To What Extent Was Good Leadership An Important


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To What Extent Was Good Leadership An Important

  1. 1. To what extent was good leadership an important factor in successful rebellions?
  2. 2. Key questions <ul><li>Did a good leader increase the threat level of a rebellion? </li></ul><ul><li>Did it make the rebellion more likely to succeed? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Royal Claimants <ul><li>Ideally dynastic rebellions needed to be led by a prince of the blood or royal claimant </li></ul><ul><li>Simnel/Warbeck more threatening because Henry VII’s own claim was shaky </li></ul><ul><li>Northumberland LJG affair unlikely to ever succeed in toppling Mary the legitimate heir to Henry VIII </li></ul>
  4. 4. Nobility and Gentry <ul><li>Natural leaders in society so played key role in rebellions </li></ul><ul><li>Some put themselves at the Head of a rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Audley 1497 </li></ul><ul><li>Lumley/Latimer in 1536 </li></ul><ul><li>Dacre 1570 </li></ul><ul><li>Essex 1601 </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Other were more reluctant </li></ul><ul><li>Northumberland and Westmoreland 1570 </li></ul><ul><li>Nobility inspired authority and legitimacy and was essential for any serious revolt. </li></ul><ul><li>As period progressed less willing to lead rebellion and instead we see increased involvement from clergy and gentry </li></ul><ul><li>No nobles in Norfolk 1549 </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Thomas Wyatt 1554 had been sheriff </li></ul>Nobility and Gentry
  6. 6. Clergy <ul><li>Rarely led a revolt </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellion against a divinely anointed ruler was a sin as well as an act of treason. </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics though especially in areas where the catholic faith was deeply entrenched did appear willing to rebel. </li></ul><ul><li>1536 Abbots of Kirstead, Furness and Barlins supported the rebels </li></ul><ul><li>Vicars visited the rebels in Exeter in 1549 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Lawyers <ul><li>Since the main objective was to bring local grievances to the attention of the local authorities a man who knew the law was a sensible choice. </li></ul><ul><li>Several were prominent in rebellions including 1497 and 1536 </li></ul><ul><li>Most famous was Robert Aske 1536 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Commoners <ul><li>With the exception of the 1549 revolts few rebellions were led by commoners </li></ul><ul><li>1549 Kett was a tanner by trade </li></ul><ul><li>1549 Devon Tailor is believed to have started disturbances </li></ul><ul><li>1596 Oxford was organised by local servants and tradesmen –millers, masons, weavers and bakers and headed by a carpenter. </li></ul><ul><li>However 1525 Amicable Grant was also led by artisans, weavers and rural peasants. It owed its success to its size and sympathy it received from members of the King’s council. </li></ul>
  9. 9. What made a good Tudor rebel leader? <ul><li>Age – Simnel was too young and the earls 1569 were too old. </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimacy and Social Standing </li></ul><ul><li>Good organisational skills </li></ul><ul><li>Military exerpience – Arundell 1549 fought for Henry VIII in France Wyatt had been a military stategist for the King </li></ul><ul><li>Aske and Kett seen as outstanding rebel leaders because of their ability to unite disparate factions, command thousands of troops and keep the authorities on tenterhooks for a considerable period of time </li></ul>
  10. 10. Poorly organised rebellions <ul><li>1569 not enough time allowed to march from Durham to Tutbury to release MQOS. Did not have enough money to pay troops. </li></ul><ul><li>1487 Inviting 2000 German mercenaries and 40 wild Irish nobles and their army did little to gain them support. </li></ul><ul><li>1549 Western – tensions between the three groups within the rebel camp made them disorganised and fractious. </li></ul><ul><li>1596 Oxford- Not secretive enough and the cat got let out the bag! </li></ul><ul><li>1601 - Essex too advertised the fact he was going to have a rebellion even hiring a troupe of actors to perform Shakespeare’s Richard II ( a play about the usurpation of a monarch) on the eve of the rebellion </li></ul>
  11. 11. Well Organised Rebellions <ul><li>1536 – Aske massive army from across the region. So ho did he do it? </li></ul><ul><li>Recruits but into regional armies so people from the same area were together. </li></ul><ul><li>Captains met at least once a day with Aske. </li></ul><ul><li>Each recruit was given a badge, some food and some wages and took an oath. </li></ul><ul><li>1549 – Kett- ran the camp like a small model government. Each county represented by rebels elected 2 people to sit on a council. They issued proclamations and administered justice. Significantly despite seizing Norwich no one was killed until the royal force arrived. </li></ul>