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Chapter 7   improving your reading speed and comprehension
 

Chapter 7 improving your reading speed and comprehension

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    Chapter 7   improving your reading speed and comprehension Chapter 7 improving your reading speed and comprehension Presentation Transcript

    • HOW TO STUDY IN COLLEGE Chapter 7 – Improving your reading speed and comprehension
    • Eye Movements during reading
      • The average reader:
        • Eyes jerk across print – not smooth motion
        • 4 fixations per second
        • Average of 1.1 words per fixation (10 usable letters)
    • Limitation of the mind
      • MIT research suggests the mind can only process one word at a time . . . “even the skilled reader has considerable difficulty forming a perception of more than one word at a time.”
      • Common impression is seeing multiple words in one fixation – like still frames in a movie.
        • words might be projected on the brain at 7-8 words a second, but the brain processes one at a time.
    • Speed Reading and Remembering
      • If you could take in several thousand WPM, you couldn’t comprehend the meaning of all words
        • The brain wouldn’t have time to consolidate (retain) the info before taking in the next batch of info
    • Vocalization while reading
      • Vocalizing most likely slows reading speeds
      • Four types of vocalizers:
        • Whisper each word aloud
        • Pronounce each word with lip movements
        • Move vocal cords only - video
        • Think the sound of the word
      • Thinking used to be to avoid all vocalization, but current research suggests some type of vocalization is a necessary part of all reading.
    • Vocalization while reading
      • Research shows that while people can read silently, the impulses for speech are still sent forth through nerves . . . These impulses are prevented only on the muscular level.
      • As the rate of reading increases, generally the level of impulse/muscular speech activity decreases . . . Until the going gets difficult
      • Attempts to knock out some form of vocalization seem to knock out comprehension as well
    • Increasing your reading speed
      • Book – don’t eliminate vocalization or use artificial eye-fixation schemes
      • Do what you have been doing but do more of it and try to do it more quickly
        • Method doesn’t always work for textbook reading (often requires reading and rereading slowly to get the full meaning)
    • Increasing your reading speed
      • 5 things to keep in mind while practicing faster reading:
        • Establish a base – before reading, consider title, content – know the nature of the book
        • Be flexible – match reading speed to material being read – slow down for central themes (names, places, circumstances) and speed up when you can – you don’t need to read at a constant rate
        • Follow ideas, not words – use words to visualize ideas
    • Increasing your reading speed
        • Ignore eye fixations – forget what your eyes are doing – this can break reading rhythm and concentration
        • Enjoy the concluding paragraph – slow down for the last paragraph – here the author usually connects facts/events/ideas from throughout the reading
    • Eight ways to improve reading
      • 1. The intonation way
        • Establishing speech patterns (using silent vocalization) for what you read in your mind so you can “hear” them more readily as you read them silently. Reading with expression – brings stressing, emphasis, and pauses back into your reading, along with the meaning they convey
      • 2. The vocabulary way
        • Build a strong, precise vocabulary – learn words as concepts . . . When you see the word in print, your knowledge of the word “flashes before you.”
    • Eight ways to improve reading
      • 3. The background way
        • Read lots, read often: it’s good practice, and you start accumulating concepts, ideas, events, names, etc. that lend meaning to later reading.
        • “ The most crucial prerequisite for learning is your already established background knowledge.”
        • Not limited to reading – books, movies, listening
      • 4. Edward Gibbon’s way
        • Organized, intense use of your general background
        • Try to recall what you know about the subject before reading; good recall promotes concentration
    • Eight ways to improve reading
      • 5. The paragraph way
        • stop at the end of each paragraph to summarize and condense it into a single sentence (for textbook reading)
        • Focus on topic, concluding and supporting sentences.
          • Topic sentence provides direction, focus
          • Supporting sentences develop the idea from topic sentence
          • Concluding sentences sums up; restates; emphasizes; closes
        • Paragraphs also serve similar functions – some introduce, some support, and some conclude; all three types should alert you
    • Eight ways to improve reading
      • 6. Page-at-a-time way
        • Stop at the bottom of the page and ask yourself what was covered on this page before moving on . . . Makes you think while you read
      • 7. Daniel Webster’s way
        • Before reading, check out the TOC, read the preface or introduction
          • Lists of: questions he expected answered in book, knowledge expected to gain from book, where knowledge would take him
    • Eight ways to improve reading
      • 8. The skimming way
        • Some consider it the “workhorse” of reading
        • Can cover many speeds and uses – anything from rapid reading to searching
          • Needle in a haystack (rec. specific info – name, date, word)
          • Looking for clues (Paul Bunyan birthplace example)
          • Getting the gist (helpful for research assignments)
          • Overviewing a textbook chapter (for understanding captions, headlines, subheadings to locate key info)
          • Skimming to review (for previously read texts)