WHO? Social roles / Relationships WHY?  Kind of Talk? Conversation/ story/ Comments/  information WHAT? Content/Topics/ Ac...
Speaking as Skill <ul><li>Linguistic Knowledge: </li></ul><ul><li>-  Genre  - transactional / interpersonal function - dif...
Linguistic Knowledge <ul><li>Pragmatic knowledge : communicative purpose of speech acts eg request, asking permission, sug...
Linguistic Knowledge <ul><li>Register  - sensitivity to context esp relationships eg status difference between people or f...
Linguistic Knowledge <ul><li>VOCABULARY - discourse markers, words and expression expressing STANCE eg really, actually, m...
Linguistic Knowledge <ul><li>PHONOLOGY - pronunication , intonation, pace, pitch, stress  </li></ul><ul><li>SPEECH CONDITI...
Speaking as Skill <ul><li>Extralinguistic Knowledge  </li></ul><ul><li>-topic / context knowledge ,  </li></ul><ul><li>con...
Features of Spoken Language <ul><li>takes place in real time and space </li></ul><ul><li>usually involves face-to-face com...
<ul><li>Speakers give shape and structure when they talk: </li></ul><ul><li>explicitly signpost things  for the listener u...
<ul><li>Speaking takes place in real time and place </li></ul><ul><li>mostly unplanned because it usually happens with lit...
<ul><li>Communicating face to face </li></ul><ul><li>a  collaborative and interactive process - an exchange  - finish each...
Conventions of Spoken language <ul><li>Heads  - occur at the beginning of clauses. Heads help orientate listeners by estab...
<ul><li>Ellipsis  - subjects and/or verbs are omitted, because the speaker assumes the listener knows what is meant. Eg So...
<ul><li>Modal expressions  - Help to soften what is said and to communicate more indirectly. Eg I don’t know, I think, per...
Speaking and Listening Integrated <ul><li>In  whole-class work , shared reading and writing provide opportunities: </li></...
Questions teachers should ask: <ul><li>when is speaking and listening the focus of an activity ? eg contributing to group ...
Questions teachers should ask: <ul><li>how do different student undertake different tasks and  when do they need to collab...
Metacognitive Talk or Talk about Talk <ul><li>During the teaching of speaking and listening, remember to: </li></ul><ul><l...
Metacognitive Talk or Talk about Talk <ul><li>introduce and teach  appropriate terminology for discussing speaking and lis...
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Teaching speaking

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Teaching speaking

  1. 1. WHO? Social roles / Relationships WHY? Kind of Talk? Conversation/ story/ Comments/ information WHAT? Content/Topics/ Activity/Subject SOCIAL CONTEXT OF TALK Language of discourse Register Of discourse Interactional Routines Paralinguistic resources Vocabulary Conventions Interpersonal Transactional Phonology Grammar
  2. 2. Speaking as Skill <ul><li>Linguistic Knowledge: </li></ul><ul><li>- Genre - transactional / interpersonal function - diff types of speech event - interactional / non-interactional - planned / unplanned - Structured differently </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse knowledge -organise / connect - coherence eg turn-taking structures of interactive talk ( eg well, oh, and, so, right, or use of synonyms eg cook / make) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Linguistic Knowledge <ul><li>Pragmatic knowledge : communicative purpose of speech acts eg request, asking permission, suggestion </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing how to do things with language taking into account contexts of use - knowing how to perform and interpret speech acts </li></ul><ul><li>Politeness - avoid threats to face - use of politeness markers eg please or modal verbs to soften requests or commands </li></ul>
  4. 4. Linguistic Knowledge <ul><li>Register - sensitivity to context esp relationships eg status difference between people or familiarity </li></ul><ul><li>FIELD - what is being talked about / topic eg lecture on nutrition, conversation about food </li></ul><ul><li>TENOR - WHO - relationship b/w interactants </li></ul><ul><li>MODE - HOW - CHANNEL of communication eg face-to-face, real-time, pre-recorded </li></ul><ul><li>Influences - formality, use of jargon/specialised language, colloquial language </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing what language CHOICES appropriate </li></ul>
  5. 5. Linguistic Knowledge <ul><li>VOCABULARY - discourse markers, words and expression expressing STANCE eg really, actually, maybe, APPRAISAL eg nice, good , DEITIC lang - points to place, time and participants eg now, this , it, that, me, you </li></ul><ul><li>CHUNKS : lexical phrases, formulaic language </li></ul><ul><li>collocations - eg rich and famous, densely populated </li></ul><ul><li>Phrasal verbs - eg get up, log on </li></ul><ul><li>Idioms, catchphrases and sayings eg part and parcel, speak of the devil </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence frames - fixed components of sentences eg would you like..? </li></ul><ul><li>Social formulas - eg see you later, have a nice day </li></ul><ul><li>Dicourse markers eg if you ask me, I take your point, to cut a long story short </li></ul>
  6. 6. Linguistic Knowledge <ul><li>PHONOLOGY - pronunication , intonation, pace, pitch, stress </li></ul><ul><li>SPEECH CONDITION eg cognitive factors - familiarity with topic, with genre, with interlocutors and processing demands eg complex mental processing like giving complicated instructions, more difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Affective factors - feelings towards participants / topic , self-consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Performance factors eg face-to-face easier - can monitor responses, use gestures, eye-contact etc, degree of collaboration - on your own or with peers, planning and rehearsal time, time pressure </li></ul>
  7. 7. Speaking as Skill <ul><li>Extralinguistic Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>-topic / context knowledge , </li></ul><ul><li>context knowledge eg people involved and </li></ul><ul><li>sociocultural knowledge ( social norms and values) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Features of Spoken Language <ul><li>takes place in real time and space </li></ul><ul><li>usually involves face-to-face communication </li></ul><ul><li>involves speakers and listeners adjusting to context – for example, who, when, where. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Speakers give shape and structure when they talk: </li></ul><ul><li>explicitly signpost things for the listener using words such as ‘now’ and ‘so’ to indicate a change of topic. </li></ul><ul><li>What is said can be meaningful even if it’s half-finished or seems incomplete . </li></ul><ul><li>Speakers often avoid over-elaborating and rely on mutual understanding of the context . </li></ul><ul><li>• Single words or phrases such as ‘anyway’, ‘alright’ or ‘really’ can be highly meaningful. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Speaking takes place in real time and place </li></ul><ul><li>mostly unplanned because it usually happens with little opportunity for advance planning or editing. </li></ul><ul><li>Because they are unplanned, spoken exchanges tend to be open and fluid . </li></ul><ul><li>Speakers can change direction and topic, return to things they’d forgotten, insert anecdotes and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>Spoken language is varied in style . Speakers can adapt and switch from one level of formality to another as the situation demands. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Communicating face to face </li></ul><ul><li>a collaborative and interactive process - an exchange - finish each other’s comments, interrupt, disagree with or extend what is said. </li></ul><ul><li>Speakers get and give feedback as they talk and listen using comments like ‘Exactly’, ‘Right’, ‘Good’, ‘Oh I see’ and simple vocalisations such as ‘Mmmm’, ‘Uh’, ‘Oh’. </li></ul><ul><li>use more than words : pitch and tone of voice, volume, silence, eye contact, gestures and body movements all convey meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Listeners give non-verbal feedback such as nodding the head. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Conventions of Spoken language <ul><li>Heads - occur at the beginning of clauses. Heads help orientate listeners by establishing a topic. Eg The white house on the corner , is that where she lives? </li></ul><ul><li>Tails - occur at the end of clauses, usually reinforcing an antecedent pronoun. Eg She’s a very good swimmer, Jenny is . </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Ellipsis - subjects and/or verbs are omitted, because the speaker assumes the listener knows what is meant. Eg Sounds good to me. (It/that). </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse markers - words or phrases denote moving from one topic or stage of a conversation to another. They act as ‘spoken punctuation’. Eg Anyway , give Jean a ring and see what she says. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Modal expressions - Help to soften what is said and to communicate more indirectly. Eg I don’t know, I think, perhaps, possibly and probably. </li></ul><ul><li>Chains of clauses - Speakers often do not have time to construct patterns of main and sub clauses. Clauses are therefore often added incrementally to each other . Eg I was driving along talking to Jill and we like stopped at some traffic lights and then – bang – there was this terrible crash and we got pushed forwards. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Speaking and Listening Integrated <ul><li>In whole-class work , shared reading and writing provide opportunities: </li></ul><ul><li>for discussion when working in detail on texts, looking at meaning and considering the use of literary techniques to achieve particular effects. </li></ul><ul><li>In group and paired work encourage participation and sharing ideas </li></ul><ul><li>During independent work have opportunities to share ideas, helping them to reflect on and refine their learning and to extend their thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Plenaries can involve oral evaluation and consolidation of what has been learned </li></ul>
  16. 16. Questions teachers should ask: <ul><li>when is speaking and listening the focus of an activity ? eg contributing to group discussion, asking questions at an interview, listening actively to a speaker? </li></ul><ul><li>when is speaking and listening the outcome ? eg taking on a specific role during discussion, a prepared talk or report, a performance, or a reading? </li></ul><ul><li>where does discussion and group work result in action ? eg agreement on a course of action, the solving of a problem or the production of a leaflet? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Questions teachers should ask: <ul><li>how do different student undertake different tasks and when do they need to collaborate and negotiate to achieve an overall aim? </li></ul><ul><li>where and when do children have the opportunity to rehearse, practise and apply newly acquired speaking and listening skills? </li></ul><ul><li>how and where do children reflect on their use of talk and its impact on their learning? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Metacognitive Talk or Talk about Talk <ul><li>During the teaching of speaking and listening, remember to: </li></ul><ul><li>give linguistic prompts to support their talk, especially in more formal presentations; </li></ul><ul><li>discuss and MODEL how to go about a task , for example the language useful to take turns, summarise or conduct an interview; </li></ul><ul><li>extend vocabulary through activities which focus on words, alternative choices and different ways of saying the ‘same’ thing in English </li></ul>
  19. 19. Metacognitive Talk or Talk about Talk <ul><li>introduce and teach appropriate terminology for discussing speaking and listening , for example, audience, context, pace, discuss, emphasis, expression, formal, gesture, informal, stress, negotiate, open and closed questions, standard and non-standard English, turn-taking, intonation </li></ul><ul><li>teach and use language to reflect on spoken language activities, for example reflecting on working in role and performance in drama activities. </li></ul>
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