Speech 104 chapter 9 the claim


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Speech 104 by Daniel Rosales

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Speech 104 chapter 9 the claim

  1. 1. Chapter 9: The Claim<br />
  2. 2. What is the claim?<br />A statement worded against the status quo that is the focus of an argument<br />The main point, the thesis, the controlling idea<br />“What is the advocate trying to prove?”<br />
  3. 3. Seven Key Characteristics of a Claim<br />Claims are phrased as statements, not questions<br />Goal is to promote debate. Questions only promote discussion<br />Claims should be phrased so that both sides have an equal opportunity to advocate, support, and defend their positions<br />Should be unbiased, free from loaded, ambiguous, and high intensity language<br />Properly phrased claims should be as specific as possible<br />The best claims indicate Who, What, When, and Where<br />Must be phrased against the status quo<br />Want to stir up controversy <br />
  4. 4. Key Characteristics (Cont’d)<br />Should be phrased so that the burdens are clear to both sides <br />Burden of Proof<br />Burden of Presumption<br />Burden of Rebuttal<br /><ul><li>Both sides debate the same claim
  5. 5. Debate whether the claim should be accepted or rejected
  6. 6. The wording of a claim never changes
  7. 7. An effective claim promotes a pro/con argumentative environment
  8. 8. Only two positions that can be argued either accepting (pro) or rejecting (con)</li></li></ul><li>Burdens of an Argument<br />Pro Side<br />Burden of Proof <br />The first side to present an argument<br />Why the status quo is inadequate and should be changed<br />Argues in favor of the claim<br />Con Side<br />Burden of Presumption<br />The second side to present in an argument<br />Why the current way of doing things is appropriate and should be maintained<br />Argues against the claim<br />
  9. 9. Types of Claims<br />Three types of claims<br />Claim of Fact<br />Claim of Value<br />Claim of Policy<br />
  10. 10. Claims of Fact<br />Asserts that something has existed, does exist or will exist<br />The goal is that something that is currently not accepted as a fact should be or that something that is currently considered a fact should no longer be<br />To argue against, get the audience to deny acceptance of the new fact or defend the status quo<br />May be assertions about the past, present, or future<br />Examples:<br />Enforcement of drunk driving laws has led to fewer traffic deaths.<br />Exercising will help you keep in shape<br />
  11. 11. Claims of Value<br />Something is good or bad, desireable or undesireable, better or worse<br />The center of argument in a value claim is over the criteria used in making the judgement<br />Good/bad compared to what? Better/worse compared to what?<br /><ul><li>Examples:</li></ul>The Lakers are the best team in the NBA.<br />Basketball is the best sport in the world.<br />
  12. 12. Claims of Policy<br />Something should or should not be done by someone about something<br />Key Words: “Should” or “Should not”<br />Examples:<br />All professional athletes should be randomly drug-tested<br />The government should increase funding for stem cell research<br />
  13. 13. Summary of the Types of Claims<br />Claim of Fact: Something is, was, or will be<br />Quantifiable statements that focus on accuracy, correctness or validity of such statements<br /><ul><li>Claim of Value: Something is good or bad, better or worse
  14. 14. Qualitative statements that focus on judgement</li></ul>Claim of Policy: Something should or should not be done<br />Statements that focus on actions that should be taken to change the status quo<br />
  15. 15. Good critical thinkers, those who desire constructive conflict resolution, do their best to phrase a claim effectively<br />A properly worded Claim can become the basis for successful conflict resolution<br />Good, effective, and potentially successful arguementation must begin with a mutually acceptable and correctly stated claim<br />Conclusion<br />