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Images Chap09hahn8e
Images Chap09hahn8e
Images Chap09hahn8e
Images Chap09hahn8e
Images Chap09hahn8e
Images Chap09hahn8e
Images Chap09hahn8e
Images Chap09hahn8e
Images Chap09hahn8e
Images Chap09hahn8e
Images Chap09hahn8e
Images Chap09hahn8e
Images Chap09hahn8e
Images Chap09hahn8e
Images Chap09hahn8e
Images Chap09hahn8e
Images Chap09hahn8e
Images Chap09hahn8e
Images Chap09hahn8e
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Images Chap09hahn8e

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  • Chapter Nine: Rejecting Tobacco Use Evidence is linking tobacco use with impaired health. The regular user is more likely to become sick, remain sick, and to die prematurely than a non-user. Two million estimated deaths have been attributed to tobacco use from 1986-2000, therefore, any contention made by tobacco companies that tobacco is not dangerous is groundless and ignores the growing weight of scientific evidence.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter Nine Rejecting Tobacco Use
    • 2. Tobacco Use in American Society <ul><li>Since 1994, the population of smokers has declined (22.5% of adults smoke daily) </li></ul><ul><li>Men (25.2%) smoke more than women (20%) </li></ul><ul><li>College students smoke less than year 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity, socioeconomics, education, and demographics are often factors that influence smoking </li></ul>
    • 3. Other Demographic Factors Influencing Tobacco Use <ul><li>Age groups </li></ul><ul><li>Region of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Size of the community </li></ul><ul><li>Employment status </li></ul>
    • 4. Pipe and Cigar Smoking <ul><li>Pipe/cigar smokers have the same rate of cancer frequency as cigarette smokers with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Throat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Esophagus </li></ul></ul>
    • 5. Tissue changes associated with lung cancer
    • 6. Development of Dependence <ul><li>Dependence: physical and/or psychological need to continue the use of the drug (nicotine) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical dependence due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Titration : particular level of a drug within the body; adjusting the level of nicotine by adjusting the rate of smoking </li></ul></ul>
    • 7. Theories of Nicotine Addiction <ul><li>Genetic theory – 60% of addiction is based upon genetic influence </li></ul><ul><li>Bolus theory – ball of nicotine reaches brain, causing excitement </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenocorticotropic hormone theory (ACTH) – release of beta endorphins delivers euphoric effect </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Medication theory – nicotine via dopamine “lifts spirits” </li></ul>
    • 8. Acute Effects of Nicotine on the CNS <ul><li>Arousal of nicotine allows norepinephrine, dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin release </li></ul><ul><li>CNS is depressed within the brain which stimulates areas within the heart, lungs, blood flow </li></ul>
    • 9. Psychosocial Factors Related to Dependence <ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Susceptibility to Advertising </li></ul>
    • 10. Tobacco Active Components <ul><li>Particulate = nicotine, water, tar (small particles) </li></ul><ul><li>Gaseous = carbon monoxide, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, etc. </li></ul>Carcinogens: capable of stimulating the development of cancer
    • 11. Illness & Premature Death Due to Tobacco Use <ul><li>Cardiovascular disease (nicotine and carbon monoxide related) </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer (30% of all cancer cases related to tobacco use) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lung, mouth, throat cancers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD) </li></ul>Mucus and cilia damage compromise the respiratory tract
    • 12. Additional Health Concerns <ul><li>Strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoporosis </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle injury/back pain </li></ul><ul><li>Skin changes </li></ul><ul><li>Oral health </li></ul><ul><li>Brain and behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Neurological disorders </li></ul>
    • 13. Smoking and Reproduction <ul><li>Infertility </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy problems </li></ul><ul><li>Breastfeeding concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Neonatal Health Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Sperm degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Erectile dysfunction </li></ul>Use of oral contraception with smoking increases risk factors for CHD
    • 14. Smokeless Tobacco <ul><li>Not burned, placed in mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals absorbed through mucous membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Risks: leukoplakia, erythroplakia, periodontal disease, cancer of digestive tract and mouth </li></ul>
    • 15. The Risks of Involuntary (Passive) Smoking <ul><li>Mainstream smoke = smoke inhaled/exhaled by smoker (15% exposure to non-smoker) </li></ul><ul><li>Sidestream = smoke from the burning product (85% exposure to non-smoker) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental = smoke from either method diluted by the air </li></ul>Partners of smokers are 3 x’s higher for CAD and 30% higher risk for lung cancer
    • 16. New Product Development <ul><li>Eclipse (cigarette that heats vs. burns tobacco) </li></ul><ul><li>Accord (cigarette that reduces sidestream smoke) </li></ul><ul><li>Advance, Omni, and Quest: cigarettes that have ‘trionic” filters which reduce carcinogen exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Non-tobacco sources of nicotine products e.g. suckers, gums, straws, sprays, drops, etc. </li></ul>
    • 17. Smoking Cessation <ul><li>Nicotine products (patch, gum, inhaler) </li></ul><ul><li>Medications (anti-depressants) </li></ul><ul><li>Inhalation sprays </li></ul>
    • 18. The benefits of quitting smoking
    • 19. Chapter Nine Rejecting Tobacco Use

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