The Man Behind the Words• Born - July 21, 1899, Oak Park, Illinois• Mother - Grace Hall – Opera singer before marrying Ernest’s dad – He never forgave her for dressing him in girl’s clothes, giving him a girl’s haircut, and passing him off to neighbors as her daughter Ernestine• Father - Clarence Edmonds Hemingway – Taught Ernest to love outdoor life – Took own life in 1928 after losing health (diabetes) and money (Florida real estate bubble)
More About Young Ernest• Education – Public schools in Oak Park – Published earliest stories and poems in school newspaper• Graduated from hs in 1917• Worked six months as reporter for Kansas City Star
Army Career• World War I – Joined volunteer ambulance unit in Italy – Suffered severe leg wound (1918) • Had affair with American nurse during his recovery (basis for A Farewell to Arms) – Decorated twice by the Italian government for his service
After the War• Worked as journalist in Chicago• Moved to Paris in 1921 – "If you are lucky enough to have lived in Paris as a young man, then whenever you go for the rest of your life, it stays with you, for Paris is a moveable feast.”
Travels• Toured with wife (Elizabeth Hadley Richardson) – Italy, France, Switzerland• Traveled as reporter (1922) – Turkey, Greece (reported on the war between them)• Two trips to Spain (1923) – Bullfights!
Pamplona and Running of the Bulls • In total, Hemingway journeyed to Pamplona on nine occasions, the most prolificEach time he came for San burst betweenFermín, the citys famed fiesta 1923 and 1927,of bullfighting and brutality, when he visiteddrink and song. every year.
In Europe• The center of the modernist movement – Modernism - a style or movement in the arts that aims to break with classical and traditional forms• Associated himself with writers such as Gertude Stein and F. Scott Fitzgerald
F. Scott Fitzgerald• You know about him already, don’t you?• Edited some of Hemingway’s drafts• Acted as his agent• Hemingway portrayed Fitzgerald in a somewhat negative light in A Moveable Feast - friendship suffered for it• Fitzgerald regretted the lost friendship
The Lost Generation• After World War I – Young men and women began to realize that old ideas and beliefs had not saved man from the catastrophe of war – Began to look for a new system of values – New values would replace old system, which they found useless• Believed that “the only reality was that life was harsh”
The Lost Generation• Young people coming of age during and shortly after World War I• Many expatriates settled in France• Younger literary modernists• Feeling a sense of dissatisfaction and ennui with America after the War
Major Works inspired there• The Sun Also Rises (1924-1926) – First great success – Narrated by American journalist – Group of expatriates in France and Spain – Members of the Lost Generation• A Farewell to Arms (1929) – Italian front in WWI – Two lovers find brief happiness• For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940)
A Later Success• The Old Man and the Sea (1952) – Cuban fisherman named Santiago (modeled off of a fisherman who worked on Hemingway’s boat) – Catches giant marlin after weeks of disappointment – Story of his journey with the marlin - comes back with nothing but won a spiritual battle
Nobel Prize• Awarded Nobel Prize for Literature (1954)• Unable to attend award ceremony – Recovering from injuries sustained when hunting in Uganda
A Whole Lotta Weddings• Divorced Elizabeth (1927)• Married Pauline Pfeiffer in the same year (suspicious!)• Third wife (1940) - Martha Gellhorn - writer and war correspondent – She called Hemingway her “unwilling companion” – Bitter divorce (1945)• Fourth wife - Mary Welsh - correspondent for Time magazine
A Warning About Alcohol• Hemingway started drinking when he was a reporter – Built up tolerance• Downward spiral (began in1940s) – Heard voices in his head – Became overweight – Had high blood pressure – Cirrhosis of the liver – Taught 12-year-old son to drink (son later became an alcoholic)
An Adventurer Went on hunting expeditions in Africa and Wyoming
A fishermanWent deep-sea fishingoff Cuba,Key West,andBahamas
Bought house in Cuba - aparadise for his many cats! Lived there until Fidel Castro’s revolution in 1959 - then moved back to America
In Cuba, people still call astrong man “a Hemingway”
Papa Hemingway Whether it was "Papa" hunting in Africa, or "Papa" in Spain watching the bullfights, or "Papa" at a café in Paris chatting with acquaintances over a bottle of cognac, this was the public image Hemingway projected to others, rough and tough, a real "mans man."
The Later Years• Depression - hospitalized at the Mayo Clinic (1960 - released in 1961) – Two months of electroshock therapy• July 2, 1961 – Committed suicide with his favorite shotgun in his Idaho home• Posthumous publication - True at First Light – Considered one of the worst books by a Nobel Prize winning author
Writing Style• Deceptively simple - straightforward• Understatement and omission (see Iceberg Theory)• Repetition• Spare dialogue• Focus on facts – “Find what gave you the emotion; what the action was that gave you the excitement. Then write it down making it clear so the reader will see it too and have the same feeling as you had.”
Writing Style• Few adjectives or adverbs• Simple sentences (let’s diagram some!)• Concise, vivid• He noted that, “a writer’s style should be direct and personal, his imagery rich and earthy, and his words simple and vigorous. The greatest writers have the gift of brevity, are hard workers, diligent scholars and competent stylists”
The Iceburg Theory• “If a writer of prose knows enough about what he is writing about, he may omit things that he knows and the reader . . . will have a feeling of those things as though the writer had stated them.”• In other words, when you write, just show the tip of the iceburg
“The dignity ofmovement of aniceberg is due toonly one-eighth ofit being abovewater”
The Hemingway Hero• Sometimes referred to as the “code hero”• Easily identifiable• A man’s man – Moved from one love affair to another – Participated in game hunting – Enjoyed bullfights – Drank wildly
The Hemingway Hero• Soldiers, hunters, bullfighters, etc. – Tough, courageous, honest – Courage and honesty set against the brutal ways of modern society – Lose hope and faith because of this confrontation
Themes• A man can be destroyed but not defeated.• Life is a series of struggles• Suffering makes the human spirit strong’• Pushing beyond the normal limits of life is important, regardless of whether you win or lose
The Six Word Story For sale:baby shoes,never worn.