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Speech 104 chapter 9 the claim

Speech 104 chapter 9 the claim



Speech 104 by Daniel Rosales

Speech 104 by Daniel Rosales



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    Speech 104 chapter 9 the claim Speech 104 chapter 9 the claim Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 9: The Claim
    • What is the claim?
      A statement worded against the status quo that is the focus of an argument
      The main point, the thesis, the controlling idea
      “What is the advocate trying to prove?”
    • Seven Key Characteristics of a Claim
      Claims are phrased as statements, not questions
      Goal is to promote debate. Questions only promote discussion
      Claims should be phrased so that both sides have an equal opportunity to advocate, support, and defend their positions
      Should be unbiased, free from loaded, ambiguous, and high intensity language
      Properly phrased claims should be as specific as possible
      The best claims indicate Who, What, When, and Where
      Must be phrased against the status quo
      Want to stir up controversy
    • Key Characteristics (Cont’d)
      Should be phrased so that the burdens are clear to both sides
      Burden of Proof
      Burden of Presumption
      Burden of Rebuttal
      • Both sides debate the same claim
      • Debate whether the claim should be accepted or rejected
      • The wording of a claim never changes
      • An effective claim promotes a pro/con argumentative environment
      • Only two positions that can be argued either accepting (pro) or rejecting (con)
    • Burdens of an Argument
      Pro Side
      Burden of Proof
      The first side to present an argument
      Why the status quo is inadequate and should be changed
      Argues in favor of the claim
      Con Side
      Burden of Presumption
      The second side to present in an argument
      Why the current way of doing things is appropriate and should be maintained
      Argues against the claim
    • Types of Claims
      Three types of claims
      Claim of Fact
      Claim of Value
      Claim of Policy
    • Claims of Fact
      Asserts that something has existed, does exist or will exist
      The goal is that something that is currently not accepted as a fact should be or that something that is currently considered a fact should no longer be
      To argue against, get the audience to deny acceptance of the new fact or defend the status quo
      May be assertions about the past, present, or future
      Enforcement of drunk driving laws has led to fewer traffic deaths.
      Exercising will help you keep in shape
    • Claims of Value
      Something is good or bad, desireable or undesireable, better or worse
      The center of argument in a value claim is over the criteria used in making the judgement
      Good/bad compared to what? Better/worse compared to what?
      • Examples:
      The Lakers are the best team in the NBA.
      Basketball is the best sport in the world.
    • Claims of Policy
      Something should or should not be done by someone about something
      Key Words: “Should” or “Should not”
      All professional athletes should be randomly drug-tested
      The government should increase funding for stem cell research
    • Summary of the Types of Claims
      Claim of Fact: Something is, was, or will be
      Quantifiable statements that focus on accuracy, correctness or validity of such statements
      • Claim of Value: Something is good or bad, better or worse
      • Qualitative statements that focus on judgement
      Claim of Policy: Something should or should not be done
      Statements that focus on actions that should be taken to change the status quo
    • Good critical thinkers, those who desire constructive conflict resolution, do their best to phrase a claim effectively
      A properly worded Claim can become the basis for successful conflict resolution
      Good, effective, and potentially successful arguementation must begin with a mutually acceptable and correctly stated claim