Asperger syndrome


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Asperger syndrome

  1. 1. By <br />Lydia <br />Clevenger<br />Asperger Syndrome<br />
  2. 2. A qualitative impairment in social interaction:<br />Failure to develop friendships appropriate to the child’s developmental level<br />Impaired use of non-verbal behavior<br />Lack of social and emotional reciprocity and empathy<br />Impaired ability to identify social cues and conventions<br />A qualitative impairment in subtle communication skills<br />Fluent speech but difficulties with conversation skills<br />Tendency to be pedantic (overly concerned with details), have an unusual prosody (stress & intonation in speech), make literal interpretation<br />Restrictive interests<br />Development of special interests that is unusual in intensity and focus<br />Preference for routine and consistency<br /><br />AspergerSyndrome: History and Characteristics<br />-Hans Asperger first described Asperger’s Syndrome in 1944.<br />-AspergerSyndrome was added to the fourth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) in 1994. <br />
  3. 3. Asperger Syndrome: DSM-IV Description<br />Qualitative impairment in social interaction<br />Marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors<br />Eye-to-eye gaze<br />Facial expression<br />Body posture<br />Gestures to regulate social interaction<br />Failure to develop peer relationship appropriate to developmental level<br />Lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interest or achievements with other people<br />Lack of social or emotional reciprocity<br /><br />
  4. 4. Asperger Syndrome: DSM-IV Description<br />Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities, as manifested by at least one of the following:<br />Encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus<br />Apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals<br />Stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g. hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-body movements)<br />Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects<br /><br />
  5. 5. Asperger Syndrome: DSM-IV Description<br />The disturbances causes clinically significant impairments in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning<br />There is no clinically significant delay in language (single words used by age 2, phrases by age 3)<br /><br />
  6. 6. Asperger Syndrome: DSM-IV Description<br />There is no clinically significant delay in cognitive development or in the development of age-appropriate self help skills, adaptive behavior and curiosity about the environment in childhood<br />Criteria are not met for another specific Pervasive Developmental Disorder or Schizophrenia<br /><br />
  7. 7. AspergerSyndrome<br />Asperger Syndrome (AS) is classified with other Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD).<br />PDD characterized by abnormalities:<br />in socialization skills<br />in use of language for communication<br />in behavior<br />Groupings under PDD vary in severity of deficits<br />AS is characterized by higher cognitive abilities and is the mildest and highest functioning PDD group<br />(Nielsen, 2009)<br />
  8. 8. Asperger Syndrome: a form of autism?<br />Research does not make it clear if AS is a milder form of autism or only linked to it based on similarities. <br />Impairments between autism and AS are similar, but the degree and ability of the child differ.<br />AS compared to Autism: <br />Higher verbal IQ than performance<br />More normal language ability<br />Onset later than autism<br />Less severe deficits in communication and social skills<br />(Nielsen, 2009)<br />
  9. 9. Communication Skills<br />Environment<br />Allow longer time for student to process a question<br />Avoid rephrasing or interrupting<br />Avoid correcting speech <br />Model correct format instead<br />Be concise, concrete, and specific<br />Avoid vague terms<br />(Nielsen, 2009)<br />Establish a well-structured environment<br />Provide advance notice if there will be changes to seating arrangements, the routine, or if there will be a substitute. <br />Seating chart utilized<br />Class schedule posted<br />Give an individual copy to the student<br />Classroom rules posted<br />Avoid generalities<br />Adjust accordingly to meet the needs of the student with AS.<br />(Nielsen, 2009)<br />Strategies for Educators<br />
  10. 10. Socialization<br />Assignments<br />Select a buddy<br />Discuss with the buddy the social needs of the student with AS<br />Peer buddy able to promote acceptance of the student and encourage other friendships<br />Use student with AS as a teacher’s aide<br />Use cooperative learning situations to highlight strengths<br />Way to foster respect among peers <br />(Nielsen, 2009)<br />Present visually & orally<br />Use gestures, modeling, and demonstrate the concept<br />Provide copies of teacher’s notes/record the lecture<br />Allows for reviewing of the material as needed<br />Permit use of headphones/earplugs<br />Eliminates distracting background noise<br />Provide alternatives<br />Extra credit<br />Laptops (with handwriting difficulties)<br />Tape recorder (instead of written examination)<br />(Nielsen, 2009)<br />Strategies for Educators<br />
  11. 11. My nephew Wesley……making excellent progress in dealing with Asperger Syndrome!<br />People with Asperger Syndrome are often viewed as eccentric, odd, or just a little different.<br />Early diagnosis and effective treatment enable children to deal well with disabilities . <br />Support and encouragement from family and friends are still essential to live well. <br />
  12. 12. References<br />Nielsen, L. (2009). Asperger Syndrome. Brief reference of student disabilities…With Strategies for the Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.<br />Shelley, S. (2010). Diagnostic Criteria for 299.80 Asperger’s Disorder. <br /> Retrieved from<br />Attwood, T. (2005). What is Asperger Syndrome?. <br />Retrieved from<br />