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Play’n’Learn: A Continuous KM Improvement Approach using FSM methods
 

Play’n’Learn: A Continuous KM Improvement Approach using FSM methods

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During last years, budgets for training within ICT organization decreased, in particular for F2F (face-to-face) sessions. A traditional, institutional, serious manner for providing training is still ...

During last years, budgets for training within ICT organization decreased, in particular for F2F (face-to-face) sessions. A traditional, institutional, serious manner for providing training is still adopted, and it reduces the possibility for attendees to approach to training sessions as a moment for learning but also for stimulating their creativity and generate new ideas to be used in their daily work. From an organizational viewpoint, well-known maturity models position such KM-related processes at highest maturity levels (e.g. OID process area in CMMI at ML5), but using a continuous representation, it can be done (and it would be desirable) yet from lower levels. This paper proposes a different way - called ‘Play’n’Learn’ - to verify people knowledge using games, contextualized to Software Management & Measurement issues, at the end of training sessions as part of a continuous knowledge management process for achieving higher maturity and capability levels, according to most known maturity models (MM) such as CMMI and ISO 15504 (SPICE).

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    Play’n’Learn: A Continuous KM Improvement Approach using FSM methods Play’n’Learn: A Continuous KM Improvement Approach using FSM methods Presentation Transcript

    • ISMA4: ISMA4 4° Annual International Conference on Software Measurement & Analysis Conference Chicago, IL – September 13-16, 2009 Play’n’Learn: A Continuous KM Improvement Approach using FSM methods Luigi Buglione Engineering.it luigi.buglione@eng.itwww.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione
    • Goals of the Presentation: Presentation G1. to approach in a different, original way the transferring andmanaging of awareness and knowledge in your organization G2. to continuously improve your employees’ knowledge on FSMmethods (such as IFPUG FPA), but applicable to any issue ofinterestG3. to stimulate the creativity of your team members aboutcritical measurement issues during the Monitoring & Control phaseG4. to reduce the resistance to Measurement issues, in particularwith Functional Size Measurement issuesG5. to empower your team in providing better estimates movingfrom a stronger Requirement Managementwww.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 2
    • Agenda• Introduction » Some questions » Reducing Resistance to Measurement• Learning Organizations » SPI & Knowledge Management: which relationship? » The SECI Model » Ba: concept and application• Simulation Games in Software Engineering » Play’n’learn approach » Some examples on the Net• Creating your own ‘ba’ for Sw Measurement and FSM » Levels of Knowledge » Creating new game – Attention points » Our games: Project-o-poly, Trivial Pursuit, Taboo, Murphy’s tables• Conclusions & Prospects• Q&A www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 3
    • Introduction Some questions…. • Q: how many ‘non-institutional’ training days per person have been supplied last year in your company?• Q: what is a learning organization? Can our company bedefined a learning organization? • Q: are we leveraging the value of our human resources? Are we able to create ‘knowledge’ (not notions) and redistribute it for generating value?• Q: If yes, how? • Q: If not, why? www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 4
    • Introduction Reducing Resistance to Measurement (1/2)• During last 10 years, Software Measurement has been recognizedmore and more in the Sw Engineering arena...  “matured” from activity to process (i.e. ME in CMMI-x; MAN.6 in ISO 15504; ...)  proposed a new KA in SWEBOK on Sw Measurement• ...but usually there is a strong resistance from project teammembers about whatever kind of measurement  mostly perceived as a personal evaluation on their own performance, not for a concrete, neutral process improvement  according to H.Rubin (1996), only 1:5 or 1:6 sw companies were successful in the implementation of a sw measurement program after 2 years  also from an ISO 9001 viewpoint, Clause 8 is one of the less well accomplished worldwide• So, people is a crucial resource for improving performances…  …but it seems to be often managed as a ‘material’ resource  …even if a series of models/frameworks dealing with People Management exist but not spreadly applied www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 5
    • Introduction Reducing Resistance to Measurement (2/2)• Q: how to remove misconceptions and resistance towardsmeasurement in ICT companies?  A: a possible manner is to speak to technical people using a different language, possibly with a bit of humor• Q: is it possible to avoid a ‘boring’, too institutionalized transfer ofknowledge? A: Yes, moving from ‘old-style’ knowledge transfer methods and come back playing, as children do• Q: but what is the final goal to be achieved?  A: to continuously improve project and organizational performances, by more motivated people, happy to continue learning in a funny way, producing more new ideas and improvements  become a learning organization www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 6
    • Introduction Improving with…Humor• Some examples of a “different language” about technical issues: language the Murphy’s laws Proverbs from the “measurement” viewpoint the “Dilbert principle” www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 7
    • Agenda• Introduction » Some questions » Reducing Resistance to Measurement• Learning Organizations » SPI & Knowledge Management: which relationship? » The SECI Model » Ba: concept and application• Simulation Games in Software Engineering » Play’n’learn approach » Some examples on the Net• Creating your own ‘ba’ for Sw Measurement and FSM » Levels of Knowledge » Creating new game – Attention points » Our games: Project-o-poly, Trivial Pursuit, Taboo, Murphy’s tables• Conclusions & Prospects• Q&A www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 8
    • Learning Organizations Which relationship? (1/2)• Q: how people and processes are related?  A: some answers are in Performance Management models (i.e. Balanced Scorecard, Malcolm Baldridge, EFQM, ...), where HR is the main enabler for activating the organizational change www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 9
    • Learning Organizations Which relationship? (2/2)• Q: so, if people is a strategic asset for companies, how to makeexplicit the tacit knowledge from employees?• A: The elicitation of creativity could represent a possibleknowledge asset type. Possible advantages: making easier a real knowledge transfer among employees  making less boring some technical training (cfr. Senge’s 5th discipline) • Series of books proposed during the ’90s by Peter Senge • Goal: be able in converting in actual ‘value’ the potential hidden in human resources of an organization by a proactive learning • The 5 Disciplines are: system thinking, personal mastery, mental models, shared vision, team learning• Subject: the Fieldbook proposes several exercises and techniques• Goal: elicit creativity from your own personnel• URL: www.fieldbook.com www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 10
    • Learning Organizations The SECI Model (1/2)• SECI model  a Japanese model by Nonaka & Takeuchi (1995)for achieving deeper knowledge Objective: create and efficiently manage knowledge in an organization  Elements: Process model, Ba Knowledge Asset (KA)• The process  Four phases (tacit  explicit)  Socialization (empathizing)  Externalization (articulating)  Combination (connecting)  Internalization (embodying) www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 11
    • Learning Organizations The SECI Model (2/2)• Dimensions of analysis  Interaction types (F2F, virtual)  Amount of people interacting (individual; collective)• Four Types of Knowledge Assets:  experiential: tacit knowledge through common experiences  conceptual: explicit knowledge articulated through images, symbols and language  systemic: systemized and packaged explicit knowledge  routine: tacit knowledge routinized and embedded in actions and practices www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 12
    • Learning Organizations ‘Ba’: concept & application Ba•Ba = Japanese term that stands for “place, context for a creativeexchange of ideas” where people communicate and the process ofconversion of knowledege takes place  it can be a physical place as an office, but also a shared mental model, a relationship among people sharing the same interests or goals  it can be also a virtual place (“Cyber Ba”) created by ICT tools Ba that make easier and manage each way for converting knowledge throught those platforms. • Q: Are there ba in our organizations? • A: If yes, which ones? And how are they managed? www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 13
    • Agenda• Introduction » Some questions » Reducing Resistance to Measurement• Learning Organizations » SPI & Knowledge Management: which relationship? » The SECI Model » Ba: concept and application• Simulation Games in Software Engineering » Play’n’learn approach » Some examples on the Net• Creating your own ‘ba’ for Sw Measurement and FSM » Levels of Knowledge » Creating new game – Attention points » Our games: Project-o-poly, Trivial Pursuit, Taboo, Murphy’s tables• Conclusions & Prospects• Q&A www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 14
    • Simulation Games in SwEng “Play’n’learn” approachSome relevant questions…• Verification of the modalities for training & learning (“Shape is not onlya shape”)• Notions or knowledge?• “High-level” or “Deep” knowledge?• Which level of depth is transferred to the listener? …and a possible approach: “Play’n’Learn” Play’n’Learn • Simulators (es: Flight Simulator) • Role games • Electronic games • Appraisals with dedicated maturity models (e.g. OCDMM)• Source: www.geocities.com/lbu_measure/games/games.htm www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 15
    • Simulation Games in SwEng Some Examples on the Netwww.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 16
    • Agenda• Introduction » Some questions » Reducing Resistance to Measurement• Learning Organizations » SPI & Knowledge Management: which relationship? » The SECI Model » Ba: concept and application• Simulation Games in Software Engineering » Play’n’learn approach » Some examples on the Net• Creating your own ‘ba’ for Sw Measurement and FSM » Levels of Knowledge » Creating new game – Attention points » Our games: Project-o-poly, Trivial Pursuit, Taboo, Murphy’s tables• Conclusions & Prospects• Q&A www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 17
    • Creating your own ‘ba’ Levels of Knowledge: a possible classification Level Knowledge Type Possible Game3 – Senior • Managing Concepts • Taboo • Pictionary •…2 – Junior • Notions • Trivial Pursuit •…1 - Novice • Learning rules, Awareness • Snakes & Ladders • Basic knowledge • Monopoly • Risk •…www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 18
    • Creating your own ‘ba’ Our games: Creating new games – Attention Points 1. Choose the informative goal to achieve 2. Choose a well-known (and possibly funny) game  Find the right metaphors with the original rules 3. Contextualize rules to the target domain and…  Remember the goal of “Play’n’Learn”  Keep the right time to create rules (and cards), not too quick 4. …Play! 5. And after playing, V&V  Verify effectiveness of customized rules and cards by playing (complexity levels)  A KA can be also a single card, not the whole game  Make the card extension a participatory activity in your team  “Train the Trainers”: repeat sessions, distributing responsibilitiesFor instance: 1. Goal: learn/refine the rules for (software) project management Goal (including estimation practices with FPA) 2. Game: Monopoly Game 3. Domain: Project Management Domain 4. …Play! Play www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 19
    • Creating your own ‘ba’ Our games: Project-o-polywww.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 20
    • Creating your own ‘ba’ Our games: Trivial Pursuit, Taboo Pursuit• Trivial Pursuit• Taboo www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 21
    • Creating your own ‘ba’ Our games: Met-Risk• Met-Risk www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 22
    • Creating your own ‘ba’ Our games: Who wants to be a CFPS?• Who wants to be a CFPS? www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 23
    • Creating your own ‘ba’ Our games: Murphy’s SPI Tables• Our proposal: to have a “murphological view” on Software Measurement proposal• Objective: derive useful tips for SPI, following a sort of IDEAL path• Q: how to use these tips and add value to the organization?• A: one of the key issues is to improve the organization’s RCA (Root-Cause-Analysis) capability (CAR – Causal Analysis & Resolution, CMMIML5) www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 24
    • Creating your own ‘ba’ Our games: Murphy’s SPI Tables…on Meas & Analysis Finagles Creed: Science is true. Dont be misled by factsMeasurement context Measurement & Analysis (MA) is one of the new processes introduced in the CMMI at ML2 for improving this way of managing an organization, by facts.Current flaw(s) Often an organization has in place a lot of measures, mostly from the subjective viewpoints, with Satisfaction Surveys at different levels and for various audiences, but with a reduced focus on the objective way. Decisions often are taken on experience and not always supported by numbers and historical data.Potential risk(s) Historical data is a powerful tool for supporting the decision-making process, not a perfect substitute for it or for managers.Missing • Not balanced objective and subjective measurementsopportunity(ies)Related SPI CMMIreference(s) o MA SP 1.2.-1 (Specify Measures) o MA SP 2.2.-1 (Analyze Measurement Data) o DAR SP 1.1-1 (Establish Guidelines for Decision Analysis)Source: L.Buglione & C.Dekkers, A Murphological View on Software Measurement: a serious joke or a funny serious thing?, Proceedings ofSMEF 2006, 3rd Software Measurement European Forum, 10-12 May 2006, Rome (Italy), pp. 315-329 www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 25
    • Agenda• Introduction » Some questions » Reducing Resistance to Measurement• Learning Organizations » SPI & Knowledge Management: which relationship? » The SECI Model » Ba: concept and application• Simulation Games in Software Engineering » Play’n’learn approach » Some examples on the Net• Creating your own ‘ba’ for Sw Measurement and FSM » Levels of Knowledge » Creating new game – Attention points » Our games: Project-o-poly, Trivial Pursuit, Taboo, Murphy’s tables• Conclusions & Prospects• Q&A www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 26
    • Conclusions & Prospects• Learning Organizations  Be more people-oriented  (Try to) measure and leverage the ‘human capital’ in your organization  ‘Use’ not only people knowledge, but also their creativity for achieving organizational goals faster and better, thought technical motivation• Play’n’Learn  People makes the difference  Coordinate the stimulus to creativity, using a bit of humor  Choose the right games as metaphors of your own informative goals  Train the Trainers• Next Steps  Build/Reinforce your own ‘ba’  Make explicit the tacit knowledge inside your organization  Avoid the ‘silver bullet flu’  …Try! www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 27
    • Food for thougth…. “The most exciting phrase to hear in science, the one that heralds new discoveries, is not ‘Eureka!’ (I found it!) but ‘That’s funny...’” (Isaac Azimov) “Creativity is allowing yourself to make mistakes. Art is knowing which ones to keep.” (Scott Adams)www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 28
    • Q&A Thanks for your attention!www.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione 29
    • For further information: Luigi Buglione Engineering.IT S.p.A. t +39 06 83074472 Via Riccardo Morandi, 32 m +39 335 1214813 I-00148 Rome (Italy) luigi.buglione@eng.it www.eng-it.it/spimqwww.eng.it ISMA4 – Chicago, Sep 13-16, 2009 © Luigi Buglione