Foreign Policy


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Foreign Policy

  1. 1. US Foreign Policy: Part I <ul><li>Who is involved in formulating US foreign policy? </li></ul><ul><li>What ideas are fundamental in foreign policy creation? </li></ul>
  2. 2. Global Perspective
  3. 3. Definition <ul><li>Foreign Policy- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A nation’s external goals and the techniques and strategies used to achieve them. (Schmidt et. al) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Policymaking Process Implementation Policy Formation Policy Evaluation Agenda Setting Policy Adoption
  5. 5. Foreign Policy Change <ul><li>Source of policy change is external </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Geographical ‘realities’ and ideological challenges from potential aggressors” (Kegley and Wittkopf) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes all factors “of America’s external environment or any actions occurring abroad that…influence the choices made by its officials” (Rosenau) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Institutions Struggle
  7. 7. Institutions: Policy Formation <ul><li>Government Institutions in Policy Formation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invitation to Struggle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ America’s unique constitutional system creates an ‘invitation to struggle’ between the president and Congress in the foreign policy process” (Crabb and Holt) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federal structure of national, state and local levels </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three branches of government </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competing bureaucratic agencies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Institutions: Struggle for Influence <ul><li>Executive/Congressional relations may be described as exhibiting a “pendulum or cyclical effect” </li></ul><ul><li>Phases of Executive / Congressional Relations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up until WW II: Congress played limited role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1945 – late 1950s: Collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1960s – early 1970s: Imperial Presidency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 1964 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1973 – 1980s: Congress re-asserts itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>War Powers Act- 60 day limit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1980- present: Tense Sharing of Responsibility </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Institutions: Foreign Policy Formation <ul><li>Institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Branch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>President </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutional Powers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commander and chief of the armed forces </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make treaties </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appoint ambassadors and executive officers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receive/refuse to receive ambassadors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joint Chief of Staff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secretary of State </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secretary of Defense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National Security Advisor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Institutions: Policy Formation <ul><li>Institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bureaucratic politics model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Where you stand depends on where you sit” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition for power and influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pentagon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CIA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FBI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence community </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Defense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Department of State </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Institutions: Policy Formation <ul><li>Institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutional Powers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power to declare war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power of the purse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for raising and supporting the armed forces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative power </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Interest
  13. 13. Interests: Policy Formation <ul><li>Increasing voice of domestic and foreign interest groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic and foreign policy issues are related </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly interconnected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military Industrial Complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defence industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Quakers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Raging Grannies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Interests: Defense Industry Influence 109% (Fortune 500 website) 871 Raytheon 37% 2,572 Boeing 44% 1,825 Lockheed Martin Percentage Change From 2004 Profits in 2006 (in millions) Company
  15. 15. Ideas: Policy Formation <ul><li>Moral Idealism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ American National Style” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moralistic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moral mission </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immorality of communism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liberalism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>America as a unique state </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Europe and War; U.S. and Peace </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advocate of Middle-Class Capitalism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consent of the majority </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Ideas: Policy Formation <ul><li>Realism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nations act in own interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>World is a dangerous place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Act to survive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Policy based on basic cold calculations without regards to morals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be militarily prepared because other nations are also self interested </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Ideas: Policy Formation <ul><li>Neo-realism (Structural realism) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The international structure constrains state behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The structure then limits cooperation among states through fears of relative gains made by other states, and the possibility of dependence on other states. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violence is part of the structure of the international system it is likely to continue in the future. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Ideas: Policy Formation <ul><li>The sources of ideology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual (personality) Source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal makeup makes a difference in the kinds of decisions that are made </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinton Doctrine- national interest partly in terms of humanitarian interventions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bush Doctrine- National interest may require pre-emption </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However, “individuals’ influence [over] foreign policy outcomes are likely to be much subtler than popular impressions would have us believe” (K/W) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Bush’s Personality <ul><li>Political Cartoon </li></ul>
  20. 20. Implementation: Foreign Policy <ul><li>Actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carrot- persuade foreign nation with non-aggressive means </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade agreements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic aid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical assistance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Sanctions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diplomacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stick-persuade foreign nations through aggressive means </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Military Intervention </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Quiz <ul><li>Which most greatly influences foreign policy creation, institution, ideas, or interest? </li></ul>