2. Heredity Gene – Basic unit of heredity Chromosome – A string of many genes Mutations – Chemical change in genes Dominant – Gene whose effect is noticed when combined with any other gene Recessive – Gene that will manifest itself only when paired with a similar gene Autosomes – The chromosomes that are alike in both the male and female Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) – Chemical composing a human chromosome.
3. Sibling Relationships Siblings – people who have the same parents. Many siblings have close relationships while growing up, they’ve shared many of the same experiences. Relationships among siblings are affect by many factors and are unique: Location Parent Multiple siblings
4. Single-Parent: Family Structure In a single-parent family, the parent has many responsibilities. The amount of time the single parent can spend with his or her children may be limited. Siblings in this family structure may form close relationships.
5. Stepfamily: Family Structure When a single parent remarries, the few stepfamily often includes stepsiblings. Stepsiblings – a stepparent’s child from a former marriage. Relationships among stepsiblings may be strained at first. A stepsibling can be a built- in friend.
6. Stepfamilies: Family Structure Many stepfamilies include half siblings. Half siblings – a sibling who has only one parent in common with a brother or sister.
7. Family Size Family size can affect relationships between siblings. In smaller families, children may be together often and in so form close bonds. In larger families, children are likely to spend more time with siblings about their age.
8. Spacing Between Siblings Spacing refers to the number of years between children in a family. The bonds between siblings can be affected by spacing. Siblings who are close in age may have a lot in common however, these siblings are more likely to compete with each other creating rivalry which prevents the siblings from being close. Siblings who are spaced more than 6 years apart may be treated almost like only children. They may have few shared interests because of the large age difference.
9. Sibling Gender Gender – Sex as a male or female. Sex Role – The way a person is expected to act based on his or her sex. Girls tend to imitate the female sex roles they see their mothers model. Boys tend to copy the male sex roles they see their fathers model.
10. Sibling Vocabulary Terms Role – A socially expected behavior pattern. Peer Group – People of about your own age. Authority Figures – People who make final decisions. Culture – The total social environment of a people or group. Peer Pressure – The influence exerted on a person by other people in his or her age group.
11. Birth Order Birth Order – A child’s place in relation to other children in the family. It has an effect on personality as well as on sibling relationships. Firstborn, middle, and youngest children may not be treated the same by their family members.
12. Firstborn Child The firstborn child has a unique place in the family. For a while, a firstborn child is an only child. Parents are often eager to see their firstborn child grow up. They may push the child to learn new skills. Independence and self-confidence may prompt firstborn children to be leaders in their families. Because these children grow up first, they may be given more responsibilities.
13. Youngest Child The youngest child in a family often receives care from older siblings as well as from parents. A youngest child often learns to talk and get along with people at an earlier age than other children. In some families, parents and older siblings routinely make decisions for the youngest child. This may cause the youngest child to be less independent than older siblings.
14. Middle Child A middle child is neither the youngest nor the oldest. While all the children are living at home, middle children sometimes feel left out. Feeling left out may cause middle children to work harder. They might become good students or show talent in music or a sport. Middle children often become peacemakers among their friends and family members.
15. Only Child The only child has no siblings. Some of these children may feel lonely. However, many only children enjoy growing up alone. Only children seem to learn quickly. Because of all the attention and help to succeed, most only children form strong self- images. Only children must learn how to get along with others by spending time with friends.
16. Twins Twins have a special kind of sibling bond. They are born at the same time. Identical Twins – Siblings born at the same time who inherit the same set of characteristics from their parents. Fraternal Twins – Siblings born at the same time who do not inherit the same set of characteristics from their
17. Twins Even thought twins may look and act alike, each twin is a unique person. Each has his or her own needs, wants, and goals. Parents, siblings, friends, and teachers need to remember to treat twins as individuals. Identical twins do not have the same fingerprints.
18. Multiple Births When a mother has… – Three infants at the Triplets same time. Quadtruplets – Four infants at the same time. Quintuplets – Five infants at the same time. Septuplets – Six infants at the same time. Septuplets – Seven infants at the same time. Octuplets – Eight infants at the same time.
19. Sibling Rivalry Sibling rivalry – Competition between brothers and sisters. Rivalry often begins when a new baby arrives. Some children resent the extra attention given to special siblings.