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Hybriding CMMI and Requirement Engineering Maturity & Capability Models - Applying the LEGO Approach for Improving Estimates
 

Hybriding CMMI and Requirement Engineering Maturity & Capability Models - Applying the LEGO Approach for Improving Estimates

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Estimation represents one of the most critical processes for any project and it is highly dependent on the quality of requirements elicitation and management. Therefore, the management of requirements ...

Estimation represents one of the most critical processes for any project and it is highly dependent on the quality of requirements elicitation and management. Therefore, the management of requirements should be prioritised in any process improvement program, because the less precise the requirements gathering, analysis and sizing, the greater the error in terms of time and cost estimation. Maturity and Capability Models (MCM) represent a good tool for assessing the status of a set of processes, but an inner limit of any model is its scope and approach for describing a certain issue. Thus, integrating two or more models with a common area of focus can offer more information and value for an organization, keeping the best components from each model. LEGO (Living EnGineering prOcess) is an approach projected for this purpose. This paper proposes a LEGO application hybridizing a ‘horizontal’ model (a MM containing processes going through the complete supply chain, from requirements right through to delivery, e.g. CMMI or ISO 12207/15504) with a few specific ‘vertical’ models (MMs with focus on a single perspective or process category, e.g. TMMi or TPI in the Test Management domain, P3M3 and OPM3 in the Project Management domain) for Requirement Engineering.

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    Hybriding CMMI and Requirement Engineering Maturity & Capability Models - Applying the LEGO Approach for Improving Estimates Hybriding CMMI and Requirement Engineering Maturity & Capability Models - Applying the LEGO Approach for Improving Estimates Presentation Transcript

    • ICSOFT 2012 – 7° Int. Conference on Sw Paradigm Trends Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 2012Hybriding CMMI and Requirement Applying the LEGO ApproachEngineering Maturity & Capability for Improving Estimates Models Luigi Buglione Jean C.R. Hauck Christiane Gresse von Wangenheim Fergal McCaffery www.eng.it
    • DKIT At a glance Dundalk Institute of Technology is a 90 acre campus situated between Dublin and Belfast (each approximately 50 miles away). The Institute consists of 4 Schools: 1. Business & Humanities 2. Informatics & Creative Arts 3. EngineeringThe Regulated Software Research Group which is 4. Health & Sciencepart of LERO (the Irish Software EngineeringResearch Centre) is part of the School of Informatics& Creative Media www.eng.it
    • Engineering At a glance _ The first Italian ICT player _ more than 730 M/€ revenues Research and PA & HC Finance Industry TELCO Utilities Development _ 1000 clients _ 6,300 IT specialists System Int. & Consultancy % 46 70 54 80 80 Outsourcing % 35 10 27 10 Software % 19 20 19 10 20 ERP IT Security ECM Plant Management Managed Operations Broadband & Media System www.eng.it www.eng.it
    • UFSC At a glance Federal University of Santa Catarina Florianópolis/Brazil [http://www.ufsc.br] • 48 Master courses • 38 PhD courses • 62 Undergraduate courses • EUR 268 million annual budget • 25,737 Undergraduate students • 8,543 Graduate students • 34,280 Students[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V6E1Z5DEuvk] INCoD is to be a reference institute for excellence in research, validation and dissemination to support digital convergence. [http://www.incod.ufsc.br] The Software Quality Group focuses on scientific research, development and transfer of SE models, methods and tools. [http://www.gqs.ufsc.br] www.eng.it
    • Hybriding CMMI... Goals of the presentation G1. Discuss the relevance of the Req. Engineering (RE)process as the main input for the Estimation process G2. Present the state-of-the-art of RE Maturity &Capability Models (MCMs) G3. Show how – using the LEGO approach - the‘hybridization’ among 2+ RE MCMs practices can improvethe Estimation process ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 20125 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • Hybriding CMMI... Agenda• Introduction – Being…Glocal! – The Estimation Process• Requirement Engineering: Some Maturity & Capability Models (MCM) – The MM-Mania – RE models and LEGO – Some RE maturity & capability models (MCM)• Experiencing LEGO to Requirement Engineering – The LEGO Approach – Applying LEGO to RE – EoI: Elements of Interest – Suggestions for Improvement• Conclusions & Next Steps• Q&A ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 20126 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • Introduction Being...Glocal!• ‘Glocal’ = think globally, act local (Swyngedouw, 1997)Western world – People act Eastern world: People think (a bit more) before acting• Q: …thus, which could be the best practices for improving Estimation? ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 20127 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • Introduction The Estimation Process (Lifecycle view) Anything starts here...Some known issues for wrong estimates: Missing/incomplete requirements More attention paid to formalize FUR than NFR Gather too high-level requirement (no granularity) ‘Scope creep’ phenomenon Not optimal stakeholder engagement…• Q: can we find solutions/tips from Maturity & Capability Models ( MCMs)? ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 2012 8 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • Introduction The Estimation Process (CMMI-DEV, ML2)MA – Measurement & Analysis PP – Project Planning SG1 Establish Planning Data Estimates Measurement Data SG2 Develop a Project Plans Project Plan An agreed-to set of requirements SG3 Obtain Committment to the Plan REQM – Requirement Mgmt PMC – Project Monitoring & Control ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 2012 9 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • Hybriding CMMI... Agenda• Introduction – Being…Glocal! – The Estimation Process• Requirement Engineering: Some Maturity & Capability Models (MCM) – The MM-Mania – RE models and LEGO – Some RE maturity & capability models (MCM)• Experiencing LEGO to Requirement Engineering – The LEGO Approach – Applying LEGO to RE – EoI: Elements of Interest – Suggestions for Improvement• Conclusions & Next Steps• Q&A ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 201210 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • RE – Some MCMs ‘MM-mania’: UFSC/DKIT researchSource: Gresse von Wangenheim C., Hauck J.C.R., Zoucas A. Salviano C.F., McCaffery F., Shull F., Creating Software Process Capability/MaturitySourceModels. IEEE Software, vol. 27 no. 4, pages 92 -94, July/August 2010. ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 2012 11 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • RE – Some MCMs ‘MM-mania’: SEMQ websiteURL: www.semq.eu/leng/proimpsw.htmURL ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 2012 12 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • RE – Some MCMs MCM Repository - www.gqs.ufsc.br/mcm • Web-based repository  Java v5.0 on a web platform  Tomcat v6.0 application server  MySQL Community Server v5.5Source: Gresse von Wangenheim C., Hauck J.C.R., Buglione L., Mc Caffery F., Cardoso Lacerda T., Viera da Cruz R.F., Building a Maturity & CapabilitySourceModel Repository, Proceedings of PROFES 2011, 12th International Conference Product Focused Software Development and Process Improvement,Torre Canne - Bari (Italy), June 20-22 2011, Second Proceedings: Short Papers, Doctoral Symposium and Workshops, ACM, ISBN 978-1-4503-0783-3,pp. 2-5 ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 2012 13 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • RE – Some MCMs Classifying MCMs by Dimension Source: Buglione L., An Ecological View on Process Improvement: Some Thoughts for Improving Process Appraisals, 4WCSQ, 4th World Congress on Software Quality, Washington D.C. (USA), 15-18 September 2008• Horizontal: MMs going through the whole supply chain  SwEng: ISO/IEC 15504 (SPICE), CMMI, FAA i-CMM, …• Vertical: MMs focusing on a single perspective/group of processes  Test Mgmt: TMM, TPI, …  Project Mgmt: PM-MM, OPM3, …  Requirement Mgmt: ....• Diagonal: MMs focused on Organizational/Support processes  People CMM, TSP, PSP, … ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 201214 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • RE – Some MCMs Choosing RE MCMs - Results Model/ Architect- Repr. Type ML (#) Comments/Notes Framework Type IBM RMM Staged 6 [0-5] Level-based --- (Heurmann, 2003)(Sehlhorst, 2007) IAG RMM (IAG, Staged 6 [0-5] Matrix-based 6 dimensions (process, practices & techniques, 2009) deliverables, technology, organization, staff competency) PRTM CRMM Staged 4 [0-3] Level-based --- (Hepner, 2006)BTH REPM Gorschek Continuous Process-based 7 processes et al, 2002) Variable number of sub-process areas per process (Gorschek, 2011) REAIMS Process Staged 3 [1-3] Process-based 8 process areas and 66 practices (basic, intermediate, MM (Sommerville, advanced) 2005) R-CMM Staged 5 [1-5] Process-based ‘Processes’ = Practices (e.g. 20 ‘processes’ at ML2) - (Beecham et al. Adaptation of GQM for deriving practices 2005) (Beecham et al., 2003)R-CMMi (Solemon et Staged 5 [1-5] Process-based ‘Processes’ = Practices (e.g. 20 ‘processes’ at ML2) - al., 2009) Adaptation of GQM for deriving practices using the CMMI process architecture ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 201215 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • Hybriding CMMI... Agenda• Introduction – Being…Glocal! – The Estimation Process• Requirement Engineering: Some Maturity & Capability Models (MCM) – The MM-Mania – RE models and LEGO – Some RE maturity & capability models (MCM)• Experiencing LEGO to Requirement Engineering – The LEGO Approach – Applying LEGO to RE – EoI: Elements of Interest – Suggestions for Improvement• Conclusions & Next Steps• Q&A ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 201216 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • Experiencing LEGO... The LEGO Approach 1. MCM Repository 2. Process Architecture 3. Mappings & 4. Appraisal Method Comparisons 2. 3. 4. 1. Query the Include new Adapt Identify goals MCM repository elements & Adopt Source: Buglione L., Gresse von Wangenheim C., Hauck J.C.R., Mc Caffery F., The LEGO Maturity & Capability Model Approach, Proceedings of 5WCSQ, 5th World Congress on Software Quality, Shanghai (China), Oct 31- Nov 4 2011 ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 201217 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • Experiencing LEGO... Applying LEGO to REHere the four LEGO steps and related activities and outcomes:1. Identify Goals  Improve the estimation capability and results by a refinement in the overall management of requirements (business, technical)  Assumed the target BPM (Business Process Model) to improve is generically the CMMI RD process area1. Query the MCM repository  Considered RE as the summation of CMMI RM (Req. Management) and RE (Req. Elicitation) process areas  Filtered the list of available RE MCMs from the MCM repository  Next table (EoI – Element of Interest) is a filter of the elements by each of the RE MCMs considered1. Include new elements into the target BPM  Next table (Suggested Improvements) lists the possible EoI matched with the CMMI RD process (both SPs and GPs)1. Adapt & Adopt  Map each practice of the improved process to the related internal QMS process(es)  Validate the mapping results before using it in the daily activities ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 201218 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • Experiencing LEGO... Step 2 - EoI: Elements of Interest (1/2) Model/ Framework Elements of Interest (EoI) IAG RMM • Technology: the introduction of workflow environments for easily sharing information for keeping requirements could be useful  CMMI-DEV RD GP2.3 (Elaboration section in Part 1) • Staff competency: suggested the introduction of Bloom’s levels as informative notes for all GP 2.5, not only for those two PAs PRTM CRMM • Level 1: link between product and customer requirements, using e.g. QFD (quality function deployment)  it could be introduced also in CMMI-DEV RD SP 3.4, not only in SP 2.1 (as currently done) for closing the analysis BTH REPM • RE.SI (Stakeholders and Req. Source Identification)  more specific practice to be added about Requirement Elicitation to CMMI-DEV RD SG1 • RE.GA.a2 (Qualify and Quantify Quality Requirements)  currently missing a more clear and direct link with CMMI-DEV PP SP 1.2 • DS.GA.a2 (Define Requirement Attributes)  currently less stressed (e.g. FUR vs NFR for FSM/FPA – Function Point Analysis, as requested in CMMI-DEV PP, SP 1.4 R-CMMi • ML2: P20: Institute Process to Maintain Stability within Project  always about the need to minimize ‘volatility’, in terms of management  same comment than for REAIMS practice 9.8 ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 201219 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • Experiencing LEGO... Step 3 - EoI: Elements of Interest (2/2) Model/ Framework Elements of Interest (EoI) REAIMS Process MM Basic practices: • 3.1 Define a standard document structure: missing, could be added in CMMI-DEV RD SG1, stressing the need for having an organizational ‘standard’ for comparing different types of requirements, having impact also on planning (different roles, productivities and schedules for different activities  PP SP 1.4). Again, it’d help also PP SP 1.2 because it’d address better the • 3.8 Make the document easy to change  criteria for writing better requirements, could be stressed more in CMMI-DEV RD SG1 / RM SG1, SP 1.3 • 6.2 Use language simply and concisely  criteria for writing better requirements could be added as a note for CMMI-DEV RD SP 1.2, sub-practice #1 Advanced practices: • 9.8 Identify volatile requirements: suggested to introduce the concept of ‘volatility’ also in the RD process definition by an informative note (e.g. “… verifying the new need will not be yet addressed by a formalized requirement…”, with a link to RM, SP 1.3),  see also R-CMMi P20 process, same issue R-CMM • ML2: P19: Agree and document technical and organisational attributes specific to project  CMMI-DEV RD deals with customer and product requirements, not addressing with further informative notes about which could be possible ‘constraints’ such as those ones from the analysis of organizational attributes  reinforce RD SP 1.1 ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 201220 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • Experiencing LEGO... Step 3 - Suggestions for Improvement (1/4) CMMI-DEV v1.3 RD process Suggested Improvements SG 1 Develop Customer Needs • Introduce a new SP 1.0 about Stakeholders Identification and Engagement. Rationale: reinforce current formulation, before running SP 1.1. Nowadays, stakeholder engagement is the sub- practice #1 within SP 1.1. • Insert a note about possible standards (de jure/de facto) that could be consulted/useful for a better application of RD process (e.g.. (AccountAbility, 2011)). SP 1.1 Elicit Needs • Introduce a sub-practice about the definition of requirement attributes, inserting a cross-link with PP SP 1.2 for the classification of work products (by attribute) to be sized. • Modify the current WP into: ‘results of requirement elicitation activities by entity and attribute’ (see previous comment) SP 1.2 Transform Stakeholders • Rephrase and make more general sub-practice #2: not only needs functional vs. quality (non-functional) attributes, but possibly establish all valuable, possible requirements taxonomies and classifications for the organization (by other criteria) ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 201221 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • Experiencing LEGO... Step 3 - Suggestions for Improvement (2/4)CMMI-DEV v1.3 RD process Suggested ImprovementsSG 2 Develop Product • Introduce a note within the SG text about the need andRequirements relevance of define a (standard) document structure (in terms of ‘documentability’) and suggest – as informative note – some possible criteria to follow and appraise (e.g. readability, simple and concise language for writing requirements, etc.). SP 2.1 Establish Product and • Sub-practice #3: refine the Example box, do no mention genericProduct components quality attributes, but be more specific about requirement classifications (e..g ISO/IEC 14143-1:1998  functional, quality, technical)  cross-link with PP 1.2 about attributes for sizing. SP 2.2 Allocate Product Components • --- SP 2.3 Identify Interface • ---Requirements ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 201222 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • Experiencing LEGO... Step 3 - Suggestions for Improvement (3/4)CMMI-DEV v1.3 RD process Suggested ImprovementsSG 3 Analyze and Validate • ---Requirements SP 3.1 Establish Operational • ---Concepts and Scenarios SP 3.2 Establish a Definition of • ---Required … SP 3.3 Analyze Requirements • --- SP 3.4 Analyze Requirements to • Introduce an informative note about the possible usage of QFDAchieve Balance matrices also here, not only for eliciting and determining requirements in SP 2.1 SP 3.5 Validate Requirements • --- ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 201223 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • Experiencing LEGO... Step 3 - Suggestions for Improvement (4/4)CMMI-DEV v1.3 RD process Suggested ImprovementsGP 2.3 Provide Resources • General: stress the need and opportunity from workflow environments for an easier sharing of information among stakeholders, whatever the (CMMI) process • Specific (RD Elaboration): specific need because RD is the starting process for gathering needs to be translated into solutionsGP 2.5 Train People • General: introduce the application of the six Bloom’s cognitive levels (Bloom et al., 1956) for classifying knowledge (see also IEEE SWEBOK – www.computer.org/swebok) • Specific (RD Elaboration): add ‘stakeholder engagement’ (AccountAbility, 2011) and ‘requirement sizing’ (ISO, 2011)GP 2.8 Monitor and Control the • Specific (RD Elaboration): introduce at least one measure aboutProcess the effectiveness of RD SG1 goal (e.g. % of proposed vs validated requirements) ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 201224 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • Hybriding CMMI... Agenda• Introduction – Being…Glocal! – The Estimation Process• Requirement Engineering: Some Maturity & Capability Models (MCM) – The MM-Mania – RE models and LEGO – Some RE maturity & capability models (MCM)• Experiencing LEGO to Requirement Engineering – The LEGO Approach – Applying LEGO to RE – EoI: Elements of Interest – Suggestions for Improvement• Conclusions & Next Steps• Q&A ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 201225 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • The LEGO Strategy Conclusions & Next Steps• Requirement Engineering (RE) & Estimation Process  The main input for an estimate is the list of things to do/accomplish with (requirements)  The quality (granularity/detail) and quantity of requirements can make the difference  Typical trend to underestimate and do not be on time/budget/quality• RE & Maturity/Capability Models (MCMs)  MCMs can represent a library of best practices for keeping advantange  Many ‘vertical’ RE MCMs  filtered 7 models (6 staged, 1 continuous) + CMMI RD as the target process The LEGO (Living EnGineering prOcess) approach  http://slideshare.re/nssLR8 [5WCSQ, Shangai, Nov 2011]  Choose and integrate the ‘pieces of the puzzle’ you need for your goals  the target is your QMS, not the model(s) you’re using Applying LEGO to RE  A process (RD) from an horizontal MCM (CMMI-DEV) can be improved with ‘bricks’ from vertical RE MCM  Several refinements about requirements scope and granularity, helping in reducing estimation errors from the initial identification of the amount of activities to work on and improving the communication among stakeholders  towards a SCRUM-like partnership between client and provider  ...try and see! The difference between the almost right word and the right word is really a large matter (Mark Twain) ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 2012 26 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • Hybriding CMMI... Agenda• Introduction – Being…Glocal! – The Estimation Process• Requirement Engineering: Some Maturity & Capability Models (MCM) – The MM-Mania – RE models and LEGO – Some RE maturity & capability models (MCM)• Experiencing LEGO to Requirement Engineering – The LEGO Approach – Applying LEGO to RE – EoI: Elements of Interest – Suggestions for Improvement• Conclusions & Next Steps• Q&A ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 201227 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • Hybriding CMMI... Lessons Learned... www.dilbert.com URL: ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 201228 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • Hybriding CMMI... Q&A Grazie per la vostra attenzione! Thanks for your attention! ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 201229 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery
    • Hybriding CMMI... Our Contact Data Luigi Jean Carlo R. C. Gresse von Fergal Buglione Hauck Wangenheim McCafferyEngineering.IT/ETS UFSC UFSC DKITluigi.buglione@eng.it jeanhauck@gmail.com gresse@gmail.com fergal.mccaffery@dkit.ie ICSOFT 2012 – Rome (Italy), 24-27 July, 2012 30 © 2012 Buglione, Hauck, Gresse von Wangenheim, McCaffery