Sen Pack2

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Sen Pack2

  1. 1. Poverty as Severe Entitlement Failure Amartya Sen and the Evolution of the Concept of Poverty Leland R. de la Cruz Director, Development Studies Program
  2. 2. Poverty as Severe Entitlement Failure <ul><li>Sen, Amartya, Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlements and Deprivation . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982. </li></ul><ul><li>Dreze, Jean and Sen, Amartya, Hunger and Public Action . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>Dreze, Jean; Sen, Amartya; and Hussain, Athar (eds.), The Political Economy of Hunger . Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Nussbaum, Martha and Sen, Amartya (eds.), The Quality of Life . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>Sen, Amartya, Development as Freedom. New York: Anchor Books, 1999 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Poverty, Income and Basic Needs <ul><li>Poverty has been traditionally defined as income deprivation. </li></ul><ul><li>This has been improved upon by the basic needs approach which defines poverty as basic needs deprivation. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Poverty and Income <ul><li>Basic needs may be acquired using income. </li></ul><ul><li>The capability of a person to acquire income enhances his chances of acquiring basic needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Capability to earn income enhanced by: </li></ul><ul><li>Access to Health Services </li></ul><ul><li>Access to Educational Services </li></ul><ul><li>Access to Credit </li></ul>
  5. 5. Poverty and Income <ul><li>But income is only a means of acquiring basic needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic needs can be acquired apart from income. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Food Acquisition <ul><li>Food can be bought. </li></ul><ul><li>Food can be produced. </li></ul><ul><li>Food can be obtained through transfers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfers: Commodities/ money obtained from others without anything given in exchange. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food can be obtained from the “commons”. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commons: Commodities for which there are no property rights or unenforced property rights. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Analysis of Famines <ul><li>Famines can be caused by lack of food. </li></ul><ul><li>But famines have happened in areas where food was abundant. </li></ul><ul><li>Famines should be more generally understood as the inability to acquire food. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Causes of inability to acquire food <ul><li>Health problems and problems with nature which affect direct producers. </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to access commons or depleting supply in the commons could affect those who rely on this resource. </li></ul><ul><li>Cessation of transfers could affect dependent individuals. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Why can’t food be acquired? FOOD Labor + Nature + Productive Resources Labor Market Cash Crops/ Commodities Assets Wage Productive resources <ul><li>Demand/ price of: </li></ul><ul><li>Commodities </li></ul><ul><li>Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Assets </li></ul>
  10. 10. Why can’t food be acquired? FOOD Labor + Nature + Productive Resources Labor Market Cash Crops/ Commodities Assets Wage Productive resources <ul><li>Supply/ price of: </li></ul><ul><li>Productive resources </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Analysis of Famines <ul><li>Famines are the result of the inability to acquire food. </li></ul><ul><li>Food is not a commodity a community suffering from a famine can acquire. </li></ul><ul><li>Food is not part of that community’s entitlements. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Entitlements <ul><li>Commodities over which a person can exercise ownership or command </li></ul>
  13. 13. Famines as Entitlement Failure <ul><li>Famines are a result of severe entitlement failure. </li></ul><ul><li>Different sectors have different ways of acquiring food. </li></ul><ul><li>Different sectors have different sources of vulnerabilities to famine. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Acquirement Problem SHELTER Labor + Nature + Productive Resources Labor Market Cash Crops/ Commodities Assets Wage Productive resources
  15. 15. Poverty as severe basic needs deprivation Poverty as severe entitlements deprivation Poverty as the inability to acquire basic needs
  16. 16. Evaluating Entitlements <ul><li>Is the good or service available? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the good or service accessible? </li></ul><ul><li>Is access to the good secure? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the good or service acceptable ? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the quality of the good or service that is available? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Evaluating Availability of Health Services <ul><li>Adequacy/ Comprehensiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical Personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appropriateness </li></ul>
  18. 18. Evaluating Accessibility <ul><li>Non-discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Physical accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Information Accessibility </li></ul>
  19. 19. Evaluating Security <ul><li>Physical Security </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Security </li></ul><ul><li>Social Security </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Security </li></ul>
  20. 20. Access to Sanitary Facilities (2003, NDHS)
  21. 21. Access to Sanitary Facilities (2003, NDHS)
  22. 22. Access to Water (2003, NDHS)
  23. 23. Health Personnel by Location Source: Dr. Merceditas Santos-Tuano, former Executive Director, Healthdev Institute ~90% ~10% Doctors 62% migrate to other countries ~90% ~10% Dentists ~80% ~20% Nurses ~60% ~30% Midwives Urban Rural
  24. 24. Child Delivery Attendants (2003, NDHS)
  25. 25. Child Delivery Attendants by Income Quintiles (2003, NDHS)
  26. 26. Location of Child Delivery (2003, NDHS)
  27. 27. Location of Child Delivery by Income Quintile (2003, NDHS)
  28. 28. Source: Dr. Marife Yap, AGSB
  29. 29. Problems in Women’s Access to Health Care (2003, NDHS)
  30. 30. Problems in Women’s Access to Health Care by Income Quintile (2003, NDHS)
  31. 31. Poverty as severe basic needs deprivation Poverty as severe entitlements deprivation
  32. 32. Basic Needs Deprivation <ul><li>Different sectors have different ways of accessing basic needs. </li></ul><ul><li>If poverty is defined as basic needs deprivation, different poverty sectors have different forms of poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in entitlements and differences in deprivations among poverty groups necessitate differentiated solutions. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Jeffrey Sachs <ul><li>Director, Millenium Development Goals Project </li></ul><ul><li>One of Time magazine’s 100 most influential people in 2004 </li></ul>
  34. 34. Jeffrey Sachs
  35. 35. Jeffrey Sachs <ul><li>Boost agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Improve basic health </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in education </li></ul><ul><li>Provide power </li></ul><ul><li>Provide clean water and sanitation </li></ul>
  36. 36. Poverty as Severe Entitlement Failure Amartya Sen and the Evolution of the Concept of Poverty Leland R. de la Cruz Director, Development Studies Program

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