Poverty Situationer Sen 2008Presentation Transcript
Poverty as Income Deprivation Leland Joseph R. de la Cruz Director Development Studies Program School of Social Sciences Ateneo de Manila University [email_address]
Test your knowledge!
Name one region where one out of every two individuals is considered poor.
How much should a family of 5 persons be earning per month to be considered non-poor?
What percent of the Philippine population is considered poor?
When is a person considered poor?
The poor refers to individuals and families whose incomes fall below the official poverty threshold as defined by the government and/or cannot afford to provide in a sustained manner for their minimum basic needs for food, health, education, housing, and other social amenities of life. The poverty line measures the income needed to obtain basic and non-basic needs for one year. (Virola, 2008)
How does the government compute for the poverty line?
The government constructs a menu per region that satisfies basic nutritional requirements. The government computes for the cost of that menu. (ex. P27)
The government computes for the proportion of income that is budgeted for food using survey data. (ex. 66%)
The figure obtained in #1 is divided by the figure obtained in #2. (ex. P27 / 66% = P40)
Also referred to as the subsistence threshold or the food poverty line
Refers to the minimum income/expenditure required for a family/individual to meet the basic food needs, which satisfies the nutritional requirements for economically necessary and socially desirable physical activities (Virola, 2008)
Poverty Threshold/ Line
Refers to the cost of minimum basic needs: food + non-food
Refers to the minimum income/expenditure required for a family/individual to meet the basic food and non-food requirements
What is the NCR poverty line (2008)? P328.77 Family/ day* P10,000.00 Family/ month P120,000.00 Family/ year* P65.76 Individual/ day* P2,000.00 Individual/ month* P24,000.00 Individual/ year* *Unofficial, self-computed
What is the Philippine poverty line (2006)? P206.29 Family/ day* P6,273.99 Family/ month* P75,287.85 Family/ year* P41.26 Individual/ day* P1,254.80 Individual/ month* P15,057.57 Individual/ year NSCB *Unofficial, self-computed
Regional poverty lines 2006, NSCB Region Threshold Region Threshold NCR P20,566 VIII P13,974 I P15,956 IX P13,219 II P13,791 X P14,199 III P17,298 XI P14,942 IV-A P17,761 XII P14,225 IV-B P14,800 CAR P16,810 V P15,015 ARMM P15,533 VI P14,405 CARAGA P15,249 VII P13,390
Poverty incidence 2006, NSCB
32.9% or 27.6 million Filipinos are poor.
32.9% of Filipinos earn less than P 15,057.57 a year, P 1,254.80 a month and P 41.26 a day.
26.9% or 4.6 million Filipino families are poor.
26.9% of families earn less than P75,287.85 a year, P 6,273.99 a month and P 206.29 a day.
Regional poverty incidence (Individual) 2006, NSCB Region Poverty Incidence Region Poverty Incidence NCR 10.40% VIII 48.50% I 32.70% IX 45.30% II 25.50% X 43.10% III 20.70% XI 36.60% IV-A 20.90% XII 40.80% IV-B 52.70% CAR 34.50% V 51.10% ARMM 61.80% VI 38.60% CARAGA 52.60% VII 35.40%
Regional poverty incidence (Individual) 2006, NSCB * Percentages are unofficial, self-computed Region N* % of total Region N* % of total NCR 0.8M 4% VIII 1.6M 7% I 1.4M 5% IX 1.2M 5% II 0.8M 2% X 1.5M 6% III 1.6M 6% XI 1.2M 5% IV-A 1.6M 8% XII 1.5M 5% IV-B 1.0M 5% CAR 0.5M 1% V 2.5M 9% ARMM 1.6M 6% VI 2.7M 9% CARAGA 1.0M 4% VII 2.0M 8%
Poorest Provinces (2006) NSCB Poverty Incidence Tawi-Tawi 78.9% Zamboanga del Norte 63.0% Maguindanao 62.0% Apayao 57.5% Surigao del Norte 53.2% Lanao del Sur 52.5% Northern Samar 52.2% Masbate 51.0% Abra 50.1% Misamis Occidental 48.8%
Least Poor Provinces (2006) NSCB Poverty Incidence Batanes 0% Rizal 6.4% Bataan 6.8% Cavite 7.8% Benguet 8.2% Pampanga 8.3% Bulacan 10.0% Laguna 10.6% Nueva Vizcaya 12.7% Quirino 15.9%
Income Gap (2006) NSCB Region Poverty Incidence Region Poverty Incidence NCR 21.6% VIII 30.9% I 25.2% IX 35.7% II 23.5% X 33.4% III 23.4% XI 30.0% IV-A 24.5% XII 28.1% IV-B 32.5% CAR 32.1% V 30.1% ARMM 29.3% VI 26.6% CARAGA 34.4% VII 29.5%
Gini Coefficient Philippine data: UNDP, 2004 as cited in Wikipedia Country Gini ratio Country Gini ratio Denmark 0.247 Hong Kong 0.434 Japan 0.249 Philippines 0.445 Italy 0.360 Mexico 0.461 India 0.368 Guatemala 0.551 U.S.A. 0.408 Namibia 0.743
Self-Rated Poverty Pulse-Asia June 2004 October 2004 March 2005 Philippines 70% 70% 70% Class ABC 37% 21% 35% Class D 68% 68% 69% Class E 84% 87% 82%