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Field Surveillance and Laboratory diagnoses of African swine fever in Nigeria
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Field Surveillance and Laboratory diagnoses of African swine fever in Nigeria

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  • 1. AFRICAN SWINE FEVER IN NIGERIA INTERNATIONAL PIG SUMMIT 23-25 TH NOV. 2010 INSTITUTE FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY MOOR PLANTATION, IBADAN, NIGERIA
  • 2. SCIENTIFIC SESSION
    • INTERNATIONAL PIG SUMMIT 23-25 TH NOV.2010
    • INSTITUTE FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, MOOR PLANTATION NIGERIA
    • Lazarus, D. D.; Fasina, F. O.; Shamaki, D.; Makinde, A. A.
    • National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom
  • 3. AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS
  • 4. AFRICAN SWINE FEVER
    • Is a tick bone, contagious, febrile, systemic viral disease of swine.
    • It may present with up to 100% mortality in pig.
    • Death usually results from haemorrhagic fever.
  • 5. AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS
    • Family: Asfarviridae (ASF And Related virus)
    • Genus: Asfarvirus
    • Only DNA arbovirus (insect virus)
    • Only (Icosahedral cytoplasmic deoxyribovirus) ICDV pathogenic for mammalian species.
    • One of the only two mammalian viruses (+Aleutian virus of Mink) that does not induce neutralising antibodies.
  • 6. AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS
    • Resistance plays a role in its epizootiology
    • - stable in blood, urine and faeces
    • - isolated in varying conditions including: -70°C to +56°C, pH 3.9-13.4, dead animals exposed to trypsin, EDTA, antibiotics.
    • Transmitted by ticks, formites, airbone route and other animals.
  • 7. ASF-NIGERIAN SITUATION
    • First reported initial sporadic infection in 1973.
    • West-African widespread epizootics started in 1996.
    • Nigerian pig population increased from 2 to 7 million between 1984 and 1997.
    • Nigerian epizootics started in 1997.
    • Between 1997-8 lost 125,000 pigs worth N292, million.
  • 8. ASF CURRENT SITUATION
    • Prior to the 2007 ASF PITT between NVRI, ARCN, ILRI, CISA-INIA, Spain and ISU Global extension program Iowa, USA, no coordinated national management plan or surveillance activities was in place.
    • No full cost implication of ASF.
    • Detected in pigs, bush pigs, red river hog and warthogs.
    • Research reports regionalised and fragmented.
  • 9. CURRENT SITUATION-VACCINE
    • No effective neutralising antibodies are produced against the virus.
    • There is no vaccine for African Swine Fever till date.
  • 10. PITT ACTIVITIES
    • Established in 2007 to
        • determine the prevalence of ASF virus infection in Nigeria.
        • carry out isolation, molecular characterization of virus strains from Nigeria.
        • survey for the presence of soft tick vectors and their possible role in the transmission of virus.
  • 11. PITT ACTIVITIES
        • determine the possible involvement of wild suids in the epidemiology of ASF in Nigeria
        • recommend a national control strategy for implementation.
        • consider possible development of biologicals and techniques for diagnosis.
  • 12. SURVEILLANCE ACTIVITIES
    • Nigeria divided into agro-ecological zones
    • Key areas with pig activities identified
    • Surveillance visits made to markets, abattoirs and farms
    • 1092 sera and 864 tissues collected
    • Ticks and questionnaires were collected
    • 10 members and 4 collaborators involved
    • 2 external collaborating Institutions {CISA-INIA, Spain and Extension Unit, Iowa State University, USA}
  • 13. FIELD EXPERIENCE
  • 14. FIELD EXPERIENCE
  • 15. FIELD EXPERIENCE
  • 16. FIELD EXPERIENCE
  • 17. FIELD EXPERIENCE
  • 18. FIELD EXPERIENCE
  • 19. SUMMARY OF LESIONS
        • Dark red to purple areas of skin on ears, feet, and tail.
        • Petechial haemorrhages on serosal surfaces of visceral
        • Renal cortical petechial/ecchymotic haemorrhages
        • Peri-renal oedema
        • Oedema of the gall bladder
        • Swollen liver
        • Pulmonary oedema
  • 20.  
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23. LABORATORY ANALYSIS-SEROLOGY INDIRECT ELISA
  • 24. RESULTS: NATIONAL PREVALENCE (SEROLOGY) SAMPLE PER ZONE (%) SAMPLE POSITIVE (%) SAMPLE NEGATIVE (%) NORTH-CENTRAL 526 (48.17) 123 (11.26) 403 (36.90) NORTH-EAST 128 (11.72) 45 (4.12) 83 (7.60) NORTH-WEST 74 (6.78) 5 (0.46) 69 (6.32) SOUTH-EAST 68 (6.23) 4 (0.37) 64 (5.86) SOUTH-SOUTH 195 (17.86) 30 (2.75) 165 (15.11) SOUTH-WEST 101 (9.25) 26 (2.38) 75 (6.87) TOTAL 1092 (100) 233 (21.34) 859 (78.66)
  • 25. DISCUSSION
    • ASF has had significant economic and social impact in Nigeria since 1997.
    • In this study, we confirmed that ASF is still prevalent and widespread in Nigeria.
    • Results from both serosurveillance and virological analyses indicated that ASF is present in most of the agro-ecological zones of the country.
  • 26. DISCUSSION
    • 9% of serum samples and 48% of tissue samples were positive for ASF antibody and genome, respectively.
    • Areas with high pig-related activities have higher prevalence compared to areas with less pig activities.
    • Farm-gate buyers, marketing system and the transport of untested pigs within the country assist with the circulation of the virus.
  • 27. DISCUSSION
    • Only by putting in place:
    • a comprehensive routine surveillance and testing system
    • re-organising the market and transport systems for pigs
    • implementing on-farm biosecurity protocols and considering the option of compensation will it be possible to achieve a significant reduction in ASF prevalence in Nigeria.
  • 28. THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!