2. What is Heterosexism? Heterosexism is a belief system that values heterosexuality as inherently normal and superior. Heterosexism imposes heterosexual norms that individuals must follow to be considered normal, moral, and equal.  Sex-roles are attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex. ○ Sex-roles govern emotional expression, career choice, dress, interests, etc.
3. Heterosexism and the LGBTCommunity  Heterosexism has many devastating effects on the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender or “LGBT” community.  Although tolerance and acceptance of the LGBT community has slowly increased, the lives of members are still oppressed and discriminated against in many ways.  Institutional heterosexism  Hate crimes  Depression and suicide (Caggiano, 2011)  Substance abuse
4. Institutional Heterosexism Institutional Heterosexism is heterosexist bias built into the operation of society’s institutions.  Prohibition of gay marriage  Military’s “Don’t Ask Don’t Tell” policy  Employment discrimination
5. Prohibition of gay marriage The laws that prohibit gay marriage deny homosexual couples 1,138 federal protections that are given to heterosexual couples by default. (Harris, 2009)
6. Military’s “Don’t Ask Don’t Tell”Policy  Sexuality is not discussed.  Homosexuals are prohibited from enlisting  Individuals are discharged for disclosing their homosexuality or engaging in homosexual conduct  Reasoning is that homosexuals “would create an unacceptable risk to the high standards of morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion”
7. Employment discrimination 35 states have no laws against employment discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity A study of 191 employers revealed that 18% would fire a gay individual 26% would not promote a qualified gay individual
8. Hate crime laws Only 21 states include sexual orientation in their hate crime laws Only 11 states include both sexual orientation and gender identity 13 states have no laws regarding hate crimes against sexual orientation and gender identity
9. Hate crimes Between 1991 and 2005 there were more than 15,000 reported hate crimes based on sexual orientation In 2009, 18.5% of hate crimes committed in the U.S. were based on sexual orientation A large number of hate crimes are not reported due to fear and embarrassment of the victims
10. Depression and suicide The LGBT community experience a higher quantity of suicidal ideation and attempts than heterosexuals.  This is due to heterosexist messages that instill shame and cause depression. LGBT adolescents make up 63% of all suicide attempts
11. Substance abuse 20% - 25% of homosexuals are alcohol users  Only 3% - 10% of the heterosexual population are alcohol users Other drugs, and cigarette smoking are also higher amongst the LGBT community Due to the instilled shame and poor self- perception, LGBT members turn to substance abuse to cope Substance abuse contributes to the shorter life expectancy of homosexual men
12. Human Services and LGBT The LGBT community needs assistance and advocates Human Service professions engage in institutional heterosexism due to a lack of information  Not aware of LGBT issues  Generalize as heterosexual  Personal biases
13. ReferencesBurelli, D. F., & Feder, J. (2009). Homosexuals and the U.S. Military: Current Issues. Congressional Research Service, 1-33.Caggiano, G. (2011). Are you afraid of gay marriage. From New York to San Francisco. Retrieved from http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://gcaggiano.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/gay_marriage_opponents-1- 731273.jpg&imgrefurl=http://gcaggiano.wordpress.com/2011/01/02/why-are-you-afraid-of-gay-marriageFish, J. (2008). Far from Mundane: Theorizing Heterosexism for Social Work Education. Social Work Education, 27 (2), 182-193.Harris, H. R. (2009). Ministers lead protest of D.C. legislation. The Washington Post. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://media3.washingtonpost.comHate crimes based on sexual orientation, gender, gender identity, and disability. (2010) Congressional Digest, 170-172.Hays, D.G., & Erford, B.T. (2010) Developing Multicultural Counseling Competence: A Systems Approach. Boston: Pearson Education Incorporated.Lansing, P., & Cruser, C. (2009). The Moral Responsibility of Business to Protect Homosexuals from Discrimination in the Workplace. Employee Relations Law Journal, 35 (1), 43-66.Macionis, J.J. (2010). Sociology. Boston: Pearson Education Incorporated.Moss-Racusin, C.A., Phelan, J.E., & Rudman, L.A. (2010). When Men Break the Gender Rules: Status Incongruity and Backlash Against Modest Men. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 11 (2) 140-151.Rubenstein, G. (1995). The Decision to Remove Homosexuality from the DSM: Twenty Years Later. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 49 (3), 416-426.U.S. Department of Justice. (2009). Hate Crime Laws 2009. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.