Speech 104 chapter 9 the claim
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Speech 104 chapter 9 the claim



Speech 104 by Daniel Rosales

Speech 104 by Daniel Rosales



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Speech 104 chapter 9 the claim Speech 104 chapter 9 the claim Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 9: The Claim
  • What is the claim?
    A statement worded against the status quo that is the focus of an argument
    The main point, the thesis, the controlling idea
    “What is the advocate trying to prove?”
  • Seven Key Characteristics of a Claim
    Claims are phrased as statements, not questions
    Goal is to promote debate. Questions only promote discussion
    Claims should be phrased so that both sides have an equal opportunity to advocate, support, and defend their positions
    Should be unbiased, free from loaded, ambiguous, and high intensity language
    Properly phrased claims should be as specific as possible
    The best claims indicate Who, What, When, and Where
    Must be phrased against the status quo
    Want to stir up controversy
  • Key Characteristics (Cont’d)
    Should be phrased so that the burdens are clear to both sides
    Burden of Proof
    Burden of Presumption
    Burden of Rebuttal
    • Both sides debate the same claim
    • Debate whether the claim should be accepted or rejected
    • The wording of a claim never changes
    • An effective claim promotes a pro/con argumentative environment
    • Only two positions that can be argued either accepting (pro) or rejecting (con)
  • Burdens of an Argument
    Pro Side
    Burden of Proof
    The first side to present an argument
    Why the status quo is inadequate and should be changed
    Argues in favor of the claim
    Con Side
    Burden of Presumption
    The second side to present in an argument
    Why the current way of doing things is appropriate and should be maintained
    Argues against the claim
  • Types of Claims
    Three types of claims
    Claim of Fact
    Claim of Value
    Claim of Policy
  • Claims of Fact
    Asserts that something has existed, does exist or will exist
    The goal is that something that is currently not accepted as a fact should be or that something that is currently considered a fact should no longer be
    To argue against, get the audience to deny acceptance of the new fact or defend the status quo
    May be assertions about the past, present, or future
    Enforcement of drunk driving laws has led to fewer traffic deaths.
    Exercising will help you keep in shape
  • Claims of Value
    Something is good or bad, desireable or undesireable, better or worse
    The center of argument in a value claim is over the criteria used in making the judgement
    Good/bad compared to what? Better/worse compared to what?
    • Examples:
    The Lakers are the best team in the NBA.
    Basketball is the best sport in the world.
  • Claims of Policy
    Something should or should not be done by someone about something
    Key Words: “Should” or “Should not”
    All professional athletes should be randomly drug-tested
    The government should increase funding for stem cell research
  • Summary of the Types of Claims
    Claim of Fact: Something is, was, or will be
    Quantifiable statements that focus on accuracy, correctness or validity of such statements
    • Claim of Value: Something is good or bad, better or worse
    • Qualitative statements that focus on judgement
    Claim of Policy: Something should or should not be done
    Statements that focus on actions that should be taken to change the status quo
  • Good critical thinkers, those who desire constructive conflict resolution, do their best to phrase a claim effectively
    A properly worded Claim can become the basis for successful conflict resolution
    Good, effective, and potentially successful arguementation must begin with a mutually acceptable and correctly stated claim