Chapter 7 improving your reading speed and comprehension


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  • Thanks several millions.
    Many new ideas regarding speed reading for me to adjust the practical aspects.
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Chapter 7 improving your reading speed and comprehension

  1. 1. HOW TO STUDY IN COLLEGE Chapter 7 – Improving your reading speed and comprehension
  2. 2. Eye Movements during reading <ul><li>The average reader: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eyes jerk across print – not smooth motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 fixations per second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average of 1.1 words per fixation (10 usable letters) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Limitation of the mind <ul><li>MIT research suggests the mind can only process one word at a time . . . “even the skilled reader has considerable difficulty forming a perception of more than one word at a time.” </li></ul><ul><li>Common impression is seeing multiple words in one fixation – like still frames in a movie. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>words might be projected on the brain at 7-8 words a second, but the brain processes one at a time. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Speed Reading and Remembering <ul><li>If you could take in several thousand WPM, you couldn’t comprehend the meaning of all words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The brain wouldn’t have time to consolidate (retain) the info before taking in the next batch of info </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Vocalization while reading <ul><li>Vocalizing most likely slows reading speeds </li></ul><ul><li>Four types of vocalizers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whisper each word aloud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pronounce each word with lip movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move vocal cords only - video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think the sound of the word </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thinking used to be to avoid all vocalization, but current research suggests some type of vocalization is a necessary part of all reading. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Vocalization while reading <ul><li>Research shows that while people can read silently, the impulses for speech are still sent forth through nerves . . . These impulses are prevented only on the muscular level. </li></ul><ul><li>As the rate of reading increases, generally the level of impulse/muscular speech activity decreases . . . Until the going gets difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to knock out some form of vocalization seem to knock out comprehension as well </li></ul>
  7. 7. Increasing your reading speed <ul><li>Book – don’t eliminate vocalization or use artificial eye-fixation schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Do what you have been doing but do more of it and try to do it more quickly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Method doesn’t always work for textbook reading (often requires reading and rereading slowly to get the full meaning) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Increasing your reading speed <ul><li>5 things to keep in mind while practicing faster reading: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish a base – before reading, consider title, content – know the nature of the book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be flexible – match reading speed to material being read – slow down for central themes (names, places, circumstances) and speed up when you can – you don’t need to read at a constant rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow ideas, not words – use words to visualize ideas </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Increasing your reading speed <ul><ul><li>Ignore eye fixations – forget what your eyes are doing – this can break reading rhythm and concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoy the concluding paragraph – slow down for the last paragraph – here the author usually connects facts/events/ideas from throughout the reading </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Eight ways to improve reading <ul><li>1. The intonation way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing speech patterns (using silent vocalization) for what you read in your mind so you can “hear” them more readily as you read them silently. Reading with expression – brings stressing, emphasis, and pauses back into your reading, along with the meaning they convey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. The vocabulary way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build a strong, precise vocabulary – learn words as concepts . . . When you see the word in print, your knowledge of the word “flashes before you.” </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Eight ways to improve reading <ul><li>3. The background way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read lots, read often: it’s good practice, and you start accumulating concepts, ideas, events, names, etc. that lend meaning to later reading. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The most crucial prerequisite for learning is your already established background knowledge.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not limited to reading – books, movies, listening </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Edward Gibbon’s way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized, intense use of your general background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to recall what you know about the subject before reading; good recall promotes concentration </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Eight ways to improve reading <ul><li>5. The paragraph way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stop at the end of each paragraph to summarize and condense it into a single sentence (for textbook reading) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on topic, concluding and supporting sentences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Topic sentence provides direction, focus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting sentences develop the idea from topic sentence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concluding sentences sums up; restates; emphasizes; closes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paragraphs also serve similar functions – some introduce, some support, and some conclude; all three types should alert you </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Eight ways to improve reading <ul><li>6. Page-at-a-time way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop at the bottom of the page and ask yourself what was covered on this page before moving on . . . Makes you think while you read </li></ul></ul><ul><li>7. Daniel Webster’s way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before reading, check out the TOC, read the preface or introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lists of: questions he expected answered in book, knowledge expected to gain from book, where knowledge would take him </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Eight ways to improve reading <ul><li>8. The skimming way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some consider it the “workhorse” of reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can cover many speeds and uses – anything from rapid reading to searching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needle in a haystack (rec. specific info – name, date, word) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Looking for clues (Paul Bunyan birthplace example) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Getting the gist (helpful for research assignments) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overviewing a textbook chapter (for understanding captions, headlines, subheadings to locate key info) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skimming to review (for previously read texts) </li></ul></ul></ul>