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  • Chapter Nine: Rejecting Tobacco Use Evidence is linking tobacco use with impaired health. The regular user is more likely to become sick, remain sick, and to die prematurely than a non-user. Two million estimated deaths have been attributed to tobacco use from 1986-2000, therefore, any contention made by tobacco companies that tobacco is not dangerous is groundless and ignores the growing weight of scientific evidence.

Images Chap09hahn8e Images Chap09hahn8e Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter Nine Rejecting Tobacco Use
  • Tobacco Use in American Society
    • Since 1994, the population of smokers has declined (22.5% of adults smoke daily)
    • Men (25.2%) smoke more than women (20%)
    • College students smoke less than year 2000
    • Ethnicity, socioeconomics, education, and demographics are often factors that influence smoking
  • Other Demographic Factors Influencing Tobacco Use
    • Age groups
    • Region of the country
    • Size of the community
    • Employment status
  • Pipe and Cigar Smoking
    • Pipe/cigar smokers have the same rate of cancer frequency as cigarette smokers with:
      • Mouth
      • Larynx
      • Throat
      • Esophagus
  • Tissue changes associated with lung cancer
  • Development of Dependence
    • Dependence: physical and/or psychological need to continue the use of the drug (nicotine)
    • Physical dependence due to:
      • Titration : particular level of a drug within the body; adjusting the level of nicotine by adjusting the rate of smoking
  • Theories of Nicotine Addiction
    • Genetic theory – 60% of addiction is based upon genetic influence
    • Bolus theory – ball of nicotine reaches brain, causing excitement
    • Adrenocorticotropic hormone theory (ACTH) – release of beta endorphins delivers euphoric effect
    • Self-Medication theory – nicotine via dopamine “lifts spirits”
  • Acute Effects of Nicotine on the CNS
    • Arousal of nicotine allows norepinephrine, dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin release
    • CNS is depressed within the brain which stimulates areas within the heart, lungs, blood flow
  • Psychosocial Factors Related to Dependence
    • Modeling
    • Manipulation
    • Susceptibility to Advertising
  • Tobacco Active Components
    • Particulate = nicotine, water, tar (small particles)
    • Gaseous = carbon monoxide, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, etc.
    Carcinogens: capable of stimulating the development of cancer
  • Illness & Premature Death Due to Tobacco Use
    • Cardiovascular disease (nicotine and carbon monoxide related)
    • Cancer (30% of all cancer cases related to tobacco use)
      • lung, mouth, throat cancers
    • Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD)
    Mucus and cilia damage compromise the respiratory tract
  • Additional Health Concerns
    • Strokes
    • Osteoporosis
    • Muscle injury/back pain
    • Skin changes
    • Oral health
    • Brain and behavior
    • Neurological disorders
  • Smoking and Reproduction
    • Infertility
    • Pregnancy problems
    • Breastfeeding concerns
    • Neonatal Health Problems
    • Sperm degradation
    • Erectile dysfunction
    Use of oral contraception with smoking increases risk factors for CHD
  • Smokeless Tobacco
    • Not burned, placed in mouth
    • Chemicals absorbed through mucous membranes
    • Risks: leukoplakia, erythroplakia, periodontal disease, cancer of digestive tract and mouth
  • The Risks of Involuntary (Passive) Smoking
    • Mainstream smoke = smoke inhaled/exhaled by smoker (15% exposure to non-smoker)
    • Sidestream = smoke from the burning product (85% exposure to non-smoker)
    • Environmental = smoke from either method diluted by the air
    Partners of smokers are 3 x’s higher for CAD and 30% higher risk for lung cancer
  • New Product Development
    • Eclipse (cigarette that heats vs. burns tobacco)
    • Accord (cigarette that reduces sidestream smoke)
    • Advance, Omni, and Quest: cigarettes that have ‘trionic” filters which reduce carcinogen exposure
    • Non-tobacco sources of nicotine products e.g. suckers, gums, straws, sprays, drops, etc.
  • Smoking Cessation
    • Nicotine products (patch, gum, inhaler)
    • Medications (anti-depressants)
    • Inhalation sprays
  • The benefits of quitting smoking
  • Chapter Nine Rejecting Tobacco Use