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High Speed Aircraft

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  • 1. Venturi Effects
    Subsonic
    • Converging
    • 2. Increasing velocity
    • 3. Decreasing pressure
    • 4. Constant density
    • 5. Diverging
    • 6. Decreasing velocity
    • 7. Increasing pressure
    • 8. Constant density
    At supersonic speeds venturi effect is reversed.
    Supersonic
    • Converging
    • 9. Decreasing velocity
    • 10. Increasing pressure
    • 11. Increasing density
    • 12. Diverging
    • 13. Increasing velocity
    • 14. Decreasing pressure
    • 15. Decreasing density
    • 16. Sound is pressure disturbances radiating in all directions from the source.
    • 17. Travels @ 661.7 knots (1,116.9 fps, 761.5 mph) under standard conditions
    • 18. Speed is directly proportional to temperature. This goes down as temp goes down.
    • 19. Can be calculated (Cs=local speed of sound)
    • 20. CS in kts = 29.04 oR
    • 21. CS in fps = 49.022 oR
    • 22. CS in mph = 33.42 oR
    Mach Number=Object SpeedSpeed of Sound (Relative to local speed of sound)
    -When source of sound is traveling at the speed of sound, the sound waves cannot get ahead of the source, but pile up and form a shock wave.
    -“Sonic boom” is the effect of the pressure change.
    Subsonic = <.75 (NO airflow on that aircraft is above .75, such as across upper surface of wing)
    Transonic = .75-1.2 (Control buffering)
    Supersonic = >1.2 (Smooth and efficient flight.)
    Hypersonic = >5.0
    Three types of shockwaves:
    • Oblique
    • 23. Shock wave comes off at oblique angle to surface.
    • 24. Wing leading edge, nose, stabilizer leading edges.
    • 25. Can also be from trailing edges.
    • 26. Smaller angle as speed increases.
    • 27. Flow turned into preceding flow.
    • 28. Velocity is decreased, but still supersonic.
    • 29. Energy is lost. Mainly in heat energy.
    • 30. Increase in pressure and density.
    • 31. Normal
    • 32. Perpendicular to surface that creates it.
    • 33. In front of airfoil.
    • 34. Air being pushed ahead of the surface.
    • 35. No change in airflow.
    • 36. Airflow velocity is decreased to subsonic.
    • 37. Big increase in pressure and density.
    • 38. Big decrease in energy.
    • 39. Overcome by sharp leading and trailing edges
    • 40. Expansion
    • 41. Surface turns away from normal flow.
    • 42. Velocity is increased to higher supersonic.
    • 43. Pressure and density decreased.
    • 44. No energy loss.
    As airspeed increases, bow wave moves closer to surface, and shrinks.
    To increase critical mach, or delay formation of:
    • Vortex generator
    • 45. Small airfoils produce vortices, which produce pressure and hold boundary layer.
    • 46. Swept wing
    • 47. Affects the fineness of a wing.
    • 48. Fineness Ratio: Ratio of the chord to the thickness.
    • 49. Thinner wing will increase critical Mach number. Reduce effect of shock waves.
    • 50. Thin wings are bad at subsonic speed.
    • 51. Swept wings give same effect, with not as bad subsonic speed.