Hi-Lights I Journalism Today! Chapter One Review
America’s First Newspapers <ul><li>Composed of letters, essays, borrowed materials </li></ul><ul><li>Little, if any “news”...
America’s First Newspapers <ul><li>1704 – Boston News-Letter – first published continuously </li></ul><ul><li>John Campbel...
Freedom of the Press <ul><li>If attempted to criticize government – guilty of SEDITION </li></ul><ul><li>Sedition  = stirr...
Freedom of the Press <ul><li>N.Y. Weekly Journal – John Peter Zenger (publisher)– article criticized Gov. William Cosby (1...
Freedom of the Press <ul><li>Case was hopeless – if he printed attacks on government, he was guilty of libel, even if his ...
Freedom of the Press <ul><li>“ Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or news...
Partisan Press <ul><li>Zenger’s trial began freedom rallies in the colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers began to align wi...
The Penny Press <ul><li>1833 Benjamin Day – New York Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Full of glorious, real “news”! (police beat, tr...
Women in early American Journalism <ul><li>Cornelia Walter – editor of the Boston Transcript in 1840s </li></ul><ul><li>Ja...
The Penny Press <ul><li>New York Times (1851-present) </li></ul><ul><li>Best – pro journalists </li></ul><ul><li>Set stand...
Telegraph <ul><li>1844 </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on journalism felt during civil war (1860s) </li></ul><ul><li>Reporters at...
Yellow Journalism <ul><li>Late 19th century – low point in journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Unethical, irresponsible journalis...
Yellow Journalism <ul><li>Newspapers attracted huge audiences  </li></ul><ul><li>These two papers competed fiercely </li><...
Muckraking <ul><li>Opposite of yellow journalism – journalists on crusade </li></ul><ul><li>Papers crusaded for child labo...
Radio and TV <ul><li>Radio newscasts brought live news to listeners </li></ul><ul><li>TV brought live, moving pictures to ...
Journalism Today <ul><li>General decline in readership </li></ul><ul><li>24% of young people surveyed said they don’t read...
Final Thoughts <ul><li>First Amendment right – the press is the only constitutionally protected industry in the country. <...
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Chapter 1

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Chapter 1

  1. 1. Hi-Lights I Journalism Today! Chapter One Review
  2. 2. America’s First Newspapers <ul><li>Composed of letters, essays, borrowed materials </li></ul><ul><li>Little, if any “news” </li></ul><ul><li>Publick Occurrences 1690, Benjamin Harris </li></ul><ul><li>One issue – British colonial authorities didn’t dig what he published </li></ul>
  3. 3. America’s First Newspapers <ul><li>1704 – Boston News-Letter – first published continuously </li></ul><ul><li>John Campbell published it “by authority” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Freedom of the Press <ul><li>If attempted to criticize government – guilty of SEDITION </li></ul><ul><li>Sedition = stirring of rebellion, criticizing government </li></ul><ul><li>“ The greater the truth, the greater the libel.” In early 1700s, truth was not a defense against libel. </li></ul><ul><li>Libel – written defamation of character – person, institution, belief </li></ul>
  5. 5. Freedom of the Press <ul><li>N.Y. Weekly Journal – John Peter Zenger (publisher)– article criticized Gov. William Cosby (1735) </li></ul><ul><li>In jail for seditious libel charge </li></ul>
  6. 6. Freedom of the Press <ul><li>Case was hopeless – if he printed attacks on government, he was guilty of libel, even if his statements were true . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Hamilton, attorney </li></ul><ul><li>Basically stated that through our country’s freedom, we have secured ourselves the right to truth – the liberty of both expressing and opposing power </li></ul>
  7. 7. Freedom of the Press <ul><li>“ Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate to prefer the latter.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Thomas Jefferson </li></ul>
  8. 8. Partisan Press <ul><li>Zenger’s trial began freedom rallies in the colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers began to align with political parties – continued for 100 years or so </li></ul><ul><li>Whig/Tory paper </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of press established in First Amendment rather than Constitution </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Penny Press <ul><li>1833 Benjamin Day – New York Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Full of glorious, real “news”! (police beat, tragedies, natural disasters, minimized the opinions) </li></ul><ul><li>Sold for a penny on street sales, not subscriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Became very popular </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising became prominent </li></ul><ul><li>Others – New York Morning Herald (James Gordon Bennet), New York Tribune (Horace Greely) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Women in early American Journalism <ul><li>Cornelia Walter – editor of the Boston Transcript in 1840s </li></ul><ul><li>Jane Grey Swisshelm – first woman to cover Congress (1850 . . . for the Tribune) </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Penny Press <ul><li>New York Times (1851-present) </li></ul><ul><li>Best – pro journalists </li></ul><ul><li>Set standard for fairness and accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Standard has been widely imitated but rarely equaled </li></ul>
  12. 12. Telegraph <ul><li>1844 </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on journalism felt during civil war (1860s) </li></ul><ul><li>Reporters at sites transmitted stories by telegraph </li></ul><ul><li>Telegraph sped up reporting of news </li></ul><ul><li>News gathering services (AP, UPI) sprang up – still called wire services </li></ul>
  13. 13. Yellow Journalism <ul><li>Late 19th century – low point in journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Unethical, irresponsible journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Hoaxes, altered photos, screaming headlines, promotion of newspapers themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Much like today’s National Enquirer, Sun, World Weekly News , Globe magazine, The Onion, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal), Joseph Pulitzer (New York World) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Yellow Journalism <ul><li>Newspapers attracted huge audiences </li></ul><ul><li>These two papers competed fiercely </li></ul><ul><li>Nellie Bly (Elizabeth Cockrane) – made the news herself; pretended to be mentally ill – committed to Blackwell Island Asylum </li></ul>
  15. 15. Muckraking <ul><li>Opposite of yellow journalism – journalists on crusade </li></ul><ul><li>Papers crusaded for child labor laws, promoted hospitals, collected money for needy </li></ul><ul><li>Battled corruption in all its forms </li></ul><ul><li>Pure Food and Drug act of 1906 – result of public scrutiny of meat packing industry </li></ul>
  16. 16. Radio and TV <ul><li>Radio newscasts brought live news to listeners </li></ul><ul><li>TV brought live, moving pictures to viewers </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers took less of a breaking news role </li></ul><ul><li>TV had big impact on viewers during Vietnam – led to increased instances of protest </li></ul><ul><li>FCC – jurisdiction over airwaves – NO Censorship power </li></ul>
  17. 17. Journalism Today <ul><li>General decline in readership </li></ul><ul><li>24% of young people surveyed said they don’t read newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Good journalists need to keep up with current news! </li></ul><ul><li>To stay competitive, newspapers have increased their online presence as their print presence has decreased </li></ul>
  18. 18. Final Thoughts <ul><li>First Amendment right – the press is the only constitutionally protected industry in the country. </li></ul><ul><li>This implies responsibility, even for high school journalists! </li></ul><ul><li>Because of this right, journalists have an obligation to perform for the benefit of society – accurate, responsible reporting!!! </li></ul>

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