Tourism demand

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theories of tourism motivation

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  • Actions of people are stimulated or motivated by desire to satisfy felt needs – patterns of demand are reflected in the actions that people take. Can be biological e.g. Water, oxygen, food sleep, or psychological e.g. security, love, affection, recognition. Needs arousal – gap between current situation and ideal. E,g. hunger. Will motivate person to take action to decrease gap. Need to look at what needs are being satisfied. Diagram on board. Principles of Tourism, Collier, P284
  • Decision criteria - strengths and weaknesses of each alternative. Different for different people Available funds Awareness of alternatives – word of mouth, promotional activities, etc Size, colour, style, reliability
  • Facilitators – determine whether tourism is a viable option – travel and time – enabling Motivators – determine whether desirable option – push factors become pull factors when encouraged to travel to destination/product e.g. marketing in form of TV, magazines Resistance – counterbalance to both the above In tourism – `general’ demand for travel/tourism and `specific’ demand for destination/product
  • Push/pull – many factors simultaneously – e.g. desire escape everyday life - pull to ? e.g. Tourism-Cook, Yale, Marqua P35 Table on board Maslow Show diagram Physiological – tour packages with frequent toilet stops, accessible food outlets theme parks, huts on Abel Tasman Track Safety – Cruise ships on board hospitals, tour guide services Belongingness – Group tours e.g. music, frequent user programmes, trips to research family tree Esteem – Elite status frequent user programme, incentive travel in co’s, welcome fruit bowls etc Self-actualisation- educational tours, personal physical challenge e.g. bungy jump, trekking, learn about culture/language another country Ramumbo – based on Maslow Physical – rest, sport, recreation, health spas Cultural – art, music, dance, tradition, religion Interpersonal – meet new people, VFR, escape routine Status and prestige- needs esteem and personal development Psychocentric/Allocentric – Plog, Stanley - uses personality traits to understand tourists behaviour- venturers to dependables
  • Tourism demand

    1. 1. Exploring Tourism Tourism Demand
    2. 2. Decision Making <ul><li>problem identification </li></ul><ul><li>search for alternatives and deciding on preferences </li></ul><ul><li>making a choice </li></ul><ul><li>Putting the decision into action </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>facilitators </li></ul><ul><li>motivators </li></ul><ul><li>resistance factors </li></ul>Tourism Demand
    4. 4. <ul><li>Push and Pull </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow </li></ul><ul><li>Ramumbo </li></ul><ul><li>Psychocentric-Allocentric model </li></ul>Motivation http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/60/Maslow%
    5. 5. Characteristics of Demand <ul><li>Price elasticity – responsiveness of demand to change in price </li></ul><ul><li>Income elasticity – increase in individual’s income will not necessarily mean an increase in travel demand. May result in an increase in quality product or destination. </li></ul>

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