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  • HERE IS A NOTE!-- \n\nthis material is from the research prepared for my 2009 dissertation research project for my doctoral degree at Texas A&M Corpus Christi\n
  • HERE IS A NOTE!-- \n\nthis material is from the research prepared for my 2009 dissertation research project for my doctoral degree at Texas A&M Corpus Christi\n
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11 11 Presentation Transcript

  • Ten Things Linda Cuellar, Ed.D. Mass Communication Northwest Vista College Developmental Education Summit June 24, 2011
  • Ten ThingsYou Always Wanted To Know About MediaUsage Among College Students Linda Cuellar, Ed.D.But Were Afraid To Ask Mass Communication Northwest Vista College Developmental Education Summit June 24, 2011
  • One
  • OneStudents’ Screen Time Keeps Increasing
  • OneStudents’ Screen Time Keeps Increasing53 HRS. /WK -- Today, 8-18 year-olds devote an average of 7 hours and 38minutes (7:38) to using entertainment media across a typical day (more than 53 hoursa week).
  • OneStudents’ Screen Time Keeps Increasing53 HRS. /WK -- Today, 8-18 year-olds devote an average of 7 hours and 38minutes (7:38) to using entertainment media across a typical day (more than 53 hoursa week).7 hrs. and 38 min. Daily-- And because they spend so much of that timemedia multitasking (using more than one medium at a time), they actually manage topack a total of 10 hours and 45 minutes (10:45) worth of media content into those 7hrs. 38 min. a day.
  • OneStudents’ Screen Time Keeps Increasing53 HRS. /WK -- Today, 8-18 year-olds devote an average of 7 hours and 38minutes (7:38) to using entertainment media across a typical day (more than 53 hoursa week).7 hrs. and 38 min. Daily-- And because they spend so much of that timemedia multitasking (using more than one medium at a time), they actually manage topack a total of 10 hours and 45 minutes (10:45) worth of media content into those 7hrs. 38 min. a day. +1 hr. and17 min. since 2004 --The amount of time spent with media increased by an hour and seventeen minutes a day over the past five years, from 6:21 in 2004 to 7:38 today. Source: The Kaiser Family Foundation (2010, January) Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8 -18 Year Olds, Menlo Park, CA: Author
  • TwoSource: Alloy Media + Marketings 9th annual College Explorer Survey, 2009
  • Two College students devote even more time using media than younger students (8-18 year olds).Source: Alloy Media + Marketings 9th annual College Explorer Survey, 2009
  • Two College students devote even more time using media than younger students (8-18 year olds). They spend an average of 12 hours daily engaged with some type of media (when all platforms were totaled).Source: Alloy Media + Marketings 9th annual College Explorer Survey, 2009
  • Two College students devote even more time using media than younger students (8-18 year olds). They spend an average of 12 hours daily engaged with some type of media (when all platforms were totaled). Nine and a half of those hours are spent with their "tech" gadgets, including computers, mobile devices, MP3 players, and gaming devices.Source: Alloy Media + Marketings 9th annual College Explorer Survey, 2009
  • Two College students devote even more time using media than younger students (8-18 year olds). They spend an average of 12 hours daily engaged with some type of media (when all platforms were totaled). Nine and a half of those hours are spent with their "tech" gadgets, including computers, mobile devices, MP3 players, and gaming devices.Source: Alloy Media + Marketings 9th annual College Explorer Survey, 2009
  • Two College students devote even more time using media than younger students (8-18 year olds). They spend an average of 12 hours daily engaged with some type of media (when all platforms were totaled). Nine and a half of those hours are spent with their "tech" gadgets, including computers, mobile devices, MP3 players, and gaming devices.Source: Alloy Media + Marketings 9th annual College Explorer Survey, 2009
  • College Student Daily Media Consumption Platform Average Daily Hours of Media Use Computer 5.0 Television 2.5 Cellular Device 2.4MP3 Player (music) 1.3Gaming Device 0.75
  • College Student Daily Media Consumption Platform Average Daily Hours of Media Use Computer 5.0 Television 2.5 Cellular Device 2.4MP3 Player (music) 1.3Gaming Device 0.75
  • College Student Daily Media Consumption Platform Average Daily Hours of Media Use Computer 5.0 Television 2.5 Cellular Device 2.4MP3 Player (music) 1.3Gaming Device 0.75
  • College Student Daily Media Consumption Platform Average Daily Hours of Media Use Computer 5.0 Television 2.5 Cellular Device 2.4MP3 Player (music) 1.3Gaming Device 0.75
  • College Student Daily Media Consumption Platform Average Daily Hours of Media Use Computer 5.0 Television 2.5 Cellular Device 2.4MP3 Player (music) 1.3Gaming Device 0.75
  • College Student Daily Media Consumption Platform Average Daily Hours of Media Use Computer 5.0 Television 2.5 Cellular Device 2.4MP3 Player (music) 1.3Gaming Device 0.75
  • College Student Daily Media Consumption Platform Average Daily Hours of Media Use Computer 5.0 Television 2.5 Cellular Device 2.4MP3 Player (music) 1.3Gaming Device 0.75
  • College Student Daily Media Consumption Platform Average Daily Hours of Media Use Computer 5.0 Television 2.5 Cellular Device 2.4MP3 Player (music) 1.3Gaming Device 0.75
  • College Student Daily Media Consumption Platform Average Daily Hours of Media Use Computer 5.0 Television 2.5 Cellular Device 2.4MP3 Player (music) 1.3Gaming Device 0.75
  • College Student Daily Media Consumption Platform Average Daily Hours of Media Use Computer 5.0 Television 2.5 Cellular Device 2.4MP3 Player (music) 1.3Gaming Device 0.75
  • College Student Daily Media Consumption Platform Average Daily Hours of Media Use Computer 5.0 Television 2.5 Cellular Device 2.4MP3 Player (music) 1.3Gaming Device 0.75
  • College Student Daily Media Consumption Platform Average Daily Hours of Media Use Computer 5.0 Television 2.5 Cellular Device 2.4MP3 Player (music) 1.3Gaming Device 0.75
  • College Student Daily Media Consumption Platform Average Daily Hours of Media Use Computer 5.0 Television 2.5 Cellular Device 2.4MP3 Player (music) 1.3Gaming Device 0.75
  • Three
  • Three The myth of multi-tasking is seductive.
  • Three The myth of multi-tasking is seductive. College students have “drunk the Kool-Aid” according to MIT psychology professor Shirley Turkle. They have accepted as truth the myth that multi-tasking increases our effectiveness. Recent brain research on multi-tasking shows that it harms effectiveness (PBS Frontline, “Digital Nation,” 2009). Read more: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/digitalnation/interviews/ turkle.html#4#ixzz1PZjV8tKD
  • “The best example of this over the past Id say fiveyears or so ... has been the cultural infatuation withmultitasking.And finally the experiments are coming in -- thecareful, controlled experiments about how whenyou multitask, theres a degradation of allfunction.” (Turkle, 2009)
  • “Did we need to really go through 10 years ofdrinking the Kool-Aid on the educational wondersof multitasking and the forgetting abouteverything we knew about what it takes to reallyaccomplish something hard?” (Turkle, 2009)
  • “Did we need to really go through 10 years ofdrinking the Kool-Aid on the educational wondersof multitasking and the forgetting abouteverything we knew about what it takes to reallyaccomplish something hard?” (Turkle, 2009)Something hard like learning and academicachievement.
  • Four
  • Four We are losing our ability to Ignore Irrelevance
  • Four We are losing our ability to Ignore Irrelevance According to Clifford Nass, professor at Stanford University and the founder of Communication between Humans and Interactive Media Lab. “ It turns out multitaskers are terrible at every aspect of multitasking. Theyre terrible at ignoring irrelevant information; Theyre terrible at keeping information in their head nicely and neatly organized; and theyre terrible at switching from one task to another.”Read more: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/digitalnation/interviews/nass.html#ixzz1PdpzXY5o
  • “And in fact, were starting to see some higher-level effects [ofmultitasking].For example, recent work weve done suggests were worse atanalytic reasoning, which of course is extremely valuable forschool, for life, etc.So were very troubled about, on the one hand, the growth, and onthe other hand, the essential incompetence or failure”. (CliffordNass, 2009)
  • In conclusion, from Clifford Nass, professor at StanfordUniversity and the founder of Communication betweenHumans and Interactive Media Lab:“One would think that if people were bad at multitasking,they would stop. However, when we talk with themultitaskers, they seem to think theyre great at it andseem totally unfazed and totally able to do more andmore and more.We worry about it, because as people become more andmore multitaskers, as more and more people -- not justyoung kids, which were seeing a great deal of, but evenin the workplace, people being forced to multitask, weworry that it may be creating people who are unable tothink well and clearly.”
  • Five
  • Five The Screen-Time culture of our college students is POWERFUL. (lol!) Most college students are deeply committed members of Screen-Time culture. When 371 college students media patterns were examined, Screen-Time culture overrode the influences of ETHNICITY and ACADEMIC differences among the students.
  • Latino Non Latino Ethnic 205 166 Regular DevelopmentalAcademic 229 142
  • Here’s what we studied: Types of media used Amounts of time devoted to media use Most importantly, students from the four groups were asked to identify their purposes for media use: for academic and entertainment (purposes of media use) Data were compared among four groups of students.
  • What the data disclosed:Media use is more similar than than it isdifferent among the four groups of studentsthat were examined.
  • TYPE and LENGTH of media use: College students’ media usage is similar for types used (cell phone, texting, TV, Internet, etc.) and lengths of time used by the students each day.ACADEMIC PLACEMENT: (Enrollment in Regular vs. Developmental courses) had no significant impact on media use patterns.ETHNIC IDENTIFICATION: No significant impact was found for ethnicity on college students’ media use patterns.
  • Seven
  • Seven College students in all four groups surveyed reported using media for
  • Seven College students in all four groups surveyed reported using media for purposes of entertainment and
  • Seven College students in all four groups surveyed reported using media for purposes of entertainment and purposes of education for similar amounts of time.
  • An educated guess...Which group of the four groups examined usesentertainment media the most? Regular Latino Developmental Latino Regular Non-Latino Developmental Non-Latino
  • Entertainment EntertainmentMedia Use MeanMedia Use Mean Score Score Non-Latino Regular 0.717Non-Latino Regular 0.717 Non-Latino 0.749Non-Latino Developmental 0.749Developmental Latino Regular 0.725Latino Regular 0.725 Latino Developmental 0.735Latino Developmental 0.735 0.8 0.750 0.7 0.740 0.7 Value Title 0.730 Value Title 0.7 0.720 0.7 0.710 Non-Latino Regular Non-Latino Regular Non-Latino Developmental Non-Latino Developmental 0.700 Latino Regular Latino Regular Category Title Latino Developmental Latino Developmental
  • An educated guess...Which group of the four groups examined useseducation media the most? Regular Latino Developmental Latino Regular Non-Latino Developmental Non-Latino
  • Educational Media Use Mean ScoreNon-Latino Regular 0.216Non-Latino 0.250DevelopmentalLatino Regular 0.225Latino Developmental 0.232 0.250 0.240 0.230 0.220 0.210 Non-Latino Regular 0.200 Non-Latino Developmental Latino Regular Latino Developmental
  • Proportion of Total Educational Media Use to Proportion of Entertainment Media Use Educational Entertainment Non-Latino Regular 0.216 0.717 Non-Latino 0.250 0.749 Developmental Latino Regular 0.225 0.725 Latino 0.232 0.735 Developmental 0.8 0.7 Chart illustrates the study groups’ proportions of education 0.6 and entertainment media use. 0.5 0.4 0.3Non-Latino Regular 0.2 Non-Latino Developmental 0.1Educational Entertainment Latino Regular 0 Latino Developmental
  • Ten Media Types Examined
  • Ten Media Types Examined Music Cell voice Video, computer, or Internet (social media Internet Games sites and email Internet (surfing, Cell phone texting shopping, other) TV live not Recorded video (downloads, DVD’, recording etc. Non Digital Print (books, magazines) Multi-tasking
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Ranking of Ten Media Categories by Total Amount of Time Used by Combined Four Study Groups1 Total Music2 Total Cell Texting3 Total Multi-tasking4 Total Music Entertertainment5 Total Cell Texting Entertainment6 Total TV7 Total Internet Social Media8 Total Multi-tasking Entertainment9 Total Cell Voice10 Total Print Media
  • Eight
  • Eight For many, reading for fun may is going the way of the horse and buggy. Mean scores for students in all four study groups were negative for print media use for entertainment purposes. Print media use for entertainment purposes is infrequent among students in all four study groups that educators need to be both aware and
  • Nine
  • NineEducators can help students use their mediatime more effectively with more awareness aboutmedia. Use Media Literacy activities Have students read out loud when opportunity is right Use Critical Thinking activities What Else Would Work In Your Courses?
  • Build Awareness of Media’s impact and influencewith experiential activities and hands-on projects. “Off-the-Grid” for 24, 48 or 100 hoursCounter the Mass Media’s Consumer Bias Class reading assignments that explore life and history before the ubiquity of mass media and its advertising driven foundations.Hands-on demonstrations and presentations ontechnology evolution, media and its impacts onsociety.Others that will work in your courses?
  • Ten
  • Ten Educators’ Best Friend Today is Media Literacy Myth: “Digital Natives vs. Digital Immigrants” both limiting and misleading. We are all immigrants to technology changes. The technology playing field is changing too rapidly for anyone to qualify as a “native” any longer. We’re all new to this. Students, too!
  • Start where you are.Do a self assessment of your media use patterns.Monitor your use of media, keep a journal.Complete a day or two “off the grid” (modified toallow for work and study) and journal about yourfindings.Explore mass media documentaries on PBS’Frontline series.Explore sites on media literacy, multi-tasking anddistraction, Marshall McLuhan, George Gerbner,Neil Postman, Clay Shirky, Shirley Turkle.
  • Thank You
  • Thank YouWe’re in this journey of education together.Contact me at lcuellar@alamo.edu