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Final lori's stem cell slides



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  • Stem cells are unique cells in the body that are unspecialized but have the ability to :1) Develop and divide into several types of cells as long as the person or animal is alive2) They can replicate many times, for long periods of time (proliferation)3) Be used for specific organs or develop into tissue and act as a repair system-technique used for replacing or repairing diseasedand dying cells with healthier ones4) When stem cell divides-produces daughter cell- can choose to stay stem cell or become another type of specialized cell such as blood cell, brain cell, muscle cell Stem cells are found throughout the body and come from several different sources :1) Embryonic stem cellsa. most versatileb. can become all cell typesc. grown fairly easily in culture dish2)Umbilical stem cells a. also called cord cells- offers perfect match for families that have planned ahead-extracted during pregnancy and stored for future use3) Adult stem cellsa. thought to be limited into becoming only same tissue or organ cellb. extracted from bone marrow where they are plentiful or from peripheral systemc. peripheral cells more challenging to isolate and process takes more time but no damage to bonesd. bone marrow rich source of cells but painful destruction of bone marrow when cells extracted from ite. not yet able to be grown in laboratory setting f. concern with body’s rejection of cells with use in transplants if cells not from own body
  • Different stem cell types:A. Totipotent Stem Cells- cells that develop only during conception=maleand female gamete fuse=fertilization=zygote=become any type of cell and limitless replicative abilityB. Pluripotent Stem Cells- zygote matures( becomes blastocyst that reaches womb in 5 days) =now these stem cells can develop into almost any kind of cell ( e.g. embryonic and fetal stem cells) a. iPS cells- genetically altered adult stem cells prompted to take on characteristics of embryonic cells- they behave like and express some of the same genes but are not exact duplicatesC. Multipotent Stem Cells- can only develop into a limited number of cell types (e.g. bone marrow cells can produce any type of blood cells but cannot produce heart cells) D. Oligopotent Stem Cells- can only develop into just a few cell types (e.g. lymphoid cells can only become blood cells of the lymphatic system) E. Unipotent Stem Cells- have unlimited reproductive capabilities, but can only develop into a single cell or tissue (e.g. skin cells-derived from multipotent cells and formed in adult tissue)
  • 1961 and 1963 James E. Till and Earnest A. McCulloch Canadian researchers establish foundation and are first todocument self renewing activities with transplanted mouse bone marrow1998 James Thomas-University of Wisconsin scientist isolates embryonic stem cells and shows their potential to rejuvenate and specialize into tissues and grows them in the laboratory—cells are derived from a process that destroys human embryos but are used from spare embryos from fertility clinics-establishes world’s first human embryonic stem cell line which still exists today2003 Federal Government Research Project to “map” the sequence of the total number of genes each of us has within our 23 pairs human chromosomes is completed ahead of schedule and provides understanding to connection between certain genes and disease2000-2007 Many new guidelines are established and released and then reestablished and released again in this time frame alsomany states ramp up funding for stem cell research: California passes Proposition 71-California state allows 3 billion to be spent over 10 years to fund human embryonic researchNew Jersey spends 150 million to fund stem cell research center2005 Connecticut earmarks 100 million over 10 years for stem cell research Illinois governor circumvents state legislature to dedicate 10 million to stem cell research Robert Streiffer- bioethicist at University of Wisconsin investigates and reports his findings- only 16 of 21 Lines of stem cells were ethically derived and eligible for federal funding2011 Earnest McCulloch who was part of a team that first proved the existence of stem cells dies at age 84 of unknown causes just days before 50th anniversary of the discovery
  • 93rd Congress bans all federally funded fetal tissue research until National Commission for Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research (which was established by National Research Act and is within the Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare) devises a guideline for it---they are to define policy of protection regarding human beings during medical and scientific experimentsEthics Advisory Board is established from NCPHS guidelines for fetal and fetal tissue research that are used from abortions1980 President Reagan decides not to renew EAB’s charter-they had recommended federal funding for the investigation into the safety of in vitro fertilization using human embryos that are developed in vitro but not older than 14 days, but due to the disbanding of the EAB there is a moratorium that halts federal funding1988 Dept. of Health & Human Services extends ban of federal funds for research
  • 1990 President George W. Bush vetoes bill lifting moratorium on federal funding for stem cell research despite congress attempting to override it with this piece of legislation1993 President Clinton’s Executive Order lifts moratorium on no federal funding for stem cell research1994 President Clinton reverses his Executive Order---The NIH (National Institute of Health) research panel supports the research but thousands of letters pour in to urge President Clinton to reverse his decision which he agrees to and funding once again is stopped1995 Wicker-Dickey Amendment (Roger Wicker R-MI and Jay Dickey R-AZ sponsors of it) Congress bans federal funding for research on embryos by prohibiting use of federal funds for “the creation of human embryos or embryos” for research purposes in which embryo’s are: -destroyed, discarded or knowingly subjected to risk of injury or death greater than that allowed for research on fetuses in utero
  • President Bush prohibits federal funding of any research using stem cell lines created after August 9, 2001 believing he “struck the balance between the needs of science and the demands of conscience”……2005Congress passes bill but Pres. Bush vetoes it on grounds it supports taking innocent human life for medical benefit of others that crosses the moral boundary of our decent society……..2007 President Bush specifically wants alternative research on pluripotent cells and renames Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry2009 President Obama Reverses George Bush’s 2001 Executive Order2010 Geron Corporation announced enrollment of 1st patient in clinical trial2010 Advanced Stem Technology Company receives federal approval from U.S. FDA for multi-center clinical trial testing human embryonic stem cell treatment on patients with Stargardt’s Macular Dystrophy which causes blindness2011 Geron stops human embryonic stem cell research trial for spinal cord testing citing ”capital scarcity” in November —4 patients were being treated instead of the 10 they had hoped for ACT is only one left in U.S. working on genetic eye blindnesstreatments using stem cells at this time
  • 1978 Louise Joy Brown July 25, 1978 (Britain) 1981 Elizabeth Carr born in Norfolk, VA (United States) 1984 Born in 1971, an American patient known only as “David” or “the bubbleboy” died after a 12 long year battle with a severe combined deficiency syndrome (SCID). An unsuccessful bone marrow transplant that the doctors had hope would save him created further complications. Despite screening his sister for healthy bone marrow, it was discovered that it contained the Epstein-Barr virus. As a result, it is discovered for the first time that a virus can now cause cancer. David actually died from Burkitt’s lymphoma. He was able to spend his last 15 days outside the bubble. Little known fact was how the confinement and loneliness actually caused great psychological turmoil for him but was kept from the media so instead they wrote of a much different experience about him as did the made- for TV movie. 1996 Dolly the sheep is achieved by scientists in Edinburgh, Scotland and lives for 6 years but died of progressive lung disease 1999 Jesse Gelsinger at 18 is first identified person to die in a clinical trial while undergoing a gene therapy experiment at University of Pennsylvania. He was treated for a genetic disease of the liver which is normally fatal at birth but he instead had a genetic mutation which made it not as severe and was managing with a restricted diet and medication. They injected him with a vector but died 4 days later of massive immune response by the vector leading to multiple organ failure and brain death which resulted in an ethical and legal lawsuit in which he should have been excluded from the trial for not being a suitable candidate, withholding reports of 2 other patients experiencing serious side effects and failure to disclose information on the death of monkeys in experiments with similar treatment.


  • 1. 1961 : Till and McCulloch 1998 - Dr. 1963 – First documentation establish the James Thomas of self-renewing stem cellsfoundation for Isolates Human stem cell Embryonic Stem research Cells 2003 Human Genome Project Completed 2008 - Robert2000 – 2007 States Streiffer-provides 2011 Stem Cellstart to compete in shocking report pioneer dies at age stem cell research 84 race/Guidelines Released
  • 2. STEM CELL LEGISLATIVE CYCLE OF EVENTS 1970’S – 1980’S 1974 – Congress bans all federally funded fetal tissue research1988 - Federal Panel Approves Federal 1975 – Ethic Advisory Funding/DHHS Board established extends ban 1980 - President Reagan kills Ethics Advisory Board
  • 3. STEM CELL LEGISLATIVE CYCLE OF EVENTS 1990’S 1990 - President Bush vetoes legislative bill to lift ban on federal funds1995 - Wicker- Dickey 1993 - President Clinton’s Amendment Executive Order 1994 – President Clinton Reverses Executive Order
  • 4. 2009 - President Obama Reverses George Bush’s 2001 Executive Order 2010 - Geron 2007 President Bush’s Corporation Executive Order for announces enrollment Alternative Sources of 1st patient in clinical trial STEM CELL LEGISLATIVE CYCLE OF EVENTS 2000’S 2005 - Stem Cell Research PLUS CORPORATE 2010 - Advanced Stem TechnologyEnhancement ActPasses /Vetoed by EVENTS Company receives federal approval from President Bush FDA 2001 - President Bush Prohibits Federal 2011 - Geron stops Funding of Human human embryonic Embryonic Stem Cell stem cell research trial Research
  • 5. 1978 - First test tube baby born in Great Britain 1981 - First Test Tube Baby born in America 1984 - Bubble Boy Dies at age 12 1999 - Jesse 1996 - First Successful Gelsinger Dies Cloning of a Mammal