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Images Chap04hahn8e Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter Four: Becoming Physically Fit
  • 2. Key Terms
    • Physical Fitness : attributes that allow the ability to perform physical activity
    • Physical Activity : bodily movement produced by skeletal muscle groups
    • Exercise : Sub-category of physical activity; structured, repetitive, and purposive towards maintaining or improving fitness levels
  • 3. Components of Physical Fitness
    • Cardiorespiratory endurance
    • Muscular strength
    • Muscular endurance
    • Flexibility
    • Body composition
  • 4.  
  • 5. Cardiorespiratory Endurance
    • Ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to process and transport oxygen over a period of time
    • Continuous, repetitive movements
    • Aerobic energy production (using oxygen)
    • Examples: brisk walking, jogging, cycling
  • 6. Muscular Fitness
    • Ability of skeletal muscles to perform contractions; includes:
    • Strength : ability to perform at or near its maximum for a short period of time
    • Endurance : ability for muscle group to repeatedly contract over a long period of time
  • 7. How to Improve Muscular Fitness?
    • Overload Principle
      • gradually increasing the resistance can lead to increased muscular strength and endurance
  • 8. Types of Training Mode
      • Isometric (same measure)
      • Isotonic (full range of motion, progressive resistance)
      • Isokinetic (speed accommodates the movement of the exercises – expensive computerized dynamometers)
  • 9. Flexibility
    • Ability of joints to function through an intended range of motion
    • Failure to maintain flexibility will result in reduced motion/injury
    • Two forms of stretching motions
      • static – holding a stretch for a period of time (recommended)
      • ballistic – bouncing motions considered more dangerous for injury of tissues
  • 10. Body Composition
    • Make up of the body (bone, fat, muscle, etc.)
    • Measuring body fat % should be included in any fitness program
    • Cardiovascular fitness and strength training can contribute to decreased body fat
  • 11. Aging Physically
    • Physical decline occurs gradually
    • Differences are individual in nature
    • More subtle physiological changes occur between the years of 45 – 64
  • 12. Medical conditions influenced by physical activity
    • Osteoporosis (loss of calcium from bone) is more evident in middle-aged women
    • Osteoarthritis (wear and tear inflammation) upon weight bearing joints related to years of friction
    * Continuing to follow a fitness regimen is essential to minimizing age-related problems
  • 13. ACSM’s Recommendations for Achieving Optimal Fitness (1998)
    • Mode of activity
    • Frequency
    • Intensity
    • Duration
    • Resistance training
    • Flexibility training
  • 14. Developing a Cardiorespiratory Fitness Program
    • Mode of Activity
      • Continuous activity
      • Using large muscle groups
      • Aerobic in nature
      • Enjoyable activity selection
  • 15. Frequency
    • How Often Should One Train?
    • 3-5 times/week (ACSM)
    • More than 5 times/week will not create further improvement
    • Less than 3 times/week will not show improvement either
  • 16. Intensity of Training
    • ACSM recommendation of 65-90% of one’s maximum heart rate = Target Heart Rate (THR)
    • THR = (220 – age x 65-90%)
      • example of a 20 year old THR 220-20 = 200
      • 200 x .65 = 130 bpm
      • 200 x .90 = 180 bpm
    The level of effort to achieve cardiorespiratory fitness
  • 17. Duration of Training
    • Length of time one needs to exercise at THR to produce a cardiorespiratory training effect
    • 20-60 minutes of continuous activity (ACSM)
    • The lower the range of intensity, the longer the duration should be
  • 18. Resistance Training (Muscular Fitness)
    • Strength training should be done 2-3 times/week
    • Assists with improving body composition
    • One set of 8-12 reps (10-15 reps for adults over 50) geared toward fatiguing major muscle groups (i.e., legs, arms, shoulders, chest, back)
  • 19. Resistance Training (Muscular Fitness), cont’d
    • Isotonic or isokinetic training progress recommended
    • Full range of motion at a slow to moderate speed using rhythmic breathing
    • Multiple sets could provide greater benefits
  • 20. Flexibility Training
    • ACSM recommends stretching the major muscle groups:
    • 2-3 times/week
    • Should be done when the body has warmed up significantly
    • Static stretching is preferred over ballistic type
    • Hold for 10-30 seconds
  • 21. 3 Parts of a Training Session
    • Warm-Up (slow gradual increased of movement 10-15 minutes leading into stretching)
    • Conditioning Workout (cardiorespiratory endurance, strength training, and flexibility regimen following ACSM guidelines)
    • Cool-Down (return the body to a resting state in 5-10 minutes, i.e., walking, stretching, etc.)
  • 22. Exercise for Older Adults
    • Exercises for younger adults may be inappropriate for people over aged 50
    • Supervision from a certified instructor may be necessary
    • Physical exams would be recommended before beginning a program
    • Well designed programs should start slow and become gradual over time
    • Recognize signs of distress
  • 23. Sports Injuries
    • 5 general principles related toward prevention
      • start at a low level and progress gradually
      • if you stop exercising for an extended time, do not restart at the past level
      • listen to your body
      • follow rehabilitation instructions if prescribed by a rehab specialist
      • develop a preventive approach to all injuries
  • 24. Chapter Four: Becoming Physically Fit