MLA…WHAT? <ul><li>Hopefully you all are a little familiar with MLA citation format, or some other form of citation, from writing research papers at some time in your educational history. </li></ul><ul><li>MLA stands for Modern Language Association, and it is the format we most often write in when we are writing in the disciplines that are part of the Humanities. </li></ul><ul><li>There are other citation formats as well like Chicago (sometimes used in History) or APA (American Psychological Association…used in the Social Sciences) </li></ul>
Why cite? <ul><li>MLA citation is really all about one thing…giving credit to the original author of a text or an idea. People’s intellectual property is legally theirs; it belongs to them. Therefore, it is our responsibility as writers to give credit for ideas that are not our own. </li></ul>
Plagiarism <ul><li>Also, there are consequences for using others’ ideas without proper citation…or plagiarizing. Plagiarizing can be many things from copying an essay from the internet, down to not fully paraphrasing a sentence from a source. Each level of plagiarism has different consequences, but all plagiarism can be avoided with proper citation. If you are interested in YC’s definition of plagiarism, check out our syllabus, or the Student Code of Conduct. The library also has a couple of videos on plagiarism and citation called “Diagnosis: Plagiarism” which we will watch later in the semester. </li></ul>
MLA Requirements <ul><li>When using MLA format, you need to be sure to cite in two places: </li></ul><ul><li>1. In-text using parenthetical citations. </li></ul><ul><li>2. At the end of your paper on a works cited page. </li></ul>
Parenthetical Citations <ul><li>In-text citations are like the key to a map while the works cited page is the map. You want your reader to be able to easily match the two up. That is why the first thing that appears in the citation on the works cited page is the thing goes in the parenthetical citation. More often than not that thing is the author’s last name. Sometimes it is the title of the book or article if the author is unknown. </li></ul><ul><li>You also want your reader to be able to find the specific information in the book that you cited, so we also include the page number in the parenthetical citation, only if it is available. </li></ul>
Works Cited page <ul><li>The Works Cited page is where the reader of your paper can find all the information he or she would need to go and find your source on the shelves in the library, or on the World Wide Web. Incidentally, works cited pages in articles you read are great places to find other articles and books on your subject. </li></ul>
Examples… <ul><li>Here are some examples of how to cite some different types of resources: databases, books, websites and interviews. </li></ul>
Books <ul><li>Information on citing all kinds of sources can be found in the LBE, ch. 40. </li></ul><ul><li>A works cited entry for a book looks like this: </li></ul><ul><li>Brown, Arthur. King Arthur’s Court . New York: </li></ul><ul><li>HarperCollins, 1997. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>To cite in text I would use: (Brown 960) </li></ul><ul><li>(Author’s last name page number) </li></ul>
Databases <ul><li>Databases are a little more complicated than books, but the in text citation is still the same. </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, Jane. “Homelessness and Its Effects on Young Children.” Journal of Education 12.3 (June 1997): 456- 654. Proquest . Web. 17 January 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>This is: The author’s last name, title of the article, original publication, volume, date, page range, database, form of delivery, date of access. </li></ul><ul><li>In text: (Smith 476). If there are no page numbers for a source, use n.p. for no page. (Smith n.p.) </li></ul>
Websites <ul><li>Websites aren’t so different from databases. Most of the information for citing a website can be found by scrolling down to the bottom of a page. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Clean Energy.” Union of Concerned Scientists. Union of Concerned Scientists, 5 Feb. 2010. Web. 11 Mar 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>I used this example from the LBE, because it doesn’t have an author or page numbers. So, when you cite it in text, default to the first word that appears in the end citation and the abbreviation n.p.: (Clean n.p.) </li></ul>
Personal Interviews <ul><li>Later in the semester you will be citing a personal interview. This is one of the easiest formats: </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Doe, John. Personal Interview. 15 October 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Simply use the person’s last and first name, the format you conducted the interview in (personal, telephone or email), and the date. To cite in text, use the last name and n.p.: (Doe n.p.) </li></ul>
Resources for Citation <ul><li>Feel free to use a citation generator, like www.citationmachine.net , to help you with citation. However, you always want to check to see that you’ve done it right. To do that, you can use a style guide (like the Little, Brown Handbook) or a website like the OWL at Purdue ( http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/11/ ). There are links to these sites on Blackboard under “Resources for Students.” </li></ul>
When do I cite? <ul><li>You need to cite anytime you use material from the text. If it isn’t your idea…cite it. </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrases must be cited and they also must completely change the wording and the sentence structure of the original material. Paraphrases are a sticky wicket and they are a place where many people get in trouble with plagiarism. </li></ul>
Other MLA stuff <ul><li>MLA formatting also has requirements for page numbers and headings. </li></ul><ul><li>MLA headings appear in the upper left hand corner of your paper and contain: Your name, your assignment and class, your teacher’s last name, and the date, each on a separate line. Your heading should be double spaced. </li></ul><ul><li>Page numbers go on the upper right hand side of the page and should have your last name along with the page number (Darrow 1, Darrow 2, etc.). </li></ul>
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