All cells require energyAll cells require energy
The digestive system is made up of severalThe digestive system is made up of several
organs working together to break down foodorgans working together to break down food
Energy from foodEnergy from food ATP (energy source forATP (energy source for
Is all food equal?Is all food equal?
The 6 Essential NutrientsThe 6 Essential Nutrients
What do you know?
a) Go to the Wiki and download the worksheet for today.
b) In pairs work to write down what you think you know about
each of the nutrients in the table:
1. What does the nutrient do for your body?
2. What happens to your body if you get too much or too little
of the nutrient?
3. What foods are good sources of this nutrient?
Vitamins Minerals Water
Diet: all the food consumedDiet: all the food consumed
by an individual for a periodby an individual for a period
of time.of time.
Balanced Diets:Balanced Diets:
1) provide all essential
nutrients for life
(growth, repair, etc.)
2) supply enough energy
for life processes
•Include starches and fiber
•About 50% of your diet should
•come from complex carbohydrates.
pasta, wheat, corn, vegetables, fruit,
• Sugars: glucose, fructose and sucrose.
Limit how many simple carbohydrates you eat
because they don’t add many vitamins or
minerals to your diet.
Examples of foods containing simple carbohydrates include candy,
soft drinks, cakes and cookies.
What do proteins do for your body?
Proteins are made up of amino acids the body uses to make skin,
muscle and bone.
The body requires 20 amino acids for good health. But only 11 are
produced within the body itself.
The remaining 9 are called essential amino acids, because it’s
essential to include them in your diet.
The body can’t store amino acids, so
it’s important to eat some protein almost
What foods are good sources of protein?
Tofu, Meat, chicken, fish, eggs, beans and nuts.
Food that supplies all 9 essential amino acids is called a complete
protein. Ex. Most animal sources are complete, while plant sources are
People who don’t eat animal protein can combine sources of plant
proteins to be sure they get the essential amino acids.
Ex. Beans and rice form a complete protein when eaten together.
What if you have too little or too much protein?
About 10-15% of your diet should come from proteins.
TOO LITTLE: may cause insufficient development of bones and
muscles, and problems related to skin tone.
TOO MUCH: Eating large amounts of protein may contribute to many
problems because many foods high in protein are also high in fats,
which can increase risk of hypertension, high cholesterol, heart disease
What do fats do for your body?
Fats are essential:
For healthy skin and hair.
For normal growth and nerve function.
For the production of certain hormones.
For absorbing vitamins during digestion.
Fat can be burned as energy when the body
doesn’t have enough carbohydrates stored. but the level of the
The body needs a certain amount of fat to:
Insulate against cold.
Provide energy for muscles.
Provide a layer of padding between skin and muscles.
Protect internal organs.
What foods have fat?
A trace of fat is found in almost all foods.
Examples of foods with fats include meat, fish,
dairy products, oils, nuts and chocolate.
Many foods, such as potatoes, have little or no fat naturally, but become
high in fat when cooked in oil – e.g. french fries and hash browns.
*******Not all fats are created equal!!!!********
Too little or too much fat?
20-30% of your diet should be fats.
TOO LITTLE: Health problems!
Cold, low energy, low fat-soluble vitamins (A, K, E, D), hunger (not satisfied!), dry
skin, mental fatigue, poor hormone production (and menstrual cycle loss-women),
poor digestion, mood swings/irritability, impaired growth.
TOO MUCH: Health problems - including obesity, heart disease, diabetes and
hypertension, increased risk of certain cancers.
Common minerals include calcium, sodium, potassium, iron, iodine and zinc.
Found in almost all foods, but Vegetables, fruits and grain products are
particularly good sources.
What do minerals do for your body?
Important for growth and maintenance of body structures
Help regulate metabolism.
What do vitamins do for your body?
Vitamins help the body produce energy.
Vitamins are compounds that help regulate body processes such as:
• Hormone development
• Wound healing
• Nerve function
Vitamins are found in all food groups.
Common sources of vitamins are fruits and vegetables. Green leafy
and yellow vegetables are especially good sources of vitamins A and B.
Oranges, grapefruit, lemons, limes and
green chilies are excellent sources of vitamin C.
The body makes vitamin D through
exposure to sunlight.
What if you have too little or too many vitamins?
•Vitamin deficiencies can cause a wide range of health problems including
several diseases rarely seen in the U.S. These include:
• scurvy (caused by not enough vitamin C)
Scurvy leads to the formation of spots on the skin, spongy gums, and bleeding from the mucous membranes.
The spots are most abundant on the thighs and legs, and a person with the ailment looks pale, feels depressed,
and is partially immobilized. In advanced scurvy there are open, suppurating wounds and loss of teeth.
• beriberi (caused by lack of vitamin B) –
A nervous system ailment.
Symptoms of beriberi include severe lethargy and fatigue, together with
complications affecting the cardiovascular, nervous, muscular, and
• rickets (caused by a lack of vitamin D)
a softening of bones in children potentially leading to fractures and
Vitamin deficiency in this country primarily cause:
Poor regulation of internal body processes.
The body not being able to produce high levels of energy.
~2/3 Body mass -Water makes up the~2/3 Body mass -Water makes up the
bulk of blood, extracellular fluid, andbulk of blood, extracellular fluid, and
other bodily fluidsother bodily fluids
Every one of your cells needs water toEvery one of your cells needs water to
complete its processescomplete its processes
At least 1 L a day! Vital for fluid balance.At least 1 L a day! Vital for fluid balance.
Flushing toxins from cellsFlushing toxins from cells
Lubricates tissues and jointsLubricates tissues and joints
Forms essential body fluids, such as blood & mucusForms essential body fluids, such as blood & mucus
Regulates body temperature (by sweating)Regulates body temperature (by sweating)
Eliminates waste materialsEliminates waste materials
(in urine & sweat)(in urine & sweat)
HH220ooh that’s refreshing!0ooh that’s refreshing!
What does water do for your body?
Water assists in digestion and respiration.
Water helps carry nutrients and oxygen throughout the body.
Water is an essential nutrient that makes up 50-75% of your body weight.
Water is so important that your body can’t live for more than a few days without it.
What if you have too little or too much water?
*The body loses about 1 quart of water each day. To replace body
fluids, experts recommend drinking 8 or more glasses of water daily,
instead of drinking soda, coffee, juice or other beverages*
Not drinking enough water can compromise all of the body’s
Water allows the body to:
Use water-soluble vitamins
Carry oxygen in the blood.
Regulate body temperature
When water deficiency is severe, the body systems shut down and
Some experts believe that large amounts of water may dilute and wash
water-soluble vitamins from the body.