Conservatives in south into republican base 60’s social progressives African Americans remained Democrats
  15. 15. Function of Political Parties <ul><li>To mobilize the public in an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Organize and run elections </li></ul><ul><li>Recruit Candidates (strategy: TO WIN) </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting alternative policies </li></ul><ul><li>Accepting responsibility for the operation of govt. (advocating party agenda) </li></ul><ul><li>Acting as opposition to party in power </li></ul>
  16. 16. Soft Money Raised by Parties, 1993-2002
  17. 17. Parties: Party Structure <ul><li>National Level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pres. controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Convention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Party Chairperson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governor controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Conventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State party chairperson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Party Boss </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local Level (Grassroots) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>County Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>County Chairperson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>District Leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precinct or ward captains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Party Workers </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Political Cartoon
  19. 19. Primary Elections <ul><li>Candidates official nomination process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All parties will select their candidate for the general election </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential or gubernatorial candidates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First Tuesday in the month of June before the general election in November </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Front-Loading: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State determines the date for its primary or caucus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early primaries are more influential </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States compete to schedule their primaries as early as possible </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New Hampshire (first presidential primary) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iowa (first caucus) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Parties in Action <ul><li>Meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quadrennial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nominate presidential candidate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reveals party platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduces new and upcoming stars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes party momentum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides funding for candidates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whips legislators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Finances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fund raising </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Political Cartoon
  22. 22. Accountability to the Voters <ul><li>Presidential and Parliamentary Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Viable third parties </li></ul>
  23. 23. Role of the Citizen
  24. 24. Quiz <ul><li>Why are political parties important in to fulfilling democracy? </li></ul>