BackgroundBackground
 All cells require energyAll cells require energy
 The digestive system is made up of severalThe di...
The 6 Essential NutrientsThe 6 Essential Nutrients
Continued…Continued…
What do you know?
a) Go to the Wiki and download the worksheet for today.
b) In pairs work to write down what you think yo...
Diet: all the food consumedDiet: all the food consumed
by an individual for a periodby an individual for a period
of time....
Balanced Diets:Balanced Diets:
1) provide all essential
nutrients for life
processes
(growth, repair, etc.)
2) supply enou...
Carbohydrates
Complex Carbohydrates:
•Include starches and fiber
•About 50% of your diet should
•come from complex carbohy...
Proteins
What do proteins do for your body?
 Proteins are made up of amino acids the body uses to make skin,
muscle and b...
What foods are good sources of protein?
 Tofu, Meat, chicken, fish, eggs, beans and nuts.
 Food that supplies all 9 esse...
LegumesLegumes
 Soybeans (shown)Soybeans (shown)
 PeanutsPeanuts
 Black-eyed peasBlack-eyed peas
 Kidney beansKidney b...
What if you have too little or too much protein?
 About 10-15% of your diet should come from proteins.
 TOO LITTLE: may ...
Fats
What do fats do for your body?
Fats are essential:
 For healthy skin and hair.
 For normal growth and nerve functio...
What foods have fat?
 A trace of fat is found in almost all foods.
 Examples of foods with fats include meat, fish,
dair...
Minerals
Common minerals include calcium, sodium, potassium, iron, iodine and zinc.
 Found in almost all foods, but Veget...
Vitamins
What do vitamins do for your body?
 Vitamins help the body produce energy.
 Vitamins are compounds that help re...
Sources
Vitamins are found in all food groups.
 Common sources of vitamins are fruits and vegetables. Green leafy
and yel...
What if you have too little or too many vitamins?
•Vitamin deficiencies can cause a wide range of health problems includin...
WaterWater
 ~2/3 Body mass -Water makes up the~2/3 Body mass -Water makes up the
bulk of blood, extracellular fluid, andb...
 Flushing toxins from cellsFlushing toxins from cells
 Lubricates tissues and jointsLubricates tissues and joints
 Form...
What does water do for your body?
 Water assists in digestion and respiration.
 Water helps carry nutrients and oxygen t...
What if you have too little or too much water?
*The body loses about 1 quart of water each day. To replace body
fluids, ex...
Nutirition day 2
Nutirition day 2
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Nutirition day 2

  1. 1. BackgroundBackground  All cells require energyAll cells require energy  The digestive system is made up of severalThe digestive system is made up of several organs working together to break down foodorgans working together to break down food  Energy from foodEnergy from food  ATP (energy source forATP (energy source for cells)cells)  Is all food equal?Is all food equal?
  2. 2. The 6 Essential NutrientsThe 6 Essential Nutrients Continued…Continued…
  3. 3. What do you know? a) Go to the Wiki and download the worksheet for today. b) In pairs work to write down what you think you know about each of the nutrients in the table: 1. What does the nutrient do for your body? 2. What happens to your body if you get too much or too little of the nutrient? 3. What foods are good sources of this nutrient? Vitamins Minerals Water
  4. 4. Diet: all the food consumedDiet: all the food consumed by an individual for a periodby an individual for a period of time.of time.
  5. 5. Balanced Diets:Balanced Diets: 1) provide all essential nutrients for life processes (growth, repair, etc.) 2) supply enough energy for life processes
  6. 6. Carbohydrates Complex Carbohydrates: •Include starches and fiber •About 50% of your diet should •come from complex carbohydrates. Examples: pasta, wheat, corn, vegetables, fruit, beans, grains. Simple Carbohydrates • Sugars: glucose, fructose and sucrose. Limit how many simple carbohydrates you eat because they don’t add many vitamins or minerals to your diet. Examples of foods containing simple carbohydrates include candy, soft drinks, cakes and cookies.
  7. 7. Proteins What do proteins do for your body?  Proteins are made up of amino acids the body uses to make skin, muscle and bone.  The body requires 20 amino acids for good health. But only 11 are produced within the body itself. The remaining 9 are called essential amino acids, because it’s essential to include them in your diet.  The body can’t store amino acids, so it’s important to eat some protein almost daily.
  8. 8. What foods are good sources of protein?  Tofu, Meat, chicken, fish, eggs, beans and nuts.  Food that supplies all 9 essential amino acids is called a complete protein. Ex. Most animal sources are complete, while plant sources are often incomplete.  People who don’t eat animal protein can combine sources of plant proteins to be sure they get the essential amino acids.  Ex. Beans and rice form a complete protein when eaten together.
  9. 9. LegumesLegumes  Soybeans (shown)Soybeans (shown)  PeanutsPeanuts  Black-eyed peasBlack-eyed peas  Kidney beansKidney beans  ChickpeasChickpeas  Navy beansNavy beans  Pinto beans lentilsPinto beans lentils  Lima beansLima beans
  10. 10. What if you have too little or too much protein?  About 10-15% of your diet should come from proteins.  TOO LITTLE: may cause insufficient development of bones and muscles, and problems related to skin tone.  TOO MUCH: Eating large amounts of protein may contribute to many problems because many foods high in protein are also high in fats, which can increase risk of hypertension, high cholesterol, heart disease and diabetes.
  11. 11. Fats What do fats do for your body? Fats are essential:  For healthy skin and hair.  For normal growth and nerve function.  For the production of certain hormones.  For absorbing vitamins during digestion.  Fat can be burned as energy when the body doesn’t have enough carbohydrates stored. but the level of the The body needs a certain amount of fat to:  Insulate against cold.  Provide energy for muscles.  Provide a layer of padding between skin and muscles.  Protect internal organs.
  12. 12. What foods have fat?  A trace of fat is found in almost all foods.  Examples of foods with fats include meat, fish, dairy products, oils, nuts and chocolate.  Many foods, such as potatoes, have little or no fat naturally, but become high in fat when cooked in oil – e.g. french fries and hash browns. *******Not all fats are created equal!!!!******** Too little or too much fat?  20-30% of your diet should be fats. TOO LITTLE: Health problems!  Cold, low energy, low fat-soluble vitamins (A, K, E, D), hunger (not satisfied!), dry skin, mental fatigue, poor hormone production (and menstrual cycle loss-women), poor digestion, mood swings/irritability, impaired growth. TOO MUCH: Health problems - including obesity, heart disease, diabetes and hypertension, increased risk of certain cancers.
  13. 13. Minerals Common minerals include calcium, sodium, potassium, iron, iodine and zinc.  Found in almost all foods, but Vegetables, fruits and grain products are particularly good sources. What do minerals do for your body?  Important for growth and maintenance of body structures  Help regulate metabolism.
  14. 14. Vitamins What do vitamins do for your body?  Vitamins help the body produce energy.  Vitamins are compounds that help regulate body processes such as: • Digestion • Growth • Metabolism • Hormone development • Wound healing • Nerve function
  15. 15. Sources Vitamins are found in all food groups.  Common sources of vitamins are fruits and vegetables. Green leafy and yellow vegetables are especially good sources of vitamins A and B.  Oranges, grapefruit, lemons, limes and green chilies are excellent sources of vitamin C.  The body makes vitamin D through exposure to sunlight.
  16. 16. What if you have too little or too many vitamins? •Vitamin deficiencies can cause a wide range of health problems including several diseases rarely seen in the U.S. These include: • scurvy (caused by not enough vitamin C) Scurvy leads to the formation of spots on the skin, spongy gums, and bleeding from the mucous membranes. The spots are most abundant on the thighs and legs, and a person with the ailment looks pale, feels depressed, and is partially immobilized. In advanced scurvy there are open, suppurating wounds and loss of teeth. • beriberi (caused by lack of vitamin B) – A nervous system ailment. Symptoms of beriberi include severe lethargy and fatigue, together with complications affecting the cardiovascular, nervous, muscular, and gastrointestinal systems. • rickets (caused by a lack of vitamin D) a softening of bones in children potentially leading to fractures and deformity. Vitamin deficiency in this country primarily cause:  Poor regulation of internal body processes.  The body not being able to produce high levels of energy.
  17. 17. WaterWater  ~2/3 Body mass -Water makes up the~2/3 Body mass -Water makes up the bulk of blood, extracellular fluid, andbulk of blood, extracellular fluid, and other bodily fluidsother bodily fluids  Every one of your cells needs water toEvery one of your cells needs water to complete its processescomplete its processes  At least 1 L a day! Vital for fluid balance.At least 1 L a day! Vital for fluid balance.
  18. 18.  Flushing toxins from cellsFlushing toxins from cells  Lubricates tissues and jointsLubricates tissues and joints  Forms essential body fluids, such as blood & mucusForms essential body fluids, such as blood & mucus  Regulates body temperature (by sweating)Regulates body temperature (by sweating)  Eliminates waste materialsEliminates waste materials (in urine & sweat)(in urine & sweat) HH220ooh that’s refreshing!0ooh that’s refreshing!
  19. 19. What does water do for your body?  Water assists in digestion and respiration.  Water helps carry nutrients and oxygen throughout the body. Water is an essential nutrient that makes up 50-75% of your body weight. Water is so important that your body can’t live for more than a few days without it.
  20. 20. What if you have too little or too much water? *The body loses about 1 quart of water each day. To replace body fluids, experts recommend drinking 8 or more glasses of water daily, instead of drinking soda, coffee, juice or other beverages* Not drinking enough water can compromise all of the body’s systems. Water allows the body to: Use water-soluble vitamins Carry oxygen in the blood.  Regulate body temperature  When water deficiency is severe, the body systems shut down and death occurs. Some experts believe that large amounts of water may dilute and wash water-soluble vitamins from the body.

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