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Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
Images Chap04hahn8e
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Images Chap04hahn8e

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  • 1. Chapter Four: Becoming Physically Fit
  • 2. Key Terms <ul><li>Physical Fitness : attributes that allow the ability to perform physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Activity : bodily movement produced by skeletal muscle groups </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise : Sub-category of physical activity; structured, repetitive, and purposive towards maintaining or improving fitness levels </li></ul>
  • 3. Components of Physical Fitness <ul><li>Cardiorespiratory endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular strength </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Body composition </li></ul>
  • 4. &nbsp;
  • 5. Cardiorespiratory Endurance <ul><li>Ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to process and transport oxygen over a period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous, repetitive movements </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic energy production (using oxygen) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: brisk walking, jogging, cycling </li></ul>
  • 6. Muscular Fitness <ul><li>Ability of skeletal muscles to perform contractions; includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Strength : ability to perform at or near its maximum for a short period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Endurance : ability for muscle group to repeatedly contract over a long period of time </li></ul>
  • 7. How to Improve Muscular Fitness? <ul><li>Overload Principle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gradually increasing the resistance can lead to increased muscular strength and endurance </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Types of Training Mode <ul><ul><li>Isometric (same measure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isotonic (full range of motion, progressive resistance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isokinetic (speed accommodates the movement of the exercises – expensive computerized dynamometers) </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Flexibility <ul><li>Ability of joints to function through an intended range of motion </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to maintain flexibility will result in reduced motion/injury </li></ul><ul><li>Two forms of stretching motions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>static – holding a stretch for a period of time (recommended) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ballistic – bouncing motions considered more dangerous for injury of tissues </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Body Composition <ul><li>Make up of the body (bone, fat, muscle, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring body fat % should be included in any fitness program </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular fitness and strength training can contribute to decreased body fat </li></ul>
  • 11. Aging Physically <ul><li>Physical decline occurs gradually </li></ul><ul><li>Differences are individual in nature </li></ul><ul><li>More subtle physiological changes occur between the years of 45 – 64 </li></ul>
  • 12. Medical conditions influenced by physical activity <ul><li>Osteoporosis (loss of calcium from bone) is more evident in middle-aged women </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoarthritis (wear and tear inflammation) upon weight bearing joints related to years of friction </li></ul>* Continuing to follow a fitness regimen is essential to minimizing age-related problems
  • 13. ACSM’s Recommendations for Achieving Optimal Fitness (1998) <ul><li>Mode of activity </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance training </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility training </li></ul>
  • 14. Developing a Cardiorespiratory Fitness Program <ul><li>Mode of Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using large muscle groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic in nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoyable activity selection </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Frequency <ul><li>How Often Should One Train? </li></ul><ul><li>3-5 times/week (ACSM) </li></ul><ul><li>More than 5 times/week will not create further improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 3 times/week will not show improvement either </li></ul>
  • 16. Intensity of Training <ul><li>ACSM recommendation of 65-90% of one’s maximum heart rate = Target Heart Rate (THR) </li></ul><ul><li>THR = (220 – age x 65-90%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>example of a 20 year old THR 220-20 = 200 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200 x .65 = 130 bpm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200 x .90 = 180 bpm </li></ul></ul>The level of effort to achieve cardiorespiratory fitness
  • 17. Duration of Training <ul><li>Length of time one needs to exercise at THR to produce a cardiorespiratory training effect </li></ul><ul><li>20-60 minutes of continuous activity (ACSM) </li></ul><ul><li>The lower the range of intensity, the longer the duration should be </li></ul>
  • 18. Resistance Training (Muscular Fitness) <ul><li>Strength training should be done 2-3 times/week </li></ul><ul><li>Assists with improving body composition </li></ul><ul><li>One set of 8-12 reps (10-15 reps for adults over 50) geared toward fatiguing major muscle groups (i.e., legs, arms, shoulders, chest, back) </li></ul>
  • 19. Resistance Training (Muscular Fitness), cont’d <ul><li>Isotonic or isokinetic training progress recommended </li></ul><ul><li>Full range of motion at a slow to moderate speed using rhythmic breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple sets could provide greater benefits </li></ul>
  • 20. Flexibility Training <ul><li>ACSM recommends stretching the major muscle groups: </li></ul><ul><li>2-3 times/week </li></ul><ul><li>Should be done when the body has warmed up significantly </li></ul><ul><li>Static stretching is preferred over ballistic type </li></ul><ul><li>Hold for 10-30 seconds </li></ul>
  • 21. 3 Parts of a Training Session <ul><li>Warm-Up (slow gradual increased of movement 10-15 minutes leading into stretching) </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioning Workout (cardiorespiratory endurance, strength training, and flexibility regimen following ACSM guidelines) </li></ul><ul><li>Cool-Down (return the body to a resting state in 5-10 minutes, i.e., walking, stretching, etc.) </li></ul>
  • 22. Exercise for Older Adults <ul><li>Exercises for younger adults may be inappropriate for people over aged 50 </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision from a certified instructor may be necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Physical exams would be recommended before beginning a program </li></ul><ul><li>Well designed programs should start slow and become gradual over time </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize signs of distress </li></ul>
  • 23. Sports Injuries <ul><li>5 general principles related toward prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>start at a low level and progress gradually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>if you stop exercising for an extended time, do not restart at the past level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>listen to your body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>follow rehabilitation instructions if prescribed by a rehab specialist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>develop a preventive approach to all injuries </li></ul></ul>
  • 24. Chapter Four: Becoming Physically Fit

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