Excerpt from "Conquer the Code" by Judith Cohen


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Excerpt from "Conquer the Code" by Judith Cohen

  1. 1. Conquer the Code:Conquer the Code: Sounds, Symbols, and SyllablesSounds, Symbols, and Syllables E. Judith Cohen, Ed.D.E. Judith Cohen, Ed.D.
  2. 2. 44 Sounds of the English Language • Vowels (10) /ă/ /ā/ /ĕ/ /ē/ /ĭ/ /ī/ /ŏ/ /ō/ /ŭ/ /ū/ • Consonants (18) /b/ /j/ /s/ /k/ /l/ /t/ /d/ /m/ /v/ /f/ /n/ /w/ /g/ /p/ /y/ /h/ /r/ /z/
  3. 3. 44 Sounds of the English Language • Vowel Diphthongs (2) /ou/ /oi/ • Vowel Variants (3) /au/ /oo/ (moon) /oo/ (book) • Schwa (1) /ə/ • Consonant Digraphs(7) /sh/ /ch/ /wh/ /th/ /th/ /zh/ /ng/ • r-controlled (3) /ar/ /or/ /er/
  4. 4. Phonics • Synthetic Phonics • Part to whole • Analytic Phonics • Whole to part • Word families (rimes) • Vowel Patterns • 6 Syllable types • 85-88% regularity • Structural Analysis • Root words, prefixes & suffixes • Compound words • Contractions • Syllabication
  5. 5. Color-Code Vowels a e i o u -y -w Digraphs sh ch th wh ph Blends bl- cr- st- -nd -mp etc.
  6. 6. Orthography: Syllables • Six basic syllable types • 85 – 88% of English language • Vowel Patterns (syllable types) • Structure of our language • Alphabetic code
  7. 7. Vowel Patterns • Regular • Reliable • Research-based • Effective • Efficient • Easy to use
  8. 8. Vowel Pattern Chart Closed Open Silent e Bossy r 2 Vowels Talkers Whiners C+le
  9. 9. Vowel Pattern Chart Closed cat fish bub- Open me go ta- Silent e ride cape hope Bossy r car girl tur- 2 Vowels Talkers Whiners boat boy meat clown C+le ta - ble bub - ble tur - tle
  10. 10. Vowel Patterns Closed: A word or syllable that contains only one vowel followed by one or more consonants; the vowel is short. “One lonely vowel squished in the middle, says its special sound just a little.” sat bed fin top gum sand best print shop lunch at Ed in on up
  11. 11. Vowel Patterns Open: A word or syllable that ends with one vowel; the vowel is long. “If one vowel at the end is free, it pops way up and says its name to me.” me she hi go flu fly
  12. 12. Vowel Patterns Silent e [Magic e]: A word or syllable that ends in e, containing one consonant before the final e and one vowel before that consonant; the vowel is long. “The magic e is quiet, but it has a claim to fame; it makes the vowel before it say its real name.” The magic e is so powerful, it gives all its strength to the other vowel so that it can say its real name. make Steve ride hope cube
  13. 13. Vowel Patterns Bossy r [r-controlled]: A word or syllable containing a vowel followed by r; the vowel sound is altered by the r. The letter r is so bossy, it tells the vowel that it can’t say its real name (long vowel) or its special sound (short vowel), but must say the r sound (as in car, for, her). car her girl for curl
  14. 14. Vowel Patterns Double Vowel Talkers: [vowel digraphs] A word or syllable containing two adjacent vowels; the first one is long. “When two vowels go walking, the first one does the talking and says its name.” rain day see meat pie boat toe slow suit blue
  15. 15. Vowel Patterns Double Vowel Whiners :[diphthongs and variants] A word or syllable that contains two adjacent vowels; the vowels say neither a long or short vowel sound, but rather a very different sound. Sometimes when two vowels are next to each other, they make a funny whining sound, like when you fall down and say “ow,” “aw,” “oy,” and get a “boo- boo.” fault saw foil boy loud cow moon new book
  16. 16. Vowel Patterns C+le: [consonant + le] This syllable ends with “le” preceded by a consonant, and occurs in two-syllable words. When a word ends with a consonant and “le,” the “le” grabs the consonant before it, and the word breaks into two parts right before that consonant. bub–ble ca–ble ea–gle poo–dle pur-ple
  17. 17. Vowel Pattern “Prediction Power” The prediction power of the patterns ranges from 77 to 89%, each of which is much better than predictions on the basis of chance alone. Teaching children vowel patterns can make a difference in their fluency and comprehension (May, 2002). Closed 86 – 89% Open 77% Silent e 81% Bossy r 2 Vowels Talkers Whiners 77% C+le
  18. 18. Irregular / “Memory” Words • About 12 – 15% of English words do not conform to the regular patterns • Can be taught through context, repetition, multisensory techniques, and learning games, e.g., Word Wall activities, VAAKT (associative word cards), BINGO
  19. 19. Structural Analysis • Root words and affixes • Compound words • Contractions • Syllabication
  20. 20. Root Words and Affixes Prefix Root Suffix un friend ly re heat ed in spect or • Color-highlight or draw a box around affixes (prefix = green; suffix = red) • Make charts for similar affixes
  21. 21. Compound Words • Begin with whole word, e.g., doghouse • Segment and blend • Use fists, puzzles, linking blocks • Make lists of compound words • Use color-coding (doghouse) • Practice deletion (say doghouse without dog)
  22. 22. Contractions • Compare “long” and “short” forms, e.g., do not (long – 2 words) don’t (short – contraction) • Highlight apostrophe (use elbow macaroni) and deleted letter/s in red • Use a rubberband to show long and shortened forms (same meaning) • Make lists of contractions from stories
  23. 23. Syllabication Patterns • C+le turtle tur – tle • VC/CV rabbit rab – bit • V/CV tiger ti – ger • VC/V camel cam – el • V/V lion li - on
  24. 24. Strategy for Syllabication • “Spot and dot” the vowels • Connect the dots • Look at the number of consonants between the vowels • If 2 – break between the consonants • If 1 – break before the consonant; if it doesn’t sound right, move over one letter
  25. 25. Apply and Transfer • Provide many opportunities to use these skills and strategies, both in isolation and in connected text – Fiction and non-fiction – Poetry and songs – Decodable text – Learning games and activities
  26. 26. Why? When students have the MEANS to conquer the code, they will reach the GOAL, and master the meaning!
  27. 27. Contact information E. Judith Cohen, Ed.D. For more information, see: Focus on Phonics: Assessment and Instruction, Wendy Cheyney & E. Judith Cohen (1999) The Wright Skills Program (PreK – Grade 3) Fast Track Reading Wright Group/ McGraw-Hill www.wrightgroup.com
  28. 28. Websites of Interest www.aft.org American Federation of Teachers www.ascd.org Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development www.educationworld.com Education World www.fcrr.org Florida Center for Reading Research www.idafla.org Florida Branch - IDA www.interdys.org International Dyslexia Association www.nifl.gov National Institute for Literacy www.nationalreadingpanel.org National Reading Panel www.reading.org International Reading Association www.readingrockets.org Reading Rockets