The Beauty of Stained Glass

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  • 1. The Beauty and Physics of Stained Glass A Brief Tutorial for the Adult Hobbyist Click here to proceedUpdated September 2011
  • 2. Welcome, future glaziers!Stained glass has been a sourceof inspiration and reflection forcenturies.This short tutorial will providesome information to help youappreciate your new hobby.The next screen will show youwhat you can expect to learn inthe next 10 minutes!The stained glass window, left, isin the Notre Dame cathedral inParis, France. Click here to proceed
  • 3. Introduction The menu bar to the left contains all the topics to be covered. You How Glass is may progress at your own pace Made through this presentation. •There is a short video to see howPhysics of Glass glass is made. •Then you will learn about how light plays a major role in theTypes of Glass beauty and physics of your projects. •There are four types of glass toJoining Glass – consider as you work. Foil or Came? •Finally, you will need to decide whether to use copper foil or lead came to put your project Quiz together. Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Click here Screen to 3 of 36 proceed Glossary Exit
  • 4. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of GlassTypes of Glass The navigation menu bar at the bottom of the screen allows you to move through the tutorial. For each action highlighted below,Joining Glass – click the corresponding icon in the navigation menu bar. Foil or Came? PHOTO PROGRESS Quiz BACK (how far you have ADVANCE EXIT GALLERY advanced) Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 4 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 5. Introduction Viewing the quiz, resources, How Glass is glossary and photo gallery are Made options you may pursue if you have more time.Physics of Glass We hope that this tutorial will inspire you to look for a class or workshop in your local areaTypes of Glass so you may begin glasswork. The art of stained glass hasJoining Glass – changed so much recently, Foil or Came? due to advances in how glass is made. The physics of glass and types of glass offer you so Quiz many options to create art! Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 5 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 6. Introduction At the end of this tutorial, you will have learned…. How Glass is Made Three main ingredients used to make glassPhysics of Glass Three qualities or physical properties of glassTypes of Glass Four types of stained glass Whether to use foil orJoining Glass – came in your projects Foil or Came? You may take a short quiz to see how well you Quiz have mastered the content! Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 6 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 7. Introduction How Glass is made How Glass is At the end of this tutorial, Made you will have learned….Physics of Glass • Three main ingredients used to make glass • Three qualities or physicalTypes of Glass properties of glass • Four types of stained glassJoining Glass – • Whether to use foil or came in Foil or Came? your projects Quiz Pictured above is a chunk of obsidian. Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 7 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 8. Introduction Glass is made of silica (sand), sodium How Glass is Made carbonate (soda ash), and calcium carbonate (limestone). In its natural form, glass occurs as obsidian rock.Physics of Glass Nature first made glass when lightningTypes of Glass struck sand. The superheated sand melted and reformed as it cooledJoining Glass – (annealed) into obsidian. Foil or Came? Quiz Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 8 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 9. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of GlassTypes of Glass Click on the camera to watch this short video about howJoining Glass – glass is made. Foil or Came? http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/ 28024-some-assembly-required-how-glass-is- made-video.htm Quiz Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 9 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 10. Introduction After being mixed at 3000 How Glass is degrees Made Fahrenheit, the sand, soda ash, and limestonePhysics of Glass mixture is now liquid and is floated on a poolTypes of Glass of molten tin. The glass coolsJoining Glass – into a reasonably Foil or Came? smooth consistency. Gases and Quiz impurities escape in the heat. Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 10 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 11. Introduction Cooling glass can be How Glass is molded or pressed to Made obtain different textures in the glass.Physics of Glass See how the clear glass in this photo has texture.Types of Glass There are at least five different textures in this project.Joining Glass – Foil or Came? These are all made by different manufacturing techniques. Quiz Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 11 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 12. Introduction Most glass is machine drawn, meaning it is manufactured in huge sheets as you How Glass is saw in the video clip. Different Made techniques can be used to achieve different coloration and texture.Physics of Glass As glass is being made, metal oxides are added to provide color. The coloration in this piece varies from the top to theTypes of Glass bottom and is a result of iridescence. Pressed glass has textural patternsJoining Glass – pressed into the glass as it cools. Foil or Came? Notice how this glass in the background has a pressed pattern that is reminiscent of an old tin ceiling. Quiz Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 12 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 13. Introduction Glass can be How Glass is pressed, as we have Made seen. It can also blown.Physics of Glass See how the circles of glass in this photo appear to haveTypes of Glass centers and concentric rings.Joining Glass – That was where the Foil or Came? glass was connected to the hollow tube used to blow the Quiz glass into shape. Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 13 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 14. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of Glass The Physics of Glass Light RefractionTypes of Glass Light passes through the glass and is refracted in different ways based on theJoining Glass – refractive properties of the glass. Foil or Came? A Light rainbow enters of colors the exits the Quiz prism prism Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 14 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 15. Introduction Light Refraction How Glass is The beauty of stained glass comes Made from its refractive qualities….opacity, translucency or transparency.Physics of Glass Some stained glass looks better when lit from behind, but can appear dark when light hits it from the front.Types of Glass Other pieces appear luminous when light comes from the front.Joining Glass – Foil or Came? Tip: A combination of transparent, opaque and translucent glasses in one project adds visual interest and Quiz depth. Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 15 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 16. Introduction We tend to think of rich jewel tones when we think How Glass is of stained glass – pure color Made when the light shines through!Physics of Glass This photo is an excellent example of single color glass with no texture – justTypes of Glass that rich, pure color that is transparent and lets light shine through.Joining Glass – Foil or Came? This would leave a beautiful pattern of color on any surface where the light is Quiz cast! Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 16 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 17. Introduction A modern trend is to How Glass is have streaky glass Made with gradations of color, as this orange glass has.Physics of Glass Parts of this orange glass look milky,Types of Glass meaning it is opaque and light will not go through well.Joining Glass – Foil or Came? Parts of this glass are translucent, which mean some light goes Quiz through. Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 17 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 18. Introduction Types of Glass…. Different manufacturers produce How Glass is unique versions of stained glass for Made the hobbyist. In general, though, the types of stained glass are categorized by the coloration and manufacturingPhysics of Glass process used to make the glass. Most glass is machine-drawn rather than blown, and the coloration variesTypes of Glass from transparent to opaque. Next, we will look at these four typesJoining Glass – of glass. Foil or Came? 1. Cathedral 2. Opalescent Quiz 3. Wispy 4. Fractured/Streamer Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 18 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 19. Introduction Cathedral Glass: Transparent, How Glass is single color Made glass, which may have texture or be smooth.Physics of Glass Note the glass bubbles in this example. TheyTypes of Glass make this glass look “seedy” (i.e. seedsJoining Glass – dispersed) and Foil or Came? may present difficulty in cutting a straight Quiz line. Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 19 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 20. Introduction Opalescent Glass: How Glass is Made Flourine is added to clear glassPhysics of Glass to give it a milky appearanceTypes of Glass Additional colors mayJoining Glass – be added Foil or Came? as well. Quiz Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 20 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 21. Introduction Wispy Glass How Glass is A blend of Made translucent and opaque glass that usually results in aPhysics of Glass swirly, wispy appearance. The variations in colorTypes of Glass may impact how you cut your glass for your project.Joining Glass – Foil or Came? It also seems that some wispy glass is particularly fragile Quiz and breaks easily. Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 21 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 22. Introduction Fractured/Streamer– How Glass is Fractures are small Made shards of glass bubbles that have been broken, whilePhysics of Glass streamers are long strands of colored glass. These areTypes of Glass pressed into machine-drawn glass as it cools to formJoining Glass – unique patterns. Foil or Came? • This glass will also be difficult to Quiz work with. Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 22 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 23. Introduction A word to the wise… The coloration and texture of your stained glass present How Glass is some challenges to the novice. Made It may be difficult to cut straight lines in fractured or seedy glass. Also, in wispyPhysics of Glass glass, the coloration in one area of the sheet may not have the best refractiveTypes of Glass quality you want for the piece. Cutting stained glass is not asJoining Glass – easy as cutting paper or fabric. Foil or Came? Start with inexpensive glass and practice your cutting Quiz techniques before purchasing expensive glass! Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 23 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 24. Introduction Joining Pieces of How Glass is Stained Made GlassPhysics of GlassTypes of Glass Look at the way these pieces were joined. Notice thatJoining Glass – there are some holes Foil or Came? between pieces of glass. Quiz Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 24 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 25. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of GlassTypes of Glass This piece was put togetherJoining Glass – using the copper foil Foil or Came? technique. Quiz Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 25 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 26. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of Glass Each piece was edged withTypes of Glass copper foil This piece was put togetherJoining Glass – using the copper foil Foil or Came? technique. Quiz Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 26 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 27. Introduction How Glass is Pinned Made into placePhysics of Glass Each piece was edged withTypes of Glass copper foil This piece was put togetherJoining Glass – using the copper foil Foil or Came? technique. Quiz Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 27 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 28. Introduction Then How Glass is Pinned doused Made into with flux placePhysics of Glass Each piece was edged withTypes of Glass copper foil This piece was put togetherJoining Glass – using the copper foil Foil or Came? technique. Quiz Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 28 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 29. Introduction Then How Glass is Pinned doused Made into with flux place AndPhysics of Glass soldered Each piece was edged together with on bothTypes of Glass sides copper foil This piece was put togetherJoining Glass – using the copper foil Foil or Came? technique. Quiz Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 29 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 30. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of GlassTypes of GlassJoining Glass – Foil or Came? Quiz Notice how this project is fitted into a wood frame, so that the copper- foil-wrapped pieces don’t move around while soldering. Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 30 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 31. Introduction Notice how the How Glass is joins in this piece Made are thicker and darker than those in the copper foilPhysics of Glass projects. This project wasTypes of Glass pieced together using lead came.Joining Glass – Came is a Foil or Came? traditional way of joining pieces of stained glass. Quiz Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 31 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 32. Introduction Came comes in two forms – “H” channel and “U” channel. How Glass is These names come from the Made shape of the profile of each type of came.Physics of Glass The “H” channel is used to connect interior pieces of glass while the “U” channel isTypes of Glass used to finish the exterior edges of the project.Joining Glass – Either type of came can be Foil or Came? flat or have a rounded finish. Came is most frequently Quiz made of lead, but zinc is also used as well. Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 32 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 33. Introduction Here is a profile of the came. How Glass is Made Notice that the glass pieces fill inPhysics of Glass the top and bottom parts of theTypes of Glass “H”. That is whyJoining Glass – “H” Foil or Came? channel is used for the interior Quiz joints. Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 33 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 34. Introduction Foil is the predominant method these days. How Glass is Made It requires much practice to apply foil evenly around eachPhysics of Glass piece of glass. Additionally, you willTypes of Glass want to practice soldering, which can be difficult to master.Joining Glass – Foil or Came? Came is more forgiving and easier to use, but there are Quiz concerns about the lead. Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 34 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 35. Introduction How Glass is Made Came is best used in flat projects, such as windows.Physics of Glass Copper foil is great in flat projects as well as structuralTypes of Glass projects, such as lamps.Joining Glass – Foil or Came? Quiz Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 35 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 36. Introduction You have now completed the four modules of this tutorial. How Glass is Made You learned about how glass is made and how light impacts the beauty of yourPhysics of Glass project. You learned that there are four basic types of glass, and that either cameTypes of Glass or copper foil can be used to join the pieces of your project.Joining Glass – Foil or Came? QUIZ TIME! There will be four quiz questions in the screens Quiz that follow. Photo Resources Gallery Tutorial Screen 36 of 36 Glossary Exit
  • 37. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of GlassTypes of GlassJoining Glass – Question 1. Foil or Came? What are the three main ingredients used in making glass? Quiz The answer will be revealed in the next screen… Photo Resources Gallery Quiz Screen 1 of 9 Glossary Exit
  • 38. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of GlassTypes of GlassJoining Glass – Question 1. Foil or Came? What are the three main ingredients used in making glass? Answer: Quiz Silica (in the form of sand), soda ash and limestone Photo Resources Gallery Quiz Screen 2 of 9 Glossary Exit
  • 39. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of GlassTypes of GlassJoining Glass – Question 2. Foil or Came? What are the three refractive qualities of stained glass? Quiz The answer will be revealed in the next screen… Photo Resources Gallery Quiz Screen 3 of 9 Glossary Exit
  • 40. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of GlassTypes of GlassJoining Glass – Question 2. Foil or Came? What are the three refractive qualities of stained glass? Answer: Quiz Opacity, Transparency and Translucence Photo Resources Gallery Quiz Screen 4 of 9 Glossary Exit
  • 41. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of GlassTypes of GlassJoining Glass – Question 3. Foil or Came? What are the four types of stained glass? Quiz The answer will be revealed in the next screen… Photo Resources Gallery Quiz Screen 5 of 9 Glossary Exit
  • 42. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of GlassTypes of GlassJoining Glass – Question 3. Foil or Came? What are the four types of stained glass? Answer: Quiz Cathedral, Wispy, Opalescent, and Fractures/Streamers Photo Resources Gallery Quiz Screen 6 of 9 Glossary Exit
  • 43. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of GlassTypes of GlassJoining Glass – Question 4. Foil or Came? When making a window, what type of join should be used? Quiz The answer will be revealed in the next screen… Photo Resources Gallery Quiz Screen 7 of 9 Glossary Exit
  • 44. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of GlassTypes of GlassJoining Glass – Question 4. Foil or Came? When making a window, what type of join should be used? Answer: Quiz Either method; foil is best when making a 3-D project Photo Resources Gallery Quiz Screen 8 of 9 Glossary Exit
  • 45. Introduction Congratulations! You have completed How Glass is the “beauty and Made physics of stained glass” tutorial.Physics of Glass If you have time, continue on to view additional resourcesTypes of Glass to help you as you begin your new hobby.Joining Glass – Foil or Came? Also, visit the photo gallery for some ideas on projects Quiz you might like! Photo Resources Gallery Quiz Screen 9 of 9 Glossary Exit
  • 46. Introduction This is the homepage for the Stained Glass Association of How Glass is America. Check out their Made newsletter and annual conferences. http://stainedglass.org/Physics of Glass This is a link to the video about how glass is made. It was produced by the DiscoveryTypes of Glass Channel – you probably recognized some of the TV hosts who appeared in this clip!Joining Glass – http://videos.howstuffworks.com/ Foil or Came? discovery/28024-some-assembly- required-how-glass-is-made- video.htm Quiz Photo Resources Gallery Resources Screen 1 of 3 Glossary Exit
  • 47. Introduction How Glass is Made This link takes you to the page where the four types of glassPhysics of Glass are described. Be sure to surf to other related pages whenTypes of Glass visiting this one! http://www.ehow.co m/facts_5004230_tyJoining Glass – pes-stained- Foil or Came? glass.html Quiz Photo Resources Gallery Resources Screen 2 of 3 Glossary Exit
  • 48. Introduction Go here to see definitions of more How Glass is types of glass sold to stained glass Made artists. This site is a commercial site for selling stained glass projects. http://pw1.netcom.com/~mmglass/Physics of Glass types.html#flasTypes of Glass Here are links to pages with free stock photos which I used in this presentation:Joining Glass – http://www.shutterstock.com/ Foil or Came? http://www.dreamstime.com/ Quiz Photo Resources Gallery Resources Screen 3 of 3 Glossary Exit
  • 49. Introduction How Glass is Made Glossary Anneal – to make stronger by heating andPhysics of Glass then cooling Flux – a chemical cleaning agent used whenTypes of Glass soldering to help metals flow Glazier - centuries ago, an artisan who madeJoining Glass – glass was a glazier. In modern times, a Foil or Came? glazier is a construction worker who specializes in repairing glass Quiz Photo Resources Gallery Glossary Screen 1 of 3 Glossary Exit
  • 50. Introduction How Glass is Made GlossaryPhysics of Glass Iridescence– the quality of changing hue depending on the angle at which the object is viewedTypes of Glass Luminous– the quality of being lit upJoining Glass – Foil or Came? Opalescence - exhibiting a milky iridescence like that of an opal Quiz Photo Resources Gallery Glossary Screen 2 of 3 Glossary Exit
  • 51. Introduction How Glass is Made GlossaryPhysics of Glass Refraction - the bending of light rays as they pass through a substanceTypes of Glass Solder– metal alloys, usually tin and lead, used to joinJoining Glass – fusible parts Foil or Came? Quiz Photo Resources Gallery Glossary Screen 3 of 3 Glossary Exit
  • 52. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of GlassTypes of GlassJoining Glass – Foil or Came? Photo Quiz Gallery Resources Gallery Screen 1 of 9 Glossary Exit
  • 53. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of GlassTypes of GlassJoining Glass – Foil or Came? Photo Quiz Gallery Resources Gallery Screen 2 of 9 Glossary Exit
  • 54. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of GlassTypes of GlassJoining Glass – Foil or Came? Photo Quiz Gallery Resources Gallery Screen 4 of 9 Glossary Exit
  • 55. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of GlassTypes of GlassJoining Glass – Foil or Came? Photo Quiz Gallery Resources Gallery Screen 4 of 9 Glossary Exit
  • 56. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of GlassTypes of GlassJoining Glass – Foil or Came? Photo Quiz Gallery Resources Gallery Screen 5 of 9 Glossary Exit
  • 57. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of GlassTypes of GlassJoining Glass – Foil or Came? Photo Quiz Gallery Resources Gallery Screen 6 of 9 Glossary Exit
  • 58. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of GlassTypes of GlassJoining Glass – Foil or Came? Photo Quiz Gallery Resources Gallery Screen 7 of 9 Glossary Exit
  • 59. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of GlassTypes of GlassJoining Glass – Foil or Came? Photo Quiz Gallery Resources Gallery Screen 8 of 9 Glossary Exit
  • 60. Introduction How Glass is MadePhysics of GlassTypes of Glass Thank you for visiting this tutorial!Joining Glass – Enjoy the Beauty and Physics of Stained Glass. Foil or Came? Quiz Please close the door gently on your way out, so you don’t break the decorative glass! Resources Gallery Screen 9 of 9 Glossary Exit