Chapter 4






Explain the theories of Erikson,
Havighurst, Maslow, and
Kohlberg concerning personal
development.
Describe the u...




Every situation in your
life requires you to
respond to your
environment.
Many theories have
been formed
concerning ...




Erikson’s theory is that
personality development
is affected by each of
eight stages in the life
cycle.
In each Stag...






Occurs during infancy and establishes our
most basic sense of trust.
Consistent love & attention → confidence and...






Occurs between ages
one and four
Children begin to
experience
autonomy.
Autonomy – the
freedom of selfdirection






Reach this stage
around four or five.
Initiative – desires to
begin action.
Children begin to
develop imagination...





From ages six to twelve.
They learn that work is worthwhile and
meaningful.
Inferiority – feeling unimportant or
i...






Occurs during
adolescence
Identity – knowing who
you are
As adolescents gain
maturity, they begin to
view life an...




The sixth stage is
concerned with
establishing a sense of
intimacy with others.
Young adults who
succeed in this sta...




In the seventh stage,
adults develop a
sense of generativity.
Generativity –
Concern for future
generations




A sense of integrity
develops in people
who succeed in the
final stage of
development.
Integrity – A state of
being ...






Havighurst identified developmental tasks
that people perform as they grow.
Success in these tasks leads to happi...









Becoming more adult
Deciding on roles
Accepting your physical self
Becoming more independent
Preparing fo...




Because you are
human, you have
certain needs. You
share these needs with
all other humans, but
you fulfill them in
...
Physical Needs



Physical needs have first priority.
Fulfillment of physical needs is necessary for
good health, a state of well-being...




Once you have
satisfied your physical
needs, you can
address other needs.
You need to feel safe
from physical danger...




Everyone needs to
be needed.
You need to feel
that you are
accepted by others,
and you need to
feel secure in your
r...






You need esteem
(respect and
admiration).
Self-esteem must
be established first.
You must respect
yourself first ...




Self-actualization is
the realization of
your full potential.
To reach this level, all
other levels of needs
must be...




Kohlberg believed
that people pass
through a series of
predictable stages in
their moral thinking.
Morals – Beliefs
...


Preconventional Level: Moral decisions are
based on punishment & rewards.
◦ Stage 1 – Threat of punishment influences d...


Conventional Level: Moral decisions are based
on social rules and expectations.
◦ Stage 3 – Opinions of others influenc...


Postconventional Level –
Moral decisions are based
on personal ethics
concerning what is
morally right
◦ Stage 5 – Pers...




Each time something happens in your
environment to threaten your self-esteem,
you react.
Defense Mechanisms – Ways t...






Direct attack – In response to a threat to your
self-esteem, you attack the source of your
threat.
Compensation –...


Projection – When
you blame other
people or things for
your failures.
◦ Scapegoat – The
person who bears the
pain for t...




Displacement – Transferring an emotion
connected with one person or thing to an
unrelated person or thing.
Conversio...




Regression – A defense
mechanism in which you
revert back to a less mature
stage of development.
Idealization – Valu...



Daydreaming
Giving Up








Anger
Fear
Depression
Attitudes
Prejudices – An opinion formed without
knowledge.
Stereotypes – The false be...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

IPR Chapter 4

175

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
175
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "IPR Chapter 4"

  1. 1. Chapter 4
  2. 2.    Explain the theories of Erikson, Havighurst, Maslow, and Kohlberg concerning personal development. Describe the use of defense mechanisms in responding to your environment. Explain various types of personal response patterns.
  3. 3.   Every situation in your life requires you to respond to your environment. Many theories have been formed concerning the development of humans and their personalities.
  4. 4.   Erikson’s theory is that personality development is affected by each of eight stages in the life cycle. In each Stage, a person confronts certain crises that must be resolved before moving to the next stage.
  5. 5.    Occurs during infancy and establishes our most basic sense of trust. Consistent love & attention → confidence and trust. Unloved or abused → insecure and mistrustful.
  6. 6.    Occurs between ages one and four Children begin to experience autonomy. Autonomy – the freedom of selfdirection
  7. 7.    Reach this stage around four or five. Initiative – desires to begin action. Children begin to develop imagination and begin to do things on their own.
  8. 8.    From ages six to twelve. They learn that work is worthwhile and meaningful. Inferiority – feeling unimportant or inadequate.
  9. 9.    Occurs during adolescence Identity – knowing who you are As adolescents gain maturity, they begin to view life and the world around them differently.
  10. 10.   The sixth stage is concerned with establishing a sense of intimacy with others. Young adults who succeed in this stage have accepted themselves as worthwhile persons.
  11. 11.   In the seventh stage, adults develop a sense of generativity. Generativity – Concern for future generations
  12. 12.   A sense of integrity develops in people who succeed in the final stage of development. Integrity – A state of being complete. The person is satisfied with his or her life.
  13. 13.    Havighurst identified developmental tasks that people perform as they grow. Success in these tasks leads to happiness and success in other developmental tasks they will perform later in life. Failure leads to unhappiness, disapproval by society, and difficulty with later developmental tasks.
  14. 14.         Becoming more adult Deciding on roles Accepting your physical self Becoming more independent Preparing for marriage and family life Selecting an occupation Developing personal priorities Becoming more socially responsible
  15. 15.   Because you are human, you have certain needs. You share these needs with all other humans, but you fulfill them in unique ways. In Maslow’s system, he arranged needs in order of their priorities.
  16. 16. Physical Needs
  17. 17.   Physical needs have first priority. Fulfillment of physical needs is necessary for good health, a state of well-being, and the continuation of life.
  18. 18.   Once you have satisfied your physical needs, you can address other needs. You need to feel safe from physical danger. You need to feel secure in daily routines so you know what to expect from life.
  19. 19.   Everyone needs to be needed. You need to feel that you are accepted by others, and you need to feel secure in your relationships.
  20. 20.    You need esteem (respect and admiration). Self-esteem must be established first. You must respect yourself first before you can expect others to respect you.
  21. 21.   Self-actualization is the realization of your full potential. To reach this level, all other levels of needs must be at least partially fulfilled.
  22. 22.   Kohlberg believed that people pass through a series of predictable stages in their moral thinking. Morals – Beliefs about right and wrong behavior.
  23. 23.  Preconventional Level: Moral decisions are based on punishment & rewards. ◦ Stage 1 – Threat of punishment influences decisions ◦ Stage 2 – Desire for rewards influences decisions
  24. 24.  Conventional Level: Moral decisions are based on social rules and expectations. ◦ Stage 3 – Opinions of others influence decisions ◦ Stage 4 – Respect for law and order guides behavior
  25. 25.  Postconventional Level – Moral decisions are based on personal ethics concerning what is morally right ◦ Stage 5 – Personal priorities concerning individual human rights influence decisions ◦ Stage 6 – Self-chosen ethical principles guide decisions
  26. 26.   Each time something happens in your environment to threaten your self-esteem, you react. Defense Mechanisms – Ways that people may react, almost automatically, to anxietyproducing events or threats.
  27. 27.    Direct attack – In response to a threat to your self-esteem, you attack the source of your threat. Compensation – Using a substitute method to achieve a desired goal. Rationalization – When you explain your weaknesses or failure by giving socially acceptable excuses
  28. 28.  Projection – When you blame other people or things for your failures. ◦ Scapegoat – The person who bears the pain for the others; taking the blame for something you didn’t do.
  29. 29.   Displacement – Transferring an emotion connected with one person or thing to an unrelated person or thing. Conversion – Transferring the energy of desire you cannot express into a physical symptom or complaint
  30. 30.   Regression – A defense mechanism in which you revert back to a less mature stage of development. Idealization – Valuing something far more than its worth. ◦ Something in your life that means a lot to you even if its not worth anything.
  31. 31.   Daydreaming Giving Up
  32. 32.       Anger Fear Depression Attitudes Prejudices – An opinion formed without knowledge. Stereotypes – The false belief that all members of a given group are the same.
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×