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  1. 1. Punctuation
  2. 2. ContentsWhy Punctuate DashFull Stop (a.k.a. Period) HyphenQuestion Mark Quotation MarkExclamation MarkCapital LettersCommaSemi-ColonColonApostrophe
  3. 3. Why Punctuate?To be understood
  4. 4. Read the following passage, withoutpunctuation.i would like to apply for a job with your companyfor two years i have been employed as a salesclerk for the jones store i sold nothing that i didnot take pride in i am sure it will be the same if Iwork for you
  5. 5. Now, look at how much easier it is to readwith punctuation:I would like to apply for a job with yourcompany. For two years I have been employedas a sales clerk for the Jones store. I soldnothing that I did not take pride in. I am sure itwill be the same if I work for you.
  6. 6. Now, look at what happens when wechange the position of the punctuationmarks. It actually changes the meaning ofthe passage.I would like to apply for a job with your companyfor two years. I have been employed. As a salesclerk for the Jones store I sold nothing. That, Idid not take pride in. I am sure it will be thesame if I work for you.
  7. 7. Full Stop (.)Why do we use a full stop?To end a sentence when it’s a statementExample: The dog sat outside the door. Hismaster had not fed him for a week.To indicate an abbreviationExample: N.S.W, e.g., Prof.Note: There’s a trend to phase out full stops with abbreviations.
  8. 8. Question Mark (?)Why do we use a question mark?To end a sentence when it asks aquestionExamples:Why is it so cold?Where is your warm coat?
  9. 9. Exclamation Mark(!)Why do we use an exclamation mark?This mark shows strength of emotion. It is oftenused in direct speech and informal notes,messages and letters. It is less common informal writing.Examples:Hi! Sorry I havent written for so long!!!Great work! Congratulations!"Leave me alone!" she screamed
  10. 10. Capital LettersCapital letters are used:At the start of a new sentence. Example: The catsat on the mat. His owner sat nearby.For the letter "i" when you are referring toyourself. Example: He can run faster than I can.For peoples names. Examples: Jim Smith, BillJones
  11. 11. Capital Letters (2)Capital letters are also used:For titles. Examples: Dr Jones, Mr BrownFor book/film/company titles (main words only).Examples: The Catcher in the Rye, The Wizardof Oz, Briggs and SonsIn direct speech, for the first spoken word.Example: She said, "My name is Mary."
  12. 12. Capital Letters (3)Capital letters are also used:For acronyms.Examples: TAFE, CIAFor titles of days, months.Examples: Monday, July
  13. 13. Commas (,)Why do we use a comma?This marks a natural pause during a sentence. Itis only a short pause, and should not beconfused with the longer full stop pause.Sometimes commas are essential to make themeaning of a sentence clear to the reader.Note: Dont use too many commas, as they can makeyour writing jerky and disjointed. If in doubt,leave out!
  14. 14. Commas (2)When do we use a commas?In a list. Example: We bought apples, bananas,pears and grapes. (Note: no comma before"and" in a list of single items)To separate adjectives (describing words)unless the words "go together". Examples: Shehad long, thick, wavy hair. (But: She had verydark brown hair.)
  15. 15. Commas (3)When do we also use a commas?To prevent the reader from connecting wordsthat do not properly belong together.Example: While I cooked the baby playednearby. (While I cooked, the baby playednearby.)To separate an introductory expression oftime from the rest of the sentence.Example: Three months later, it was all
  16. 16. Commas (4)When do we also use a commas?To separate parts of a long sentence whichcontains "but" or "and".Example: The manager has given the instruction,and the staff must obey it.To enclose anything which interrupts the flow ofthe sentence.Example: I hope, of course, that theyll come.
  17. 17. Commas (5)When do we also use a commas?To enclose the name of a person or theirposition/job, if both are mentioned.Example: The coach, Bob Jones, was given anaward.To separate direct speech from the rest of theSentence.Example: "Go away," she said.
  18. 18. Colon (:)The colon can be used to:Introduce a list of thingsexample: Yesterday I had an enormous meal:onion soup, a dozen oysters, a pile of potatoesand apple pie and ice cream.Introduce something which is written inquotation marksExample: Remember the old proverb:"More haste, less speed."
  19. 19. Colon (:)The colon can also be used to:Make two statements in the same sentence saysomething of equal value (one may be anexplanation of the other).example: Mary is a regular world traveller: everyyear she visits many countries.
  20. 20. Semi-Colon (;)Why do we use a semi-colon?A semi-colon can be used instead of a full stopwhen the two parts of the sentence are tooclosely related in meaning to be put intoseparate sentences.Examples: We did not go into the theatre beforeour friends arrived; instead, we waited outside.I dont know who my grandfather was; I am moreconcerned to find out who his grandson will be.
  21. 21. Semi-Colon (;)Why do we use a semi-colon?Semi-colons can also be used between items ona list, when the items consist of a number ofwords, or when the use of commas alone wouldbe confusing.Example: The committee consisted of CarolJones, the staff representative; Bill Johnson, theboss; Terry Smith, the local doctor; Murray Todd,the fisherman; and Mary Renshaw, the cook.
  22. 22. Apostrophy (’)The apostrophy can be used to:Show that letters have been left out. These arecalled contractions.example: cant for cannot, didnt for did not, itsfor it is or it has
  23. 23. Apostrophy (’) 2The apostrophe is also used to show possession(or ownership) in the following ways:If the thing/person that owns something issingular, add s Examples: The girls books (thebooks belonging to the girl)If the thing/person that owns something is pluraland already ends with an "s", simply add anapostrophe. Examples:The girls books (thebooks belonging to the girls)
  24. 24. Apostrophy (’) 3The apostrophy can also be used:If the thing/person that owns something isplural but does not end in an "s", add s.Examples: The womens club (the clubbelonging to the women)
  25. 25. Dash (--)Used to strongly emphasize a point or set off anexplanatory comment. Don’t overuse it.To some of you, my proposals may seem radical-- even revolutionary.
  26. 26. Hyphen (-)Use a hyphen to join two or more words servingas a single adjective before a noun:Example: a one-way streetchocolate-covered peanutsUse a hyphen with numbers. Example: forty-six,sixty-three, a fifteen-year-old boyUse a hyphen with certain prefixes. Example: exhusband, self-assured, mid-September, allinclusive.
  27. 27. Quotation mark (‘’)To enclose direct quotations and dialogue.Example: “You must arrive on time,” theprofessor said.To denote titles and nicknames.Example: Her favourite book is “Brick Lane”.Note:Punctuation goes inside thequotation marks if it is part of the quote.Example: “Give me my dignity!” the prisoner pleaded.But: Have you seen “Pulp Fiction”?