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NCSE Federal Funding for Environmental Research and Development 2013 - Appendix A Definitions and Assumptions
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NCSE Federal Funding for Environmental Research and Development 2013 - Appendix A Definitions and Assumptions

NCSE Federal Funding for Environmental Research and Development 2013 - Appendix A Definitions and Assumptions

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NCSE Federal Funding for Environmental Research and Development 2013 - Appendix A Definitions and Assumptions NCSE Federal Funding for Environmental Research and Development 2013 - Appendix A Definitions and Assumptions Document Transcript

  • FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2012 Federal Funding for Environmental Research and Development 2013 Peter Saundry and Rica Santos January2014 An Exclusive service for Affiliates of the National Council For Science and the Environment
  • NationalCouncilforScienceandtheEnvironment TheNationalCouncilforScienceandtheEnvironment(NCSE)isanot-for-profit organization that improves the scientific basis for environmental decision-making. NCSEspecializesinbringingtogether diverseinstitutionsandindividualstoadvance environmental science, education, and their applications in five strategic areas: • StrengtheningEducationandCareers; • CommunicatingSciencetothePublicthroughtheonlineEncyclopediaofEarth; • OrganizingtheNationalConferenceonScience,PolicyandtheEnvironment; • DevelopingScienceSolutionstoSpecificEnvironmentalChallenges;and • PromotingScience-DrivenPolicyfortheEnvironment. UniversityAffiliateProgram and Community College Affiliate Program NCSE’s University Affiliate Program works in collaboration with over180 member institutions to strengthen academicenvironmentalprogramsacrosstheUnitedStates.Membershipbenefitsandservicesinclude: • Conferencesand meetingstoaddress all issuesrelatedtoenvironmental programs, theirfacultyand students; • Analysis andreportson environmental, sustainabilityand energyprogramsoncampusesnationwide; • Annual report and conference funding forenvironmental research and education; • ComplimentaryparticipationintheNationalConference onScience,PolicyandtheEnvironment; • Free campus-wide environmental andenergynewsservices; • Participation in multi-institutional collaborations to secure federal funding; • Internship opportunities through NCSE’s online environmental internship clearinghouse; • Sabbatical opportunities; and • Peer communication and collaboration on allenvironmental issuesof interest to members. Council of Environmental Deans and Directors The Council of Environmental Deans and Directors (CEDD) brings together environmental leaders at NCSE member institutions to improve the quality, stature and effectiveness of interdisciplinary environmental programs. CEDD supports curriculum advancement, interdisciplinary scholarship, leadership development, and improved program management through projects including: • Agriculture & Environment • Campus to Careers Study • ClimateSolutionsCurricula • CurriculumStudy • Energy Education • Environment & Human Health • InterdisciplinaryTenure • Public Policy Cover photos: Center photo courtesy of the U.S. Department of Energy; Other photos courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  • FederalFundingfor Environmental Research and Development Fiscal Year 2013 Developed by the National Council for Science and the Environment Peter Saundry and Rica Santos January2014
  • FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 4 T T Acknowledgements he National Council for Science and Environment (NCSE) is pleased to acknowledge and express its deep appreciation to the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The AAAS R&D Budget and Policy Program has provided the budget analysis behind this report for the past thirteen years, first under Kei Koizumi and, in recent years, under Patrick Clemins and Matthew Hourihan, with significant help from Kelly Anderson. This report is made possible by members of the NCSE University Affiliate Program and the Community College Affiliate Program listed in Appendix C and Appendix D Statement Regarding Data Sources (applies to all Tables and Charts) All date is drawn from OMB R&D data, Budget of the United States Government, agency budget justification, agency budget documents, and historical data. Yearly values are adjusted for inflation using OMB's GDP deflators. Nominal values are unadjusted. FY 2013 are estimates adjusted for the full-year continuing resolution and sequestration. Foreword his Handbook provides an overview of the entire federal environmental R&D portfolio fol- lowed by chapters about individual federal agencies. The budget analysis for this Handbook has been conducted in partnership with the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) over the course of thirteen years, in order to maintain consistency with AAAS publications on R&D in the federal budget. Budget definitions and assumptions relevant to the analysis of environmental R&D in the federal budget are discussed in Appendix A. This report defines environmental sciences as the systematic study directed toward fuller scientific knowledge or understanding of the various biological and physical components of the earth’s environment and the interactions between the earth’s environment and humanity. The following areas are included in the definition of environmental R&D: • Environmental physical sciences such as atmospheric sciences, geological sciences, oceanography, and other non-biological terrestrial sciences. • Environmental life sciences such as environmental biology, forestry, marine biology, and related fields. • Environmental engineering and other sciences, including R&D related to prevention, control, regulation, and clean-up.
  • FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 5 • Energy conservation and alternative energy research. • Environmental social sciences such as environmental economics and other fields that study human social and cultural activities related to environmental conditions. • Environmental data and information sciences related to the environment, such as collection, storage, standardization, and management R&D. • Studies that utilize any or all of the above to address pollution problems or activities that impair the sustained functioning and productivity of the earth’s environment. The following areas are not included in the definition of environmental research: • Most human health R&D such as the much of the work carried out by the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences and some other federal agencies. However, human health R&D focused on specific environmental problems such as the Superfund program are included. • Extraterrestrial environmental sciences such as studies of other planets. • Studies that focus primarily on resource extraction and utilizing environmental resources as distinct from how those practices impact the environment (which are included). Thus mining and fishing technology, studies of agricultural crops, livestock and their use are not generally included except where the focus is on environmental impact (e.g., studies of turtle excluder devices and the impact of agricultural practices on the environment are included.) We have made no effort to analyze activities by specific “fields of science” or “scientific disciplines” except when an agency organizes its activities along those lines. To produce the narrative of this report, NCSE has drawn extensively from the budget documents, web sites, and other resources of the agencies of the federal government. We have attempted to represent the work of the agencies in a balanced and objective way. The amount of text devoted to various agencies and programs reflects approximately the level of expenditures invested in environmental research and development by those agencies and programs. Given that a typical page in this report covers approximately $100 million of in environmental research and development, the level of detail we are able to provide is limited. We encourage readers to explore the web sites and documents of the respective agencies and programs for additional details. Where possible Fiscal Year 2012 budget for continuing budgets is provided, or proposed budgets for FY 2014 for new programs. Note these are the entire budgets of the program of usually include more than just R&D. Because terms such as “environmental science” and even “research” and “development” have imprecise definitions, estimates of federal funding for environmental R&D must be considered approximations. That is not to say the data and descriptions of particular programs are not accurate, rather that definitions are important in deciding which programs and projects to include in the analysis. A broader definition of “environmental science” that included topics related to human health might add several billion dollars to the overall funding level. A narrower definition that omitted areas related to energy might reduce overall funding by over a billion dollars. We have attempted to maintain consistency over time in order to identify trends and changes in funding for environmental R&D. The budget of the federal government and the activities of its agencies are subject to change — sometimes significant change at short notice. We again encourage readers to explore the web sites and documents of the respective agencies and programs for the latest information.
  • FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 6 Table of Contents Executive summary ............................................................................................7 1. Department of Energy......................................................................................9 2. National Aeronautics and Space Administration..................................................31 3. National Science Foundation...........................................................................46 4. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ..............................................65 5. Department of Agriculture...............................................................................74 6. Department of the Interior...............................................................................82 7. Environmental Protection Agency.....................................................................89 8. Department of Defense..................................................................................96 9. National Institutes of Health...........................................................................102 10. Department ofTransportation ......................................................................106 11. Department of Homeland Security................................................................110 12. Smithsonian Institution and Army Corps of Engineers ......................................114 13. U.S. Global Change Research Program..................................................................118 Appendix A: Definitions and Assumptions...........................................................120 Appendix B: Acronyms ....................................................................................122 AppendixC:NCSE UniversityAffiliate ProgramMembers......................................123 Appendix D: NCSE Community College Affiliate Program Members......................XXX
  • FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 7 FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2012 An Exclusive service for Affiliates of the National Council For Science and the Environment AppendixA: DefinitionsandAssumptions The terms used in this report are difficult to define in practice. Therefore, it is important to say a few words about definitions and assumptions. It is also important the state at the outset that, while every effort has been made to be comprehen- sive and accurate, readers should consider numbers and descriptions contained in this report to be approximate. For the purposes of this report, we have striven to utilize the definitions of research and development used by the National Science Foundation in its reports of federal research and development. Thus: “Research is systematic study directed toward fuller scientific knowledge or un- derstanding of the subject studied. Research is classified as either basic or applied according to the objectives of the sponsoring agency. In basic research the objective of the sponsoring agency is to gain more complete knowledge or understanding of the fundamental aspects of phenomena and of observable facts, without specific applications toward processes or products in mind. In applied research the objective of the sponsoring agency is to gain knowl- edge or understanding necessary for determining the means by which a recog- nized need may be met. Development is systematic use of the knowledge or understanding gained from research, directed toward the production of useful materials, devices, systems, or methods, including design and development of prototypes and processes. It excludes quality control, routine product testing, and production.” It should be noted that the distinction between research and development, and between basic and applied research, can be very unclear and subject to different interpretations. The distinction between basic and applied research often says as much about how an agency perceives its mission or wishes to be perceived by others as it does about the nature of the research itself. For that reason, when referring to the nature of the research supported by agencies, the words “basic” and “applied” are always written within quotation marks. This report defines environmental sciences as systematic study directed toward fuller scientific knowledge or understanding of the various biological and physical components of the Earth’s envi- ronment and the interactions between the Earth’s environment and mankind. The following areas fall within the definition of environmental R&D: • Physical environmental sciences such as atmospheric sciences, geological sciences, oceanogra- phy, and other non-biological terrestrial sciences. • Environmental life sciences such as environmental biology, forestry, marine biology, and re- latedfields. • Environmental engineering and other sciences related to the impacts of natural and anthropo-
  • FederalFundingforEnvironmentalResearchandDevelopment2013 8 genic activities on the environment, including prevention, control, regulation, and clean-up. • Environmental social sciences such as environmental economics and other fields that study human social and cultural activities which affect, and are affected by, environmental condi- tions. • Environmental data and information sciences related to the environment, such as collection, storage, standardization, and management R&D. • Studies that utilize any or all of the above to address pollution problems or activities that im- pair the sustained functioning and productivity of the Earth’s environment. Not included are: • Most human health R&D, such as much of the work carried out by the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences and some other federal agencies. However, human health R&D focused on specific environmental problems such as the Superfund program are in- cluded. • Extraterrestrial environmental sciences such as studies of the atmospheres and geologies of other planets. • Energy conservation and alternative energy research when not focused on a specific environ- mental problem such as climate change or air pollution. • Studies that focus primarily on resource extraction and utilizing environmental resources as distinct from how those practices impact the environment (which are included). Thus mining and fishing technology, studies of agricultural crops, livestock and their use are not generally included except where the focus is on environmental impact (e.g., studies of turtle excluder devices and of agricultural practices on the environment are included.) This definition owes much to the definition used in the 1993 report Research to Protect, Restore and Manage the Environment by the National Academy of Sciences. There is much to this definition that might be considered arbitrary. A strong case could be made for either a much broader or much narrower definition. It could reasonably be argued that all studies on energy, transportation, and extraterrestrial environments ought to be included. We believe that the current definition is reasonable and workable for this study, and will revisit the definition in future edi- tions of this report.