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  • Chapter Twelve: Preventing Infectious Diseases In the early 1900’s, infectious diseases were the leading cause of death in the world. With the improvement of sanitation and medical discoveries, we have a new outlook upon infectious diseases. Still, the latest diseases consisting of HIV/AIDS, the Ebola virus, and resistant forms of tuberculosis, being able to understand infectious diseases has been brought back into the limelight. This chapter should allow students to identify pathogens that cause infectious diseases, follow the path of how a disease progresses, and identify the common as well as current sexually transmitted diseases still rampant today.

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  • Chapter Twelve Preventing Infectious Diseases
  • 7 Pathogens (Disease Producing Agents)
    • Viruses
    • Prion
    • Bacteria
    • Fungi
    • Protozoa
    • Rickettsia
    • Parasitic worms
  • Chain of Infection
  • 5 Stages of an Infection
    • Incubation
    • Prodromal
    • Clinical
    • Decline
    • Recovery
  • Mechanical and Cellular Body Defenses
  • Immune Response
  • Immunizations
    • Diptheria
    • Hepatitis B
    • Whooping cough
    • Haemophilus influenza B
    • Tetanus
    90% of children receive the following under the age of 2 years:
  • Immunizations (cont’d)
    • Rubella (German measles)
    • Measles (red measles)
    • Mumps
    • Polio
    • Chicken pox
    • Pneumonia related infections
    90% of children receive the following at the age of 2 years:
  • Causes and Management of Selected Infectious Diseases
    • The common cold (acute rhinitis)
    • Influenza
    • Tuberculosis
    • Pneumonia
    • Mononucleosis
    • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Causes and Management of Selected Infectious Diseases (cont’d)
    • Bacterial meningitis
    • Lyme disease
    • Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
    • Toxic shock syndrome
    • Hepatitis A,B,C,D,E
    • West Niles Virus
    • SARS (Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome)
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
    • Most devastatingly infectious disease of modern times
    • Over 816,149 Americans have been diagnosed with AIDS [Dec. 2001]
    • Cause – virus that attacks helper T-cells of the immune system
    HIV/AIDS
    • Spread via
      • blood
      • semen
      • vaginal secretions
    • Not transmitted by saliva, sweat, or tears
    • Most HIV positive people are asymptomatic
    HIV/AIDS
  • HIV/AIDS Symptoms
    • Eventually the following may appear (HIV with symptoms)
      • tiredness
      • fever
      • loss of appetite/weight
      • diarrhea
      • night sweats
      • swollen glands (neck, armpit, groin)
  • AIDS Worldwide
  • Diagnosis of HIV Infection
    • ELISA (enzyme-link immunosorbent assay)
    • Western blot
    • Home tests (Home Access, Confide)
  • Treatment for HIV/AIDS
    • No cure at this time
    • Combination drugs reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors ; both assist the body by disallowing replication of the virus in various cycles
    • HARRT (highly active antiretroviral therapy)
  • Prevention of HIV Infection
    • Abstaining from sexual activity
    • Monogamy
    • Using condoms with chemical barrier
    • Sobriety
    • Regular STD check-ups
    • Never share needles
    • Avoid unprotected anal intercourse
  • Other Prevalent STD’s
    • Chlamydia
    • HPV
    • Gonorrhea
    • Herpes simplex
    • Syphilis
    • Pubic lice
    • Yeast and protozoa infections (vagina)
    • Cystitis/urethritis
  • Chapter Twelve Preventing Infectious Diseases