Deep Oceans


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Deep Oceans

  1. 1. Deep Oceans (Mariana Trench) Lauren Banda Biology II Period 7
  2. 2. Homeostasis <ul><li>According to homeostasis is defined as: a state of psychological equilibrium obtained when tension or a drive has been reduced or eliminated </li></ul><ul><li>In order to maintain homeostasis in the deep oceans you need to adapt to the water temperature , light, pressure, oxygen, and ways to find food. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Extreme Conditions <ul><li>*Water temperature: </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothermia: The body begins to shiver, blood vessels contract, and hormones generate heat. </li></ul><ul><li>In cold water, core temperature can drop to dangerous levels in a matter of minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>the deep sea temperature remains between 2- 4 °C. *Water Pressure- </li></ul><ul><li>The deeper you go into the deep oceans the water pressure begins to increase. Pressure ranges from 20 atm to more than 1,000 atm . On average, pressure ranges between 200- 600 atm . Deep sea creatures have adapted to pressure by developing bodies with no excess cavities, such as swim bladders, that would collapse under intense pressure. The flesh and bones of deep sea marine creatures are soft and flabby, which also helps them withstand the pressure. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Extreme Conditions <ul><li>*Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>The dark, cold waters of the deep are also oxygen-poor environments. </li></ul><ul><li>*Light </li></ul><ul><li>The only light is produced by bioluminescence, a chemical reaction in the creature's body that creates a low level light, so deep sea life must rely on alternatives to sight. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Adaptations <ul><li>Adaptations such as large eyes, bioluminescence, strong sense of smell, body composition (absence of swim bladder), expandable stomachs, absence of jaws, and bioluminescence. Color is another adaptation developed for camoflauge and protection from predators. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Proper Clothing and Equipment <ul><li>1. Protective diving goggles and/or mask </li></ul><ul><li>2. Dive bags </li></ul><ul><li>3. Flags for safety for deep sea divers </li></ul><ul><li>4. Air hoses </li></ul><ul><li>5. Air hose links </li></ul><ul><li>6. Breathing regulators (oxygen tanks) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Continues <ul><li>7. Deep sea diving lights </li></ul><ul><li>8. Deep diving footwear </li></ul><ul><li>9. Diving weights </li></ul><ul><li>10. Scuba diving fins </li></ul><ul><li>11. Wet Suit </li></ul><ul><li>12. Knives </li></ul>
  8. 8. Respiratory System <ul><li>Pressure under water can cause respiratory muscles to become tired. </li></ul><ul><li>Divers use breathing apparatuses (Oxygen tanks) in order to breathe underwater for a longer period of time. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Circulatory System <ul><li>High water pressure causes the capillaries especially at the legs, to contract. </li></ul><ul><li>This results in over cooling of the limbs. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Nervous System <ul><li>A syndrome which is a result of rapid compression, called “High-Pressure Nervous System” may be experienced. Vomiting, breathing problems, and even complications of confusion may also be experienced. </li></ul><ul><li>The sympathetic system is the most important part of the nervous system for controlling body temperature. On a long-term basis, when the climate is cold, the sympathetic system produces heat by its control of certain fat cells called brown adipose tissue. From these cells, fatty acids are released, and heat is produced by their chemical breakdown. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mariana Trench <ul><li>The Mariana Trench is located in the Pacific Ocean, just east of the 14 Mariana Islands (11&quot;21' North latitude and 142&quot; 12' East longitude ) near Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the deepest part of the earth's oceans, and the deepest location of the earth itself. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pacific also has the largest known maximum depth, in the famous Mariana Trench; this maximum depth is 11,033 meters (36,201 feet). </li></ul><ul><li>The Mariana Trench is 2, 542 km (1,580 miles) long and 69 km (43 miles) wide. </li></ul>