Persistence of African swine fever outbreak in a farm in Kaduna, Nigeria.

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47th Annual Congress of the Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association, 2010 Presentation.

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Persistence of African swine fever outbreak in a farm in Kaduna, Nigeria.

  1. 1. PERSISTENCE OF AFRICAN SWINE FEVEROUTBREAK IN A FARM IN KADUNA STATE,NIGERIA. NIGERIAN VETERINARY MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, 47th ANNUAL CONGRESS. “THE VETERINARIAN AND NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY”. 4-8th Oct. 2010. MAKURDI, BENUE STATE.
  2. 2. NVMA 47TH ANNUAL CONGRESS SCIENTIFIC SESSION Lazarus, D. D*., Jwander, L. D., Benshak, J. A., Agom, D., Gado, D. A., Adamu, S. S., Fasina, F. O.
  3. 3. AFRICAN SWINE FEVER (ASF)
  4. 4. AFRICAN SWINE FEVER Is a tick bone, contagious, febrile, systemic viral disease of swine. It may present with up to 100% mortality in pig. Death usually results from haemorrhagic fever.
  5. 5. ASF VIRUS (ASFV) Family: Asfarviridae (ASF And Related virus) Genus: Asfarvirus Only DNA arbovirus (insect virus) Only (Icosahedral cytoplasmic deoxyribovirus) ICDV pathogenic for mammalian species. One of the only two mammalian viruses (+Aleutian virus of Mink) that does not induce neutralising antibodies.
  6. 6. ASF VIRUS (ASFV) Resistance plays a role in its epizootiology - stable in blood, urine and faeces - isolated in varying conditions including: -70°C to +56°C, pH 3.9-13.4, dead animals exposed to trypsin, EDTA, antibiotics. Transmitted by ticks, formites, airbone route and other animals.
  7. 7. ASF –NIGERIAN SITUATION First reported initial sporadic infection in 1973. West-African widespread epizootics started in 1996. Nigerian pig population increased from 2 to 7 million between 1984 and 1997. Nigerian epizootics started in 1997. Between 1997-8 lost 125,000 pigs worth N292, million.
  8. 8. ASF CURRENT SITUATION Prior to the 2007 ASF PITT between NVRI, ARCN, ILRI, CISA-INIA, Spain and ISU Global extension program Iowa, USA, no coordinated national management plan or surveillance activities was in place. No full cost implication of ASF. Detected in pigs, bush pigs, red river hog and warthogs. Research reports regionalised and fragmented.
  9. 9. CURRENT SITUATION-VACCINE No effective neutralising antibodies are produced against the virus. There is no vaccine for African Swine Fever till date.
  10. 10. SUMMARY OF LESIONS Dark red to purple areas of skin on ears, feet and tail. Petechial haemorrhages on serosal surface of viscera. Renal cortical petechial / ecchymotic haemorrhages. Peri-renal oedema. Oedema of the gall bladder. Swollen liver. Pulmonary oedema.
  11. 11. CASE HISTORY A private farm in Kaduna state reported a sudden outbreak of disease with high mortality characterised by vomiting, diarrhoea and dark red to purplish discoloration of the skin. Five Breeder Houses were wiped off within a period of one week outbreak. At the time of the disease investigation only one piglet was found on the farm.
  12. 12. CASE HISTORY The pig was killed on the consent of the farm management and samples collected for diagnosis. Blood was collected and serum separated for serology. Tissue samples (lungs, liver, spleen, lymph nodes and heart) were collected for molecular analysis.
  13. 13. GROSS LESION
  14. 14. LABORATORY ANALYSIS Serology -Indirect ELISA
  15. 15. LABORATORY ANALYSIS PCR
  16. 16. LABORATORY ANALYSIS The test was very sensitive using the OIE primer set ASF 1/2. The primers target a 278 bp unit of the p72 gene.
  17. 17. RESULTS The serum tested positive for ASF by Indirect ELISA for ASF. The lymph nodes tested positive for ASF by PCR. The pooled tissues tested positive for ASF by PCR. The same samples were tested for Classical swine fever antigen, and tested negative for CSF by Antigen ELISA for Classical swine fever.
  18. 18. DISCUSSION ASF has had significant economic and social impact in Nigeria since 1997. However, there has been no effective national response to bring it under control. In this report, we confirm that ASF is still prevalent in Nigeria.
  19. 19. DISCUSSION Movement of infected pigs seem to be the most important means of spread. Farm-gate buyers assist the spread. Regional prevalence indicated higher % in areas with high pig activities, nine per cent (9%) of samples and 48% of tissue samples were positive for ASF virus antibody and genome respectively (Fasina et al, 2010).
  20. 20. DISCUSSION Comprehensive routine surveillance and testing. Reorganisation of the market and systems for pigs. Implementation of on-farm biosecurity protocols. Government should consider compensation option.
  21. 21. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The management of NVRI, Vom. Numerous staff that assisted: field surveillance laboratory work
  22. 22. THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!

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