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1 Evolution And Type Of Structures

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  • 1. AVAF 209 Aircraft Structures II
    • I. Evolution of Aircraft Structures
    • II. Types of Aircraft Structures:
      • That Produce Lift
      • That Produce Control
      • That Modify Lift
      • That Aid Control
      • That Hold People
      • That Support the Aircraft on the Ground
      • That Hold the Powerplant
      • Rotorcraft
  • 2.
    • Wright brothers
    Wilbur Orville
  • 3.
    • Gustave Whitehead
  • 4.
    • Structure of early machines:
      • Wings of bent wooden ribs covered with fabric
      • Body of open frameworks of wood strips lashed together with wire
      • Landing gear were skids
  • 5.
    • Control surfaces
      • small wings
      • “ Wing Warping”
    • Structure of early machines:
  • 6.
    • Up to World War I:
      • drag problem
  • 7.
    • World War I:
    • Biplane
    • open cockpits
    • radial engines
  • 8.
    • metal tube truss construction
    • Welded thin-walled metal tube
    • covered with fabric
    • lighter weight and stronger
    • World War I:
  • 9.
    • 1920s and 30s:
    • Stressed-Skin construction
  • 10.  
  • 11.
    • Aluminum skin
    • 1920s and 30s:
  • 12.
    • I. Evolution of Aircraft Structures
    • II. Types of Aircraft Structures:
      • That Produce Lift
      • That Produce Control
      • That Modify Lift
      • That Aid Control
      • That Hold People
      • That Support the Aircraft (Ground)
      • That Hold the Powerplant
      • Rotorcraft
    • Aluminum structure
    • MONOCOQUE construction
    • 1920s and 30s:
  • 13.
    • Since 1930s:
    • SEMI-MONOCOQUE construction
  • 14.
    • High altitude flight
    • Since 1930s:
  • 15.
    • Early 1950s:
  • 16. Part 91: General Operating and Flight Rules
    • Special Inspections:
    • Part 91
      • General
      • Required Equipment
      • Maintenance Requirements
      • Inspections
      • Special Inspections
      • Maintenance Records
    • Altimeter & Static System, Transponder, ELT, Hard/Overweight Landing, Severe Turbulence, Aging Aircraft
        • For certain older Large Aircraft the Pressure Vessel must be specially inspected after so many Pressurization Cycles
        • Also, after Dec. 16, 2008 all turbine-powered transport category aircraft must have their fuel tank systems specially inspected and maintained
      • “ Aging Aircraft” – 91.410
    • Aloha Airlines “Patio Seating”
          • Boeing 737-297
          • April 28, 1988
  • 17. Structures That Produce Lift:
  • 18. AIRFOIL
    • LEADING EDGE
    • TRAILING EDGE
    • ASYMMETRICAL
    • SYMMETRICAL
    Structures That Produce Lift:
  • 19. Lift Theories: Bernoulli’s Principle Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  • 20. Lift Theories: Bernoulli’s Principle Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK HOW?
  • 21. Lift Theories: Bernoulli’s Principle Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  • 22. Lift Theories: Bernoulli’s Principle Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  • 23. Lift Theories: Bernoulli’s Principle Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  • 24. Lift Theories: Newton’s Laws Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  • 25. Lift Theories: Newton’s Laws Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK Downwash Angle
  • 26. Lift Theories: Newton’s Laws Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK Greater Downwash Angle
  • 27. Lift Theories: Newton’s Laws Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK Too Much Downwash Angle STALL!
  • 28. Lift Theories: Newton’s Laws Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK = Too Little Downwash Angle STALL!
  • 29. Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  • 30.
    • CENTER OF GRAVITY
    • CENTER OF LIFT
    • NOSE-HEAVY AIRCRAFT
    Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  • 31.
    • CANTILEVER (NO EXTERNAL STRUTS)
    Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  • 32.
    • WINGLETS
    Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  • 33.
    • WINGLETS
    Structures That Produce Lift: To create Lift, an AIRFOIL must be moved through the air at an ANGLE OF ATTACK
  • 34.
    • 3 AXES:
    • LATERAL AXIS
    • PITCH
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 35.
    • 3 AXES:
    • LONGITUDINAL
    • AXIS
    • ROLL (BANK)
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 36.
    • 3 AXES:
    • VERTICAL
    • AXIS
    • YAW
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 37.
    • PRIMARY CONTROLS:
    • ELEVATOR
    • AILERONS
    • RUDDER
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 38.
    • PITCH:
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 39.
    • PITCH:
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
    • ELEVATOR
    • HORIZONTAL
    • STABILIZER
    • EMPENNAGE
    • TAIL LOAD
  • 40.
    • PITCH:
    • WHEEL OR
    • STICK PULLED
    • BACK
    • TAIL LOAD
    • INCREASED
    • NOSE UP
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 41.
    • PITCH:
    • STABILATOR
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 42.
    • ROLL:
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 43.
    • ROLL: AILERONS
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 44.
    • ROLL: AILERONS
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 45.
    • ROLL: AILERONS
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft LEFT BANK
  • 46.
    • ROLL: AILERONS
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 47.
    • ROLL: AILERONS
    • ADVERSE YAW
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 48.
    • ROLL: AILERONS
    • ADVERSE YAW
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 49.
    • ROLL: AILERONS
    • ADVERSE YAW – 4 WAYS TO COMBAT IT:
      • 1. PILOT RUDDER ACTION ONLY
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 50.
    • ROLL: AILERONS
    • ADVERSE YAW – 2. DIFFERENTIAL TRAVEL
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 51.
    • ROLL: AILERONS
    • ADVERSE YAW – 3. FRISE ( freeze) TYPE AILERON
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 52.
    • ROLL: AILERONS
    • ADVERSE YAW –
      • 4. RUDDER-AILERON
      • INTERCONNECT
      • SPRINGS
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 53.
    • ROLL: SPOILERS
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 54.
    • ROLL: SPOILERS
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 55.
    • YAW:
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 56.
    • YAW:
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
    • RUDDER
    • VERTICAL
    • STABILIZER
  • 57.
    • YAW: RUDDER
    • PEDALS IN
    • COCKPIT
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 58.
    • YAW: RUDDERVATORS
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft
  • 59.
    • YAW:
    • RUDDERVATORS
    Structures That Produce Control: To successfully fly, there needs to be some way to control the maneuvering of the aircraft Elevator Action Rudder Action
  • 60.
    • AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES):
    Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried:
    • TO DECREASE STALLSPEED
    • TO ALLOW HIGHER ANGLES OF ATTACK
    • TO CONTROL THE BOUNDARY LAYER
  • 61.
    • AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES):
    Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried:
    • TO DECREASE STALLSPEED
      • FLAPS
        • TRAILING EDGE
        • LEADING EDGE
  • 62.
    • AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES):
    Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried:
    • TRAILING
    • EDGE
    • FLAPS
  • 63.
    • AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES):
    Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried:
    • TRAILING
    • EDGE
    • FLAPS
    • PLAIN FLAP
  • 64.
    • AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES):
    Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried:
    • TRAILING
    • EDGE
    • FLAPS
    • SPLIT FLAP
  • 65.
    • AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES):
    Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried:
    • TRAILING
    • EDGE
    • FLAPS
    • SLOTTED
    • FLAP
  • 66.
    • AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES):
    Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried:
    • TRAILING
    • EDGE
    • FLAPS
    • FOWLER
    • FLAP
  • 67.
    • AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES):
    Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried:
    • TRAILING
    • EDGE
    • FLAPS
    • TRIPLE
    • SLOTTED
    • FOWLER
    • FLAP
  • 68.
    • AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES):
    Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried:
    • LEADING
    • EDGE
    • FLAPS
    • DROOPED
    • KRUEGER
  • 69.
    • AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES):
    Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried:
    • TO ALLOW HIGHER ANGLES OF ATTACK
      • SLOTS
      • SLATS
  • 70.
    • AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES):
    Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried: SLOTS
  • 71.
    • AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES):
    Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried:
    • TO DECREASE
    • STALL SPEED
    • TO ALLOW
    • HIGHER
    • ANGLES
    • OF ATTACK
    SLATS
  • 72.
    • AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES):
    Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried:
    • TO DECREASE
    • STALL SPEED
    • TO ALLOW
    • HIGHER
    • ANGLES
    • OF ATTACK
    SLATS
  • 73.
    • AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES):
    Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried:
    • TO CONTROL THE BOUNDARY LAYER
      • UPPER SURFACE SUCTION
      • FLAP AUGMENTATION
  • 74.
    • AUXILIARY LIFT DEVICES (HIGH LIFT DEVICES):
    Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried:
    • TO DECREASE
    • STALL SPEED
    • TO ALLOW
    • HIGHER
    • ANGLES
    • OF ATTACK
    SUCTION
  • 75.
    • STALL CONTROL DEVICES:
    Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried:
    • WANT WING
    • ROOT TO
    • STALL FIRST
  • 76.
    • STALL CONTROL DEVICES:
    Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried:
    • WANT WING
    • ROOT TO
    • STALL FIRST
    • STALL
    • STRIP OR
    • TWISTED
    • WING
  • 77.
    • STALL CONTROL DEVICES:
    Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried:
    • SHOCK INDUCED
    • SEPARATION
    • @ Critical Mach Number
  • 78.
    • STALL CONTROL DEVICES:
    Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried:
    • SHOCK INDUCED
    • SEPARATION
    • VORTEX
    • GENERATORS
  • 79.
    • STALL CONTROL DEVICES:
    Structures That Modify Lift: To shorten the Landing and Takeoff rolls and to allow more weight to be carried:
    • SHOCK INDUCED
    • SEPARATION
    • VORTEX
    • GENERATORS
    • TIP VORTICES
  • 80.
    • SECONDARY CONTROLS OR TABS:
    Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls:
    • FIXED TRIM TAB
  • 81.
    • SECONDARY CONTROLS OR TABS:
    Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls:
    • ADJUSTABLE TRIM TAB
  • 82.
    • SECONDARY CONTROLS OR TABS:
    Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls:
    • SERVO TAB
  • 83.
    • SECONDARY CONTROLS OR TABS:
    Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls:
    • ANTI-SERVO TAB
  • 84.
    • SECONDARY CONTROLS OR TABS:
    Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls:
    • SPRING TAB
  • 85.
    • OTHER AIDS:
    Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls:
    • RUDDER
    • OVERHANG OR
    • BALANCE
    • SURFACE
  • 86.
    • OTHER AIDS:
    Structures That Aid Control: To allow the aircraft to be flown “Hands-off” and to aid the pilot in moving the controls:
    • AERODYNAMIC BALANCE PANEL
  • 87. Structures That Hold People: To protect the crew and passengers, withstand the stresses created in flight and landing, and mount all other major components
    • Truss
      • Pratt
      • Longerons
      • Struts
      • Wire Stays
  • 88. Structures That Hold People: To protect the crew and passengers, withstand the stresses created in flight and landing, and mount all other major components
    • Truss
      • Warren
      • Metal
      • Tubing
  • 89.
    • Conventional Landing Gear:
      • Tail Wheel
      • 2 Main Wheels
      • “ Tail Dragger”
    Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  • 90.
    • Conventional Landing Gear:
      • Ground Loop
      • Visibility on Ground
    Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  • 91.
    • Tricycle Landing Gear:
      • Nose Wheel
      • 2 Main Wheels
    Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  • 92.
    • Drag Problems:
      • Fixed Gear
    Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  • 93.
    • Drag Problems:
      • Fixed Gear
      • Wheel Fairings
      • “ Wheel Pants”
      • Streamlines
    Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  • 94.
    • Drag Problems:
      • Retractable
      • Gear
    Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  • 95.
    • Other Types of Landing Gear:
      • Floats
      • With wheels =
      • Amphibian
    Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  • 96.
    • Other Types of Landing Gear:
      • Seaplane
      • With wheels =
      • Amphibian
    Structures That Support the Aircraft on the Ground: To absorb the landing stresses and allow movement on the ground:
  • 97.
    • Reciprocating (Piston) Engines:
    • The engine is attached inside the cowling to an ENGINE MOUNT which may be:
      • Semimonocoque
      • Welded tubular
    That Hold the Powerplant: To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb the vibration, and cool and streamline them:
  • 98.
    • Reciprocating (Piston) Engines:
    • The engine is attached inside the cowling to an ENGINE MOUNT which may be
      • Semimonocoque
      • Welded tubular
      • “ Rails” or “Cradle”
    That Hold the Powerplant: To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb the vibration, and cool and streamline them:
  • 99.
    • Reciprocating (Piston) Engines:
    That Hold the Powerplant: To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb the vibration, and cool and streamline them:
    • On all, the engine is attached to the mount by RUBBER SHOCK MOUNTS
      • Known generically as “Lord Mounts”
      • Isolate engine vibrations from the fuselage
  • 100.
    • Turbine (Jet) Engines:
    • Turbine engines are mounted in PODS or NACELLES under the wings or on the side of the rear fuselage or inside the fuselage
    • The pods are attached with PYLONS
    That Hold the Powerplant: To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb the vibration, and cool and streamline them:
  • 101.
    • Turbine (Jet) Engines:
    That Hold the Powerplant: To hold the Powerplants in position,absorb the vibration, and cool and streamline them:
  • 102.
    • Rotorcraft:
  • 103.
    • Rotorcraft:
    Structures :
  • 104.  

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