Ancient Civilisations: Indus and Shang


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Ancient Civilisations: Indus and Shang

  1. 1. Ancient Civilisations China, India and Southeast Asia
  2. 2. What is a Civilisation? <ul><li>LIVE TOGETHER in cities </li></ul><ul><li>Have same CULTURE - same beliefs, traditions, same langauge etc </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced development - advanced scientific and artistic knowledge </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is the CRADLE of CIVILISATION? <ul><li>Where earliest civilisation began </li></ul><ul><li>3800BC - 3 earliest civilisations - Nile Valley Civilisation (Egypt), Mesopotamia Civilisation (near Iran and Iraq) and Indus Valley Civilisation (India) </li></ul>
  4. 4. What CONDITIONS led to RISE of Civilisations <ul><li>A place suitable for farming - fertile soil </li></ul><ul><li>A place with plenty of sunshine, water supply (such as rivers and seas) </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES: Shang Civilisation near Yellow River and Indus Valley Civilisation near Indus River </li></ul>
  5. 5. Features COMMON TO ALL CIVILISATIONS <ul><li>A System of GOVERNMENT </li></ul><ul><li>DIFFERENT OCCUPATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>WRITING SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>RELIGIOUS BELIEFS </li></ul><ul><li>ARTISTIC and SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENTS </li></ul>
  6. 6. SYSTEM OF GOVERMENTS <ul><li>HOW ARE THE PEOPLE RULED? </li></ul><ul><li>KINGDOM - ruled by king - divided land into small areas ruled by chiefs - controlled by KING </li></ul><ul><li>EMPIRE = MUCH LARGER AREA - RULED BY EMPEROR - defeated rival kings and COMBINED KINGDOMS into ONE LARGE EMPIRE </li></ul>
  7. 7. INDUS and SHANG GOVT <ul><li>Indus cities good/efficient govt - looked after welfare of people </li></ul><ul><li>EVIDENCE - well-planned city </li></ul><ul><li>Good drainage system -network of drains/wells city clean environment </li></ul><ul><li>Good defence - citadel with mud-brick walls - people can hide there when attacked </li></ul><ul><li>Good system of roads linked different parts of city - Streets straight and narrow </li></ul><ul><li>Government probably controlled the important buildings such as the Great Bath and the Granary. This tells us that the ruler was probably a Priest King - in charge of all religious activities </li></ul>
  8. 11. INDUS and SHANG GOVT <ul><li>Shang capital Angyang - ruled by kings from same family line - known as SHANG DYNASTY - also efficient govt </li></ul><ul><li>EVIDENCE - well-planned city - King divided KINGDOM into villages and smaller cities </li></ul><ul><li>Good facilities - palaces, temples, storage houses for food </li></ul><ul><li>Good defence - capital city surrounded by thick rammed earth walls - protect against enemy attacks and floods </li></ul><ul><li>Well-built housing - The upper class or richer people such as the rulers, warriors and priests lived in houses on raised foundations while the poorer people like the farmers lived in sunken mud houses with low walls and thatched roofs </li></ul>
  9. 13. INDUS and SHANG OCCUPATIONS <ul><li>Indus people mainly FARMERS - grew crops such as barley and wheat, kept domesticated animals like bullock - help them in their work </li></ul><ul><li>CRAFTSMEN -skilled in making tools, utensils (pottery) and jewellery from bronze, copper, gold and clay (terracotta) </li></ul><ul><li>PRIESTS - conducted religious ceremonies - at places like Great Bath and also conducted animal sacrifices - shown on the pictographs on SEALS </li></ul><ul><li>SKILLED ENGINEERS and ARCHITECTS - planned and build the city, system of wells and drains and baths in the city, straight roads and even the bricks of the same size </li></ul><ul><li>TRADERS - traded with places like Mesopotamia - used SEALS to stamp goods (INDUS SEALS found in Mesopotamia - so this shows the Indus traders travelled to this place to sell their goods) and used weights to weigh the goods </li></ul>
  10. 16. Indus traders travelled to Bahrain and Mesopotamia to trade by boat along the river Indus
  11. 18. INDUS and SHANG OCCUPATIONS <ul><li>SHANG people mainly FARMERS - grew crops such as rice and wheat </li></ul><ul><li>CRAFTSMEN -skilled in making BRONZE vessels for wine and food- to offer food and sacrifice to the gods or to the dead (ancestors) - made beautiful silk and jade ornaments for the kings and government officials. </li></ul><ul><li>PRIESTS - conducted religious ceremonies - used ORACLE BONES to predict the future or “communicate” with their gods and ancestors </li></ul>
  12. 20. INDUS and SHANG WRITING <ul><li>BOTH SHANG AND INDUS CIVILSATIONS - very advanced - had system of writing </li></ul><ul><li>INDUS WRITING - a kind of SYMBOL - found on SEALS </li></ul><ul><li>SHANG WRITING - PICTOGRAPHIC writing = earliest form of Chinese writing . EVIDENCE - found on ORACLE BONES and even inscribed on BRONZE objects. </li></ul>
  13. 22. INDUS and SHANG RELIGION <ul><li>INDUS people worshipped POWERFUL animals - elephants , leopards, rhinoceros and MYTHOLOGICA L ( NOT REAL) animals - UNICORN . </li></ul><ul><li>Religious rituals - offer SACRIFICES of animals to the gods and goddesses . </li></ul><ul><li>PRIESTS conducted these rituals. </li></ul><ul><li>also believed in the CLEANSING power of water - priests conducted rituals at the GREAT BATH to get rid of evil spirits. </li></ul>
  14. 26. INDUS and SHANG RELIGION <ul><li>SHANG PEOPLE believed in the worship of their dead ANCESTORS - offer food and wine in religious rituals using the BRONZE vessels . </li></ul><ul><li>PRACTICED animal and human SACRIFICE as seen in the animal remains found buried with the chariots (horse) - shows that the person who was buried was probably a WEALTHY and POWERFUL person in the city. </li></ul><ul><li>Shang priests PREDICTED the FUTURE using ORACLE bones - bones of animals or tortoise shells -burnt in fire and priests can READ the cracks as message from the dead or the gods </li></ul>
  15. 30. Besides the strikingly beautiful funerary objects , the excavation also yielded large numbers of human bones . These were the bones of sacrificial victims who had either allowed themselves to be buried alive or were killed outright at the time of the king's burial . Those who apparently died voluntarily included soldiers, ceremonial attendants and the king's servants , but most frightful was the discovery of the bones of at least fifty-nine people who had been decapitated like cattle on the southern ramp of the tomb as part of the burial ceremonies. After the central structure had been buried, the ramps leading to it were gradually filled in with layers of earth and groups of decapitated victims were buried in each layer ; the heads of all the victims were collected and finally buried in the uppermost layer. The victims were separated according to age, with youths between fifteen and twenty years of age in the lower layers and adults in the middle and upper layers . It is possible that these people were prisoners of war captured by the Shang king on a campaign against the Ch'iang nomad tribe of the northwest, who were the traditional enemies of the Shang. In all, at least 164 sacrifical victims were found in various parts of the tomb , an indication of the awesome grandeur of a Shang king's funeral.
  16. 31. What Caused DECLINE of Indus Civilisation? <ul><li>1500 BC - declined rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Mohenjo-daro and Harappa abandoned </li></ul><ul><li>Theory 1: floods caused decline - evidence: rebuilding of walls and houses - shows that flood was a constant threat- destroyed irrigation systems used for farming - destroyed crops </li></ul><ul><li>Theory 2- floods caused breeding of mosquitoes - outbreak of malaria </li></ul><ul><li>Theory 3: invasion by Aryans - people from western part of Asia </li></ul>
  17. 32. What Caused DECLINE of Indus Civilisation? <ul><li>Theory 4- great climate change - drought - the warming trend continued until there wasn't enough water even in the Indus river valley to support these cities and the farmers who fed them. Some people probably starved to death, while others moved up into the hills, where it was cooler and some rain fell. </li></ul>
  18. 33. Skeletons in lane between Houses XVIII and XXXIII', VS area, Mohenjodaro, Archaeological 
Survey of India, 1925-'26,
  19. 34. What Caused DECLINE of Shang Civilisation? <ul><li>Last Shang king killed in 1150 BC - he was a cruel ruler </li></ul><ul><li>Shang dynasty fell and new invaders started a new dynasty- Zhou Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>CAUSE OF DECLINE? - INVASION by RIVAL KING!!! </li></ul><ul><li>After that Zhou Dynasty fell - period of WARRING STATES - China broken into many kingdoms - fight for control and power </li></ul><ul><li>221BC - a prince defeated other kingdoms -united kingdoms and formed first Chinese EMPIRE - called himself First Emperor and started QIN dynasty </li></ul>