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Biotechnology presentation power point Biotechnology presentation power point Presentation Transcript

  • How and why can mitochondrial DNA be used to trace family ancestry? By Ali, Lara, and Jeremy
  • Overview of Mitochondrial DNA to Family Ancestry What does mitochondrial DNA help us achieve? With mitochondrial DNA we can trace a person’s maternal family ancestry. Using mitochondrial DNA we have been able to achieve as far back as a common ancestor of all human beings.  Using mitochondrial DNA we are also able to track our family’s ancestor’s migration patterns (where they traveled/moved)
  • What question are we trying to answer using mtDNA? We are trying to discover our maternal family ancestor.  By using mitochondrial DNA we are able to discover where we came from and who we are.
  • History and Major Points 1960: Mitochondrial DNA was discovered using electron microscopy and biochemical assays. 1987: Using Mitochondrial DNA, the Mitochondrial Eve was discovered. This links all humans to one common maternal ancestor.
  • The science behind using mitochondrial DNA to trace family ancestry • What is Mitochondrial DNA? • DNA found in mitochondrion • Only mother passes on mitochondrial DNA to offspring • Ancestral Markers • Mutations in D-loop region • Unique sequences characterize a maternal family line • Analysis of mitochondrial DNA can uncover a person’s ancestral haplogroups and migrations
  • Analyzing Mitochondrial DNA • Mitochondrial DNA sequencing • Purification of mitochondrial DNA • Copying and enlarging of D-loop DNA • Gel electrophoresis to identify nucleotide sequence • SNP testing • Specific questions about maternal lineage • Changes at a single point in genetic code
  • Is using mitochondrial DNA to trace family ancestry controversial? • Mitochondrial Eve recalculated to have lived 60,000 years ago based on rate of mitochondrial DNA mutations • Conflicts with results from other well-established methods of dating early humans • DNA recombination • DNA recombination and faster mitochondrial DNA could disprove family migration dates and result in miscalculation of ancestral haplogroups • Currently no consensus on mutation rate
  • How Mitochondrial DNA is currently being used to trace family ancestry 1.Sample Preparation • Remove Contaminants and add lysis solution 2.Mitochondrial DNA Extraction • Organic Chemical detaches empty DNA 3.Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplification • Process in which small DNA are amplified 4.mtDNA Purification and Quantification • Chemical is added that removes excess PCR molecules and sample is quantified (measured) to determine concentration of amplified empty DNA region 5.Sequencing • Empty DNA double strand is denatured into 2 single strands which undergo PCR. Scientists tag the desired strand and then with Gel electrophoresis scientists separate DNA fragments
  • The future potential of tracing mtDNA back to our ancestors • Mitochondrial Eve • Theory that every human is related to each other • Mother than connects us all is Mitochondrial Eve • Potential of tracing empty DNA will eventually lead to the discovery of one’s family lineage • The biotechnology can answer who we are and where we we came from?
  • Bibliography (for Images) • Mitochondria. Photograph. Learning Center. 2014. Accessed January 2, 2014. http://www.genebase.com/learning/article/18. • MtDNA SNP Mutation. Image. Learning Center. 2014. Accessed January 2, 2014. http://www.genebase.com/learning/article/ 18. • Oppenheimer, Stephen. "Mitochondrial DNA: The Eve Gene." Mitochondrial Eve. Accessed January 8, 2014. http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/journey/ eve.html. • Inheritance Pattern of mtDNA. Photograph. Learning Center. 2014. Accessed January 5, 2014. http://www.genebase.com/learning/article/17.