TheBeautyandPhysics ofStainedGlassA Brief Tutorial forthe Adult Hobbyist Click here to proceed
Welcome , future glaziers!                       Stained glass has been a source of inspiration and                       ...
You may progress at your own pace through this                       presentation.                       At the bottom of ...
How Glass                          TOPICSis MadePhysics of      The menu bar on the left ofGlass          each screen show...
How Glassis Made                   It is suggested that youPhysics of      progress in the order shown.Glass              ...
How Glass      At the end of this tutorial,is Made        you will have learned….Physics of     • What three mainGlass    ...
How Glassis Made        How Glass is madePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlassJoiningPieces ofGlass – Foilor Came?                 ...
How Glassis Made        Glass is made of silica (sand), sodiumPhysics of     carbonate (soda ash), and calciumGlass       ...
How Glass        Online resources regarding how glass is made…is MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlassJoiningPieces ofGlass – F...
How Glass      Online resources regarding how glass is made…is MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlassJoiningPieces ofGlass – Foi...
After being mixed at 3000                         degrees Fahrenheit, theHow Glass                sand, soda ash, and lime...
How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlass                                 See how the clear glassTypes of                         in...
How Glass      Most glass is machine drawn, meaning it is manufactured inis Made        huge sheets as you saw in the vide...
Glass can beHow Glass                                 pressed, as we haveis Made                                 seen. It ...
The Physics of GlassHow Glass                                       Light Refractionis Made                               ...
Light RefractionHow Glassis Made               The beauty of stained glass comes from itsPhysics of     refractive qualiti...
How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlass               We tend to think of rich jewel tones when we think ofTypes of       stained ...
How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlass               A modern trend is to have streaky glass with gradations ofTypes of       col...
How Glassis Made               Types of Glass….Physics ofGlass          Thinking about what you have learned of the       ...
How Glassis Made               Types of Glass….Physics of     Different manufacturers produce unique versionsGlass        ...
Cathedral – Transparent, single colorHow Glass         glass, which may have texture or be smooth.is MadePhysics ofGlassTy...
Cathedral – Transparent, single color glass, whichHow Glass         may have texture or be smooth.is Made                 ...
Cathedral – Transparent, single color glass, whichHow Glass         may have texture or be smooth.is Made                 ...
Cathedral – Transparent, single color glass, whichHow Glass         may have texture or be smooth.is Made                 ...
How Glass      A word to the wise…is Made        The coloration and texture of your stained               glass present so...
How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlassJoining               Look at the wayPieces of                 these piecesGla...
How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlassJoiningPieces ofGlass – Foilor Came?               This piece was put together...
How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlassTypes of       EachGlass          piece               wasJoining        edgedPieces of     ...
How Glassis Made                 PinnedPhysics of              intoGlass                   placeTypes of       EachGlass  ...
How Glass                                  Thenis Made                 Pinned             doused                        in...
How Glass                                  Thenis Made                 Pinned             doused                        in...
How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlassJoiningPieces ofGlass – Foilor Came?Quiz               Notice how this project...
How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlassJoining               Compare this piece with the dawg paw fromPieces of      ...
How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlassJoining               This piece was put together using the came method.Pieces...
How Glassis MadePhysics of     Came comes in two forms – “H” channel andGlass          “U” channel. These names come from ...
How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlassJoining        Here is a profile of the came.Pieces ofGlass – Foil   Notice th...
How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlassJoiningPieces ofGlass – Foil   See how the pieces of glass fit intoor Came?   ...
Foil is the predominant methodHow Glass                 these days.is Made                   It requires much practice to ...
How Glass       You have nowis Made         completed the               four modules ofPhysics ofGlass            this tut...
How Glass       You have nowis Made         completed the               four modules ofPhysics of                        W...
How Glass       You have nowis Made         completed the               four modules ofPhysics of                         ...
How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlass          Key Ingredients of Glass—               1. Silica (sand)Joining     ...
How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlass          Physical Properties of Glass—               Refraction!Joining      ...
How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlass               Types of Glass—Types of       Cathedral glass is transparent, single color g...
How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlass               Foil or Came?Types of       This decision depends on the type of projects an...
GlossaryAnneal        to make stronger by heating and then coolingFlux          a chemical cleaning agent used when solder...
This is the homepage for the Stained GlassAssociation of America. Check out theirnewsletter and annual conferences.http://...
This link takes you to the page where the fourtypes of glass are described. Be sure to surf toother related pages when vis...
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Stainedglass

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beautiful tutorial explaining stained glass

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Stainedglass

  1. 1. TheBeautyandPhysics ofStainedGlassA Brief Tutorial forthe Adult Hobbyist Click here to proceed
  2. 2. Welcome , future glaziers! Stained glass has been a source of inspiration and reflection for centuries. This 10 minute tutorial will provide some information to help you appreciate your new hobby. First, let’s show you how to progress through the tutorial.The stained glasswindow picturedabove is from thefamous Chartrescathedral in France. Click the arrow key to move forward
  3. 3. You may progress at your own pace through this presentation. At the bottom of each page you will see arrows to move backwards or forward through the presentation. You will also see the glossary icon, so that you can look up words that are undefined in the text. Walking Through the TutorialClick the arrow keys to move forward Click this icon to view the glossaryand backward through the tutorial.
  4. 4. How Glass TOPICSis MadePhysics of The menu bar on the left ofGlass each screen shows the topics covered in this tutorial.Types ofGlass As you advance through the tutorial, you will see how theJoining current topic turns blue.Pieces ofGlass – Foil See how the first topic is blueor Came? rather than lavendar?Quiz
  5. 5. How Glassis Made It is suggested that youPhysics of progress in the order shown.Glass Also, note the progress you areTypes of making in the box at theGlass bottom of the page.Joining Let’s get going!Pieces of Next, a review of what you canGlass – Foil expect to gain from thisor Came? tutorial.Quiz Screen 5 of 48
  6. 6. How Glass At the end of this tutorial,is Made you will have learned….Physics of • What three mainGlass components go intoTypes of glassGlass • Three qualities or physical properties ofJoining glassPieces ofGlass – Foil • Four types of stainedor Came? glass • Whether to use foil orQuiz came in your projects Screen 6 of 48
  7. 7. How Glassis Made How Glass is madePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlassJoiningPieces ofGlass – Foilor Came? Pictured above is a chunk of obsidian.Quiz Screen 7 of 48
  8. 8. How Glassis Made Glass is made of silica (sand), sodiumPhysics of carbonate (soda ash), and calciumGlass carbonate (limestone). In its naturalTypes of form, glass occurs as obsidian rock.Glass Nature first made glass when lightningJoining struck sand. The superheated sandPieces ofGlass – Foil melted and reformed as it cooledor Came? (annealed) into obsidian.Quiz Screen 8 of 48
  9. 9. How Glass Online resources regarding how glass is made…is MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlassJoiningPieces ofGlass – Foil Watch this short video about how glass is made.or Came? http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/Quiz 28024-some-assembly-required-how-glass-is- made-video.htm Screen 9 of 48
  10. 10. How Glass Online resources regarding how glass is made…is MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlassJoiningPieces ofGlass – Foilor Came? Here is an interesting website with a text version of how glass is made.Quiz http://www.bigsiteofamazingfacts.com/how-is-glass-made Screen 10 of 48
  11. 11. After being mixed at 3000 degrees Fahrenheit, theHow Glass sand, soda ash, and limestoneis Made mixture is now liquid and is floated on a pool of molten tin.Physics ofGlass The glass cools into a reasonably smooth consistency. Gases andTypes of impurities escape in the heat.Glass Tiny bubbles that remain in glass give it “seedy” appearance (i.e.Joining as if small seeds were dispersedPieces of throughout).Glass – Foilor Came? Molten glass can be molded or pressed to obtain differentQuiz textures in the glass. Screen 11 of 48
  12. 12. How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlass See how the clear glassTypes of in this photo has texture.Glass There are at least fiveJoining different textures in thisPieces of project.Glass – Foilor Came? These are all made by different manufacturingQuiz techniques. Screen 12 of 48
  13. 13. How Glass Most glass is machine drawn, meaning it is manufactured inis Made huge sheets as you saw in the video clip. Different techniques can be used to achieve different coloration andPhysics of texture.Glass As glass is being made, metal oxides are added to provideTypes of color.Glass Pressed glass has textural patterns pressed into the glass as it cools.JoiningPieces of Notice how this glass in the background has a pressedGlass – Foil pattern that is reminiscent of an old tin ceiling.or Came? The coloration varies from the top to the bottom and its shiny reflection of light is due to its iridescence.Quiz Screen 13 of 48
  14. 14. Glass can beHow Glass pressed, as we haveis Made seen. It can alsoPhysics of blown.Glass See how the circlesTypes of of glass in this photoGlass appear to have centers and concentric rings.JoiningPieces of That was where theGlass – Foil glass was connectedor Came? to the hollow tube used to blow theQuiz glass into shape. Screen 14 of 48
  15. 15. The Physics of GlassHow Glass Light Refractionis Made Light passes through the glass and isPhysics of refracted in different ways based on theGlass refractive properties of the glass.Types ofGlassJoiningPieces ofGlass – Foilor Came? Light enters A rainbow the prismQuiz of colors exits the prism Screen 15 of 48
  16. 16. Light RefractionHow Glassis Made The beauty of stained glass comes from itsPhysics of refractive qualities….opacity, translucency orGlass transparency.Types of Some stained glass looks better when lit fromGlass behind, but can appear dark when light hits it from the front.Joining Other pieces look luminous when light comesPieces of from the front.Glass – Foilor Came? A combination of transparent, opaque and translucent glasses in one project adds visualQuiz interest and depth. Screen 16 of 48
  17. 17. How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlass We tend to think of rich jewel tones when we think ofTypes of stained glass – pure color when the light shines through!Glass That glass is transparent – it allows light to go through.Joining Some glass is opalescent – meaning it has a milky whitePieces of appearance in addition to some color. The coloration canGlass – Foil be swirled, as in this orange glass.or Came?Quiz Screen 17 of 48
  18. 18. How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlass A modern trend is to have streaky glass with gradations ofTypes of color, as this orange glass has.Glass Parts of this orange glass look milky, meaning it is opaque and light will not go through well.Joining Parts of this glass are translucent, which mean some lightPieces of goes through.Glass – Foilor Came?Quiz Screen 18 of 48
  19. 19. How Glassis Made Types of Glass….Physics ofGlass Thinking about what you have learned of the refractive properties of glass, consider thisTypes of example in the background.Glass Take a moment to look at the textures, colors,Joining and luminosity of this piece.Pieces ofGlass – Foilor Came?Quiz Screen 19 of 48
  20. 20. How Glassis Made Types of Glass….Physics of Different manufacturers produce unique versionsGlass of stained glass for the hobbyist. In general, though, the types of stained glass are categorizedTypes of by the coloration and manufacturing processGlass used to make the glass. Most glass is machine- drawn rather than blown, and the colorationJoining varies from transparent to opaque.Pieces ofGlass – Foil 1. Cathedralor Came? 2. Opalescent 3. WispyQuiz 4. Fractured/Streamer Screen 20 of 48
  21. 21. Cathedral – Transparent, single colorHow Glass glass, which may have texture or be smooth.is MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlassJoiningPieces ofGlass – Foilor Came?Quiz Screen 21 of 48
  22. 22. Cathedral – Transparent, single color glass, whichHow Glass may have texture or be smooth.is Made Opalescent – flourine is added to clear glass toPhysics of give it a milky appearance. Other colors mayGlass be added as well.Types ofGlassJoiningPieces ofGlass – Foilor Came?Quiz Screen 22 of 48
  23. 23. Cathedral – Transparent, single color glass, whichHow Glass may have texture or be smooth.is Made Opalescent – flourine is added to clear glass toPhysics of give it a milky appearance. Other colors mayGlass be added as well.Types of Wispy – A blend of translucent and opaque glassGlass that usually results in a swirly, wispy appearance to the glass.JoiningPieces ofGlass – Foilor Came?Quiz Screen 23 of 48
  24. 24. Cathedral – Transparent, single color glass, whichHow Glass may have texture or be smooth.is Made Opalescent – flourine is added to clear glass toPhysics of give it a milky appearance. Other colors mayGlass be added as well.Types of Wispy – A blend of transparent, translucent andGlass opaque glass that usually results in a swirly, wispy appearance to the glass.JoiningPieces ofGlass – Foilor Came? Fractured/Streamer– Fractures are small shards of glass bubbles that have been broken, whileQuiz streamers are long strands of colored glass. These are pressed into machine-drawn glass as it cools to form unique patterns. Screen 24 of 48
  25. 25. How Glass A word to the wise…is Made The coloration and texture of your stained glass present some challenges to thePhysics of novice. It may be difficult to cut straightGlass lines in fractured or streaked glass. Also, in wispy glass, the coloration in one areaTypes of of the sheet may not have the bestGlass refractive quality you want for the piece.Joining Cutting stained glass is not as easy asPieces of cutting paper or fabric.Glass – Foilor Came? Start with inexpensive glass and practice your cutting techniques before purchasingQuiz expensive glass! Screen 25of 48
  26. 26. How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlassJoining Look at the wayPieces of these piecesGlass – Foil were joined.or Came? Notice that there are some holesQuiz between pieces of glass. Screen 26 of 48
  27. 27. How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlassJoiningPieces ofGlass – Foilor Came? This piece was put together usingQuiz the copper foil technique. Screen 27 of 48
  28. 28. How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlassTypes of EachGlass piece wasJoining edgedPieces of withGlass – Foil copperor Came? foil This piece was put together usingQuiz the copper foil technique. Screen 28 of 48
  29. 29. How Glassis Made PinnedPhysics of intoGlass placeTypes of EachGlass piece wasJoining edgedPieces of withGlass – Foil copperor Came? foil This piece was put together usingQuiz the copper foil technique. Screen 29 of 48
  30. 30. How Glass Thenis Made Pinned doused into withPhysics of place flux…GlassTypes of EachGlass piece wasJoining edgedPieces of withGlass – Foil copperor Came? foil This piece was put together usingQuiz the copper foil technique. Screen 30 of 48
  31. 31. How Glass Thenis Made Pinned doused into withPhysics of place flux…Glass AndTypes of Each solderedGlass piece together was on bothJoining edged sidesPieces of withGlass – Foil copperor Came? foil This piece was put together usingQuiz the copper foil technique. Screen 31 of 48
  32. 32. How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlassJoiningPieces ofGlass – Foilor Came?Quiz Notice how this project is fitted into a wood frame, so that the copper- foil-wrapped pieces don’t move around while soldering. Screen 32 of 48
  33. 33. How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlassJoining Compare this piece with the dawg paw fromPieces of the previous screen.Glass – Foilor Came? This piece is more architectural. See how these lines are straighter, thicker and darker than theQuiz joints in the dawg paw? Screen 33 of 48
  34. 34. How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlassJoining This piece was put together using the came method.Pieces ofGlass – Foilor Came?Quiz Screen 34 of 48
  35. 35. How Glassis MadePhysics of Came comes in two forms – “H” channel andGlass “U” channel. These names come from the shape of the profile of each type of came.Types ofGlass The “H” channel is used to connect interior pieces of glass while the “U” channel is used toJoining finish the exterior edges of the project.Pieces ofGlass – Foil Either type of came can be flat or have aor Came? rounded finish.Quiz Came is most frequently made of lead, but zinc is also used as well. Screen 35 of 48
  36. 36. How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlassJoining Here is a profile of the came.Pieces ofGlass – Foil Notice that the glass pieces fill inor Came? the top and bottom parts of the “H”.Quiz That is why “H” channel is used for the interior joints. Screen 36 of 48
  37. 37. How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlassJoiningPieces ofGlass – Foil See how the pieces of glass fit intoor Came? the came.Quiz Screen 37 of 48
  38. 38. Foil is the predominant methodHow Glass these days.is Made It requires much practice to apply foil evenly around eachPhysics of piece of glass.Glass Additionally, you will want to practice soldering, which can beTypes of difficult to master.Glass Came is more forgiving and easier to use, but there areJoining concerns about the lead.Pieces ofGlass – Foilor Came?Quiz Screen 38 of 48
  39. 39. How Glass You have nowis Made completed the four modules ofPhysics ofGlass this tutorial. QUIZ TIME!Types ofGlassJoiningPieces ofGlass – Foilor Came?Quiz Screen 39 of 48
  40. 40. How Glass You have nowis Made completed the four modules ofPhysics of Write your answers on a sheet of paper.Glass this tutorial. QUIZ TIME! When you have completed the quiz, the correct answers will be revealed.Types ofGlassJoiningPieces ofGlass – Foilor Came?Quiz Screen 40 of 48
  41. 41. How Glass You have nowis Made completed the four modules ofPhysics of Write your answers on a sheet of paper.Glass this tutorial. QUIZ TIME! When you have completed the quiz, the correct answers will be revealed.Types ofGlass 1. What three main components are used in making glass?JoiningPieces of 2. What are three qualities or physical properties of glass?Glass – Foilor Came? 3. Describe the four types of stained glass.Quiz 4. Should you use foil or came in your projects? Screen 41 of 48
  42. 42. How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlass Key Ingredients of Glass— 1. Silica (sand)Joining 2. Sodium carbonate (soda ash)Pieces of 3. Calcium carbonate (limestone)Glass – Foilor Came?Quiz Screen 42 of 48
  43. 43. How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlassTypes ofGlass Physical Properties of Glass— Refraction!Joining Transparency allows light to shine throughPieces of Opacity allows very little light to shine throughGlass – Foil Translucency is in between transparency and opacity.or Came?Quiz Screen 43 of 48
  44. 44. How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlass Types of Glass—Types of Cathedral glass is transparent, single color glass.Glass Opalescent glass has a milky appearance due to added flourine.Joining Wispy glass is a mixture of colors barely blended so that thePieces of glass takes on a wispy, swirly appearance.Glass – Foil Fractured/streamers glass has shards of colored glass oror Came? tubules of glass inserted to create interesting patterns.Quiz Screen 44 of 48
  45. 45. How Glassis MadePhysics ofGlass Foil or Came?Types of This decision depends on the type of projects and your levelGlass of concern about health risk. Came can be used in most every flat project – windows or mosaics. But for shaped projects, such as a TiffanyJoining lamp, copper foil is best.Pieces of If you have small children in your house who might beGlass – Foil tempted to get into your supplies, both methods have risks.or Came? If you have concerns about exposure to lead, choose a zinc- based came or use copper foil.Quiz Screen 45 of 48
  46. 46. GlossaryAnneal to make stronger by heating and then coolingFlux a chemical cleaning agent used when soldering to help metals flowGlazier centuries ago, someone who made glass was a glazier. In modern times, a glazier is a construction worker who specializes in repairing glassIridescence the quality of changing hue depending on the angle at which the object is viewedLuminous the quality of being lit upOpalescence exhibiting a milky iridescence like that of an opalRefraction the bending of light rays as they pass through a substanceSolder metal alloys, usually tin and lead, used to join fusible parts. Click arrow to return to screen 3 Screen 46 of 48
  47. 47. This is the homepage for the Stained GlassAssociation of America. Check out theirnewsletter and annual conferences.http://stainedglass.org/This is a link to the video about how glass ismade. It was produced by the DiscoveryChannel – you probably recognized some ofthe TV hosts who appeared in this clip!http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/28024-some-assembly-required-how-glass-is-made-video.htm RESOURCESHere is the link to the page that offeredinformation on how glass is made in textformat.http://www.bigsiteofamazingfacts.com/how-is-glass-made Screen 47 of 48
  48. 48. This link takes you to the page where the fourtypes of glass are described. Be sure to surf toother related pages when visiting this one!http://www.ehow.com/facts_5004230_types-stained-glass.htmlGo here to see definitions of more types ofglass sold to stained glass artists. This site is acommercial site for selling stained glassprojects.http://pw1.netcom.com/~mmglass/types.html#flas MOREHere are links to pages with free stock photoswhich I used in this presentation: RESOURCEShttp://www.shutterstock.com/http://www.dreamstime.com/ Screen 48 of 48

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