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    Citation Citation Presentation Transcript

    • Citation
    • CitationThere are two ways in which you canrefer to, or cite, another person’s work.• Direct quotation• Reporting (through summary or paraphrase)
    • Direct Quotation
    • Direct QuotationYou may want to quote the exact wordsof another author in your work. Forexample:A further way of showing that a school is fullyinclusive as suggested by Davies is when ‘schools willmonitor the progress of boys and girls and wherethere is an attainment gap will put in interventionstrategies to improve performance’. (Davies, 2006: 155)
    • Direct QuotationRules for quoting• Keep the quotation as brief as possible• Quote only when necessary (Guideline: no more than 3 short quotes per page)• Emphasis should be on working with other people’s ideas, not reproducing their words• Your work should be a synthesis of information from sources, expressed in your own words, not a collection of quotes
    • Direct QuotationReasons for using quotations:• The language used in the quotation says what you want to say particularly well• You need to support your points by • Quoting evidence • Giving examples/illustrating • Adding weight of authority
    • Direct QuotationReasons for not using quotations:• The information is well-known in your subject area• The quote disagrees with your argument (unless you can prove it is wrong)• You cannot understand the meaning of the original source• Your are not able to summarize the original• In order to make you point for you• If the quote repeats the point you have just made
    • Direct Quotation Three items of information are needed to acknowledge a quote within your assignment• Author or author’s surname(s)• Year of publication• Page number from which the quote was taken Note: the position of this information can vary
    • Direct QuotationExamples: Brassington and Pettitt (2006:312) state that: ‘The danger is, of course, that by trying to avoid challenging anyone linguistically, imagination is lost and the Eurobrand becomes the Eurobland.’ According to Brassington and Pettitt (2006), ‘The danger is, of course, that by trying to avoid challenging anyone linguistically, imagination is lost and the Eurobrand becomes the Eurobland’ (p.213).
    • Direct QuotationAccording to Brassington and Pettitt,‘The danger is,of course, that by trying to avoid challenging anyonelinguistically, imagination is lost and the Eurobrandbecomes the Eurobland’ (2006: 213).‘The danger is, of course, that by trying to avoidchallenging anyone linguistically, imagination is lostand the Eurobrand becomes the Eurobland’(Brassington and Pettitt, 2006:213).
    • Direct QuotationIn all cases, on your reference list at the endof the essay you should write:ReferencesBrassington,F. and Pettitt, S. (2006) Principles ofMarketing (4th edn). Harlow: Pearson Education.
    • Direct QuotationWhen the authors are not in bracketsexpressions such as ‘according to’ or ‘X an Ystate that …’ are used to introduce thequotation.Quotation marks (either ‘…’ or “…” are usearound the quoted text.According to Brassington and Pettitt,‘The danger is, of course,that by trying to avoid challenging anyone linguistically,imagination is lost and the Eurobrand becomes the Eurobland’(2006: 213).
    • Direct QuotationSome useful expressions to introducequotesAs X states/stated, ‘…’.As X commented/comments, ‘…’.This example is given by X: ‘…’.According to X, ‘…’.The opinion of X is that, ‘…’.X found that, ‘…’.
    • Omitting Words• You can omit words that are not relevant to your writing.• Use three dots (…) to indicate where you have left something out.• Make sure you don’t change the meaning of the sentence.• Make sure the sentence remains grammatically correct.
    • Omitting WordsExample:‘The danger is … that by trying to avoid challenginganyone linguistically, imagination is lost and theEurobrand becomes Eurobland’ (Brassington andPettitt, 2006:312)
    • Inserting Words• You can insert words to clarify meaning.• Use square brackets […] around the inserted text. Example ‘This [academic writing] is then further developed in their undergraduate study’ (Martala, 2006:40).
    • Quoted Text within a QuoteWhen the material quoted alreadycontains a quotation, use doublequotation marks for the originalquotation (“…”).Cai (2008:7) stated ‘different persuasion theoriesoperate well in certain contexts and are thencombined in an “integrative framework”’.Note: You may choose to adopt the convention ofusing double quotation marks for quotations andthen use single quotation marks for the originalquotation.
    • Long Quotations• If a quotation is long - more than three lines - it should be indented as a separate paragraph• No quotation marks
    • Long QuotationsExample: According to Keenan and Riches (2007:114): The Enterprise Act of 2002 is designed to promote enterprise by minimizing the effects of business failure. In this connection the Act differentiates between ‘culpable’ bankrupts who set out who set out to run a business in a way that would mislead the public and other businesses and the ‘non-culpable’ bankrupts who for reasons beyond his or her control has suffered business failure
    • Long QuotationsExample: According to Keenan and Riches (2007:114): The Enterprise Act of 2002 is designed to promote enterprise by minimizing the effects of business failure. In this connection the Act differentiates between ‘culpable’ bankrupts who set out who set out to run a business in a way that would mislead the public and other businesses and the ‘non-culpable’ bankrupts who for reasons beyond his or her control has suffered business failure
    • Long QuotationsOn the reference list at the end of the essayyou should state the full details as in theexample below:ReferencesKeenan, D. and Riches, S. (2007) Business Law (8thedn). Harlow: Pearson Education
    • Multi-authored Works• If several authors have written a book or journal cite the main author and use et al.• Usually more than two or three authors listed are treated in this way
    • Reporting
    • Reporting• Reporting is putting the other writer’s ideas in your own words• The best method to use is the summary• The are two ways of showing that you have used another writer’s ideas • Integral (author as part of sentence) • non-integral (author in brackets)
    • ReportingIntegral (author as part of a sentence) According to Davies (2006) it is essential that pupils learn how to evaluate their strengths an weaknesses. The importance of pupils learning how to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses was stressed by Davies (2006).
    • ReportingNon-integral (author in brackets) Evidence from classroom learning (Davies, 2006) suggests that it is essential for pupils to learn how to evaluate their own strengths and weaknesses. It is important that pupils learn how to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses (Davies, 2006).
    • ReportingAt the end of the essay, the reference listwill state:Davies, S. (2006) The Essential Guide toTeaching. Harlow: Pearson Education.