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  • Chapter Nine: Rejecting Tobacco Use Evidence is linking tobacco use with impaired health. The regular user is more likely to become sick, remain sick, and to die prematurely than a non-user. Two million estimated deaths have been attributed to tobacco use from 1986-2000, therefore, any contention made by tobacco companies that tobacco is not dangerous is groundless and ignores the growing weight of scientific evidence.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter Nine Rejecting Tobacco Use
    • 2. Tobacco Use in American Society
      • Since 1994, the population of smokers has declined (22.5% of adults smoke daily)
      • Men (25.2%) smoke more than women (20%)
      • College students smoke less than year 2000
      • Ethnicity, socioeconomics, education, and demographics are often factors that influence smoking
    • 3. Other Demographic Factors Influencing Tobacco Use
      • Age groups
      • Region of the country
      • Size of the community
      • Employment status
    • 4. Pipe and Cigar Smoking
      • Pipe/cigar smokers have the same rate of cancer frequency as cigarette smokers with:
        • Mouth
        • Larynx
        • Throat
        • Esophagus
    • 5. Tissue changes associated with lung cancer
    • 6. Development of Dependence
      • Dependence: physical and/or psychological need to continue the use of the drug (nicotine)
      • Physical dependence due to:
        • Titration : particular level of a drug within the body; adjusting the level of nicotine by adjusting the rate of smoking
    • 7. Theories of Nicotine Addiction
      • Genetic theory – 60% of addiction is based upon genetic influence
      • Bolus theory – ball of nicotine reaches brain, causing excitement
      • Adrenocorticotropic hormone theory (ACTH) – release of beta endorphins delivers euphoric effect
      • Self-Medication theory – nicotine via dopamine “lifts spirits”
    • 8. Acute Effects of Nicotine on the CNS
      • Arousal of nicotine allows norepinephrine, dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin release
      • CNS is depressed within the brain which stimulates areas within the heart, lungs, blood flow
    • 9. Psychosocial Factors Related to Dependence
      • Modeling
      • Manipulation
      • Susceptibility to Advertising
    • 10. Tobacco Active Components
      • Particulate = nicotine, water, tar (small particles)
      • Gaseous = carbon monoxide, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, etc.
      Carcinogens: capable of stimulating the development of cancer
    • 11. Illness & Premature Death Due to Tobacco Use
      • Cardiovascular disease (nicotine and carbon monoxide related)
      • Cancer (30% of all cancer cases related to tobacco use)
        • lung, mouth, throat cancers
      • Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD)
      Mucus and cilia damage compromise the respiratory tract
    • 12. Additional Health Concerns
      • Strokes
      • Osteoporosis
      • Muscle injury/back pain
      • Skin changes
      • Oral health
      • Brain and behavior
      • Neurological disorders
    • 13. Smoking and Reproduction
      • Infertility
      • Pregnancy problems
      • Breastfeeding concerns
      • Neonatal Health Problems
      • Sperm degradation
      • Erectile dysfunction
      Use of oral contraception with smoking increases risk factors for CHD
    • 14. Smokeless Tobacco
      • Not burned, placed in mouth
      • Chemicals absorbed through mucous membranes
      • Risks: leukoplakia, erythroplakia, periodontal disease, cancer of digestive tract and mouth
    • 15. The Risks of Involuntary (Passive) Smoking
      • Mainstream smoke = smoke inhaled/exhaled by smoker (15% exposure to non-smoker)
      • Sidestream = smoke from the burning product (85% exposure to non-smoker)
      • Environmental = smoke from either method diluted by the air
      Partners of smokers are 3 x’s higher for CAD and 30% higher risk for lung cancer
    • 16. New Product Development
      • Eclipse (cigarette that heats vs. burns tobacco)
      • Accord (cigarette that reduces sidestream smoke)
      • Advance, Omni, and Quest: cigarettes that have ‘trionic” filters which reduce carcinogen exposure
      • Non-tobacco sources of nicotine products e.g. suckers, gums, straws, sprays, drops, etc.
    • 17. Smoking Cessation
      • Nicotine products (patch, gum, inhaler)
      • Medications (anti-depressants)
      • Inhalation sprays
    • 18. The benefits of quitting smoking
    • 19. Chapter Nine Rejecting Tobacco Use