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Epidemiology

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  • 1. *Definition of epidemiology * The study of the distribution and determinants of health related states or events in human populations and the application of this study to the prevention and control of health problem.
  • 2. *Definition of HIV * HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS. Usually this virus is passed from one person to another through blood-to-blood or sexual contact. * People with HIV have what is called HIV infection. Without appropriate therapy, most of these people will develop AIDS as a result of their HIV infection.
  • 3. *Where did HIV come from? * Scientists identified a type of chimpanzee in West Africa as the source of HIV infection in humans. * They believe that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus that called simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV is most likely was transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their infected blood. * Studies show that HIV may have jumped from apes to humans as far back as the late 1800s. Over decades, the virus slowly spread across Africa and later into other parts of the world. We know that the virus has existed in the United States since at least the mid- to late 1970s.
  • 4. *How is HIV passed from one person to another? The mode transmission of HIV : * Having unprotected sex with someone who has HIV. * Anal sex is the highest-risk sexual behavior. * Vaginal sex is the second highest-risk sexual behavior. * Having multiple sex partners or having other sexually transmitted infections can increase the risk of infection through sex. * Sharing needles, syringes, rinse water, or other equipment used to prepare injection drugs with someone who has HIV.
  • 5. * Being born to an infected mother. * Being stuck with an HIV-contaminated needle or other sharp object. This is a risk mainly for health care workers. * Receiving blood transfusions, blood products, or organ/tissue transplants that are contaminated with HIV. * Eating food that has been pre-chewed by an HIV-infected person. * Being bitten by a person with HIV. * Oral sex. * Contact between broken skin, wounds, or mucous membranes and HIV-infected blood or blood-contaminated body fluids.
  • 6. *
  • 7. In 2005 , an individual which infected with HIV are more than 95% are low and middle income countries. About 1500 are children under 15 years old and about 10 000 are in adult aged and almost 50% are among women and 40% among young people .  Malaysia is classified as having a ‘concentrated’ HIV epidemic, in that HIV prevalence is less than 1% in the general population but consistently more than 5% in most at-risk populations, particularly people who inject drugs, female sex workers and mak nyah (transgender women). Unsafe drug injecting practices constituted more than 70% percent of the overall HIV infections reported since 1986
  • 8. * * People who become infected with HIV may not have any symptoms for up to 10 years, but they can still pass the infection to others. After you come in contact with the virus, it can take up to 3 months for a blood test to show that you have HIV. * Symptoms related to HIV are usually due to a different infection in the body. Some symptoms related to HIV infection include: * Diarrhea * Fatigue * Fever * Frequent vaginal yeast infections * Headache * Mouth sores, including yeast infection (thrush) * Muscle stiffness or aching * Rashes of different types, including seborrhea dermatitis and psoriasis * Sore throat * Swollen lymph glands
  • 9. *
  • 10. * Safer Sex Both women and men may need instruction in the correct use of condoms and avoid multiple partner sex. * Injection Precautions for example , no sharing needles . * Preventing Transmission to Uninfected Partners for example do a HIV screening test before married.
  • 11. * Vaccination * HIV education programs for school children by using various models. * Prevention among People of Color African Americans and Hispanics of both sexes have disproportionately higher rates of HIV/AIDS in the United States. which due to their imbalance health that linked to their socioeconomic condition is one of the factor why do among them have high risk of HIV infection.