AFRICAN SWINE FEVER IN NIGERIA INTERNATIONAL PIG SUMMIT  23-25 TH  NOV. 2010 INSTITUTE FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & TECHNOL...
SCIENTIFIC SESSION <ul><li>INTERNATIONAL PIG SUMMIT 23-25 TH  NOV.2010 </li></ul><ul><li>INSTITUTE FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEAR...
AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS
AFRICAN SWINE FEVER <ul><li>Is a tick bone, contagious, febrile, systemic viral disease of swine. </li></ul><ul><li>It may...
AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS <ul><li>Family: Asfarviridae (ASF And Related virus) </li></ul><ul><li>Genus: Asfarvirus </li></...
AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS <ul><li>Resistance plays a role in its epizootiology </li></ul><ul><li>- stable in blood, urine ...
ASF-NIGERIAN SITUATION <ul><li>First reported initial sporadic infection in 1973. </li></ul><ul><li>West-African widesprea...
ASF CURRENT SITUATION <ul><li>Prior to the 2007 ASF PITT between NVRI, ARCN, ILRI, CISA-INIA, Spain and ISU Global extensi...
CURRENT SITUATION-VACCINE <ul><li>No effective neutralising antibodies are produced against the virus. </li></ul><ul><li>T...
PITT ACTIVITIES <ul><li>Established in 2007 to </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>determine the prevalence of ASF virus  infection ...
PITT ACTIVITIES <ul><ul><ul><li>determine the possible involvement of wild suids in the epidemiology of ASF in Nigeria  </...
SURVEILLANCE ACTIVITIES <ul><li>Nigeria divided into agro-ecological zones </li></ul><ul><li>Key areas with pig activities...
FIELD EXPERIENCE
FIELD EXPERIENCE
FIELD EXPERIENCE
FIELD EXPERIENCE
FIELD EXPERIENCE
FIELD EXPERIENCE
SUMMARY OF LESIONS <ul><ul><ul><li>Dark red to purple areas of skin on ears, feet, and tail.  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
 
 
 
LABORATORY ANALYSIS-SEROLOGY INDIRECT ELISA
RESULTS: NATIONAL PREVALENCE (SEROLOGY) SAMPLE PER ZONE (%) SAMPLE POSITIVE (%) SAMPLE NEGATIVE (%) NORTH-CENTRAL 526 (48....
DISCUSSION <ul><li>ASF has had significant economic and social impact in Nigeria since 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>In this stu...
DISCUSSION <ul><li>9% of serum samples and 48% of tissue samples were positive for ASF antibody and genome, respectively. ...
DISCUSSION <ul><li>Only by putting in place:  </li></ul><ul><li>a comprehensive routine surveillance and testing system  <...
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Field Surveillance and Laboratory diagnoses of African swine fever in Nigeria

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Field Surveillance and Laboratory diagnoses of African swine fever in Nigeria

  1. 1. AFRICAN SWINE FEVER IN NIGERIA INTERNATIONAL PIG SUMMIT 23-25 TH NOV. 2010 INSTITUTE FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY MOOR PLANTATION, IBADAN, NIGERIA
  2. 2. SCIENTIFIC SESSION <ul><li>INTERNATIONAL PIG SUMMIT 23-25 TH NOV.2010 </li></ul><ul><li>INSTITUTE FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, MOOR PLANTATION NIGERIA </li></ul><ul><li>Lazarus, D. D.; Fasina, F. O.; Shamaki, D.; Makinde, A. A. </li></ul><ul><li>National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom </li></ul>
  3. 3. AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS
  4. 4. AFRICAN SWINE FEVER <ul><li>Is a tick bone, contagious, febrile, systemic viral disease of swine. </li></ul><ul><li>It may present with up to 100% mortality in pig. </li></ul><ul><li>Death usually results from haemorrhagic fever. </li></ul>
  5. 5. AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS <ul><li>Family: Asfarviridae (ASF And Related virus) </li></ul><ul><li>Genus: Asfarvirus </li></ul><ul><li>Only DNA arbovirus (insect virus) </li></ul><ul><li>Only (Icosahedral cytoplasmic deoxyribovirus) ICDV pathogenic for mammalian species. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the only two mammalian viruses (+Aleutian virus of Mink) that does not induce neutralising antibodies. </li></ul>
  6. 6. AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS <ul><li>Resistance plays a role in its epizootiology </li></ul><ul><li>- stable in blood, urine and faeces </li></ul><ul><li>- isolated in varying conditions including: -70°C to +56°C, pH 3.9-13.4, dead animals exposed to trypsin, EDTA, antibiotics. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitted by ticks, formites, airbone route and other animals. </li></ul>
  7. 7. ASF-NIGERIAN SITUATION <ul><li>First reported initial sporadic infection in 1973. </li></ul><ul><li>West-African widespread epizootics started in 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>Nigerian pig population increased from 2 to 7 million between 1984 and 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>Nigerian epizootics started in 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1997-8 lost 125,000 pigs worth N292, million. </li></ul>
  8. 8. ASF CURRENT SITUATION <ul><li>Prior to the 2007 ASF PITT between NVRI, ARCN, ILRI, CISA-INIA, Spain and ISU Global extension program Iowa, USA, no coordinated national management plan or surveillance activities was in place. </li></ul><ul><li>No full cost implication of ASF. </li></ul><ul><li>Detected in pigs, bush pigs, red river hog and warthogs. </li></ul><ul><li>Research reports regionalised and fragmented. </li></ul>
  9. 9. CURRENT SITUATION-VACCINE <ul><li>No effective neutralising antibodies are produced against the virus. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no vaccine for African Swine Fever till date. </li></ul>
  10. 10. PITT ACTIVITIES <ul><li>Established in 2007 to </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>determine the prevalence of ASF virus infection in Nigeria. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>carry out isolation, molecular characterization of virus strains from Nigeria. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>survey for the presence of soft tick vectors and their possible role in the transmission of virus. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. PITT ACTIVITIES <ul><ul><ul><li>determine the possible involvement of wild suids in the epidemiology of ASF in Nigeria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>recommend a national control strategy for implementation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>consider possible development of biologicals and techniques for diagnosis. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. SURVEILLANCE ACTIVITIES <ul><li>Nigeria divided into agro-ecological zones </li></ul><ul><li>Key areas with pig activities identified </li></ul><ul><li>Surveillance visits made to markets, abattoirs and farms </li></ul><ul><li>1092 sera and 864 tissues collected </li></ul><ul><li>Ticks and questionnaires were collected </li></ul><ul><li>10 members and 4 collaborators involved </li></ul><ul><li>2 external collaborating Institutions {CISA-INIA, Spain and Extension Unit, Iowa State University, USA} </li></ul>
  13. 13. FIELD EXPERIENCE
  14. 14. FIELD EXPERIENCE
  15. 15. FIELD EXPERIENCE
  16. 16. FIELD EXPERIENCE
  17. 17. FIELD EXPERIENCE
  18. 18. FIELD EXPERIENCE
  19. 19. SUMMARY OF LESIONS <ul><ul><ul><li>Dark red to purple areas of skin on ears, feet, and tail. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Petechial haemorrhages on serosal surfaces of visceral </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Renal cortical petechial/ecchymotic haemorrhages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peri-renal oedema </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oedema of the gall bladder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Swollen liver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary oedema </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 23. LABORATORY ANALYSIS-SEROLOGY INDIRECT ELISA
  21. 24. RESULTS: NATIONAL PREVALENCE (SEROLOGY) SAMPLE PER ZONE (%) SAMPLE POSITIVE (%) SAMPLE NEGATIVE (%) NORTH-CENTRAL 526 (48.17) 123 (11.26) 403 (36.90) NORTH-EAST 128 (11.72) 45 (4.12) 83 (7.60) NORTH-WEST 74 (6.78) 5 (0.46) 69 (6.32) SOUTH-EAST 68 (6.23) 4 (0.37) 64 (5.86) SOUTH-SOUTH 195 (17.86) 30 (2.75) 165 (15.11) SOUTH-WEST 101 (9.25) 26 (2.38) 75 (6.87) TOTAL 1092 (100) 233 (21.34) 859 (78.66)
  22. 25. DISCUSSION <ul><li>ASF has had significant economic and social impact in Nigeria since 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>In this study, we confirmed that ASF is still prevalent and widespread in Nigeria. </li></ul><ul><li>Results from both serosurveillance and virological analyses indicated that ASF is present in most of the agro-ecological zones of the country. </li></ul>
  23. 26. DISCUSSION <ul><li>9% of serum samples and 48% of tissue samples were positive for ASF antibody and genome, respectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Areas with high pig-related activities have higher prevalence compared to areas with less pig activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Farm-gate buyers, marketing system and the transport of untested pigs within the country assist with the circulation of the virus. </li></ul>
  24. 27. DISCUSSION <ul><li>Only by putting in place: </li></ul><ul><li>a comprehensive routine surveillance and testing system </li></ul><ul><li>re-organising the market and transport systems for pigs </li></ul><ul><li>implementing on-farm biosecurity protocols and considering the option of compensation will it be possible to achieve a significant reduction in ASF prevalence in Nigeria. </li></ul>
  25. 28. THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!

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