Is the model of ‘listener as tape recorder’ an accurate depiction of the listening process?
PHONEMIC UNIT WORDS PHRASES UTTERANCES Complete TEXT /ər / /ju/ / ˈ h ʌ ŋ.gri/ /Are/ /you/ /hungry/ YOU HUNGRY ARE YOU / HUNGRY ARE YOU HUNGRY? Is meaning ONLY ENCODED in the text? Is the process EFFICIENT?
Cognitive Perspective - how aural input is processed
Perception / Parsing / Utilisation (p 8)
Top-down and Bottom-up Processing
Why is an understanding of cognitive processes important?
for understanding learners' listening difficulties - identify which phase of cognitive processing - comprehension can break down.
help us trace the source of learner’s problems and why they occur
guide our learners - strategies for coping with or overcoming some of their listening difficulties
Christine Goh (2000), A cognitive perspective on language learners’ listening comprehension problems, System 28, p 57)
What factors could cause difficulties in listening? Download a copy of Handout 1 from Lesson 3 in our course website. Read through the list of listening problems described by the students. Discuss in your groups and fill in column 2 and 3.
LEARNER DIFFICULTIES lN LISTENING 1.I have trouble catching the actual sounds. 2. I have to understand every word; if I miss something, I feel I am failing and get worried and stressed. 3. I can understand people if they talk slowly and clearly; I can't understand fast, natural native-sounding speech. 4. I need to hear things more than once in order to understand. 5. I find it difficult to 'keep up'with all the information I am getting, and cannot think ahead or predict. 6. lf the listening goes on a long time I get tired, and find it more and more difficult to concentrate. @ Cambridge University Press 1996
AWARENESS of difficulties - to think about how their cognitive processes could be affected and WHEN comprehension could potentially break down - develop greater responsibility for own learning and in long-run greater independence and autonomy
Help them SEE that difficulties encountered CAN BE solved or dealt with in a systematic way - develop their self-confidence, problem-solving behaviour and right attitude towards learning difficulties and problem-solving - stop blaming difficulties on task
increased metacognitive awareness about their learning processes - take a more active part in overcoming some of their listening difficulties, rather than accept all their problems as unavoidable and insurmountable ( avoid LEARNED HELPLESSNESS )
How to raise learners’ awareness about learning to listen?
set aside lesson time for discussion and reports about listening problems and useful strategies
encourage students to `think aloud' soon after they have completed a listening task
provide opportunities for individual reaction through listening diaries
extend the scope of pre-listening and post-listening tasks to include metacognitive tasks.
Christine Goh (2000), A cognitive perspective on language learners' listening comprehension problems ( pp 73)
Knowledge about Language ( eg what word means or whether it is noun or adjective) is important BUT knowing HOW TO USE this knowledge of language ( eg quickly access meaning of word) to develop INTERPRETATIONS is MORE important.
Listening is an active, purposeful process of making sense of what we hear. It requires appropriate listening and viewing attitudes and behaviour and applying appropriate strategies and skills to process meaning from texts.