Application of Nuclear Technique in Animal Disease Surveillance at National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria.

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NATIONAL WORKSHOP ON THE REVIEW OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENERGY MASTERPLAN IN THE NUCLEAR SECTOR, 1-2 NOVEMBER, 2010 …

NATIONAL WORKSHOP ON THE REVIEW OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENERGY MASTERPLAN IN THE NUCLEAR SECTOR, 1-2 NOVEMBER, 2010

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  • 1. APPLICATION OF NUCLEAR TECHNIQUE IN ANIMAL DISEASE SURVEILLANCE AT NATIONAL VETERINARY RESEARCH INSTITUTE, VOM NIGERIA LAZARUS, D. D*.; FASINA, F. O.; MESEKO, C. A.; ULARAMU, G. H.; WOMA, T. Y.; JOANNIS, T. M.; IBRAHIM, G. A.; SHAMAKI, D.; AHMED, M. S. NATIONAL WORKSHOP ON THE REVIEW OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENERGY MASTERPLAN IN THE NUCLEAR SECTOR, 1-2 NOVEMBER, 2010
  • 2. Background History of NVRI
    • NVRI-established as a Vet. Dept. in Zaria, 1913.
    • conducting livestock Census
    • disease surveys
    • controlling disease by isolation & quarantine
    • It was relocated to Vom in 1924 as a Vet. Lab.
    • In the same year, the first biological was produced to control rinderpest outbreaks.
  • 3. Background History of NVRI
    • By the production of the first anti-rinderpest serum in 1924, it became a pioneer Institute in W. African sub-region in the production of a wide range of vaccines.
    • Up to 1972, apart from meeting the local demand, the Institute also supplied vaccines to all the Anglo-phone countries in the sub-region.
  • 4. Mandate
    • To conduct research into all aspects of animal diseases, their treatments and controls.
    • To develop and produce animal vaccines, sera and biologicals to meet national demand.
    • To provide surveillance and diagnosis for animal diseases.
    • To introduce exotic stock for improved egg, meat and milk production.
  • 5. Mandate
    • To provide extension services to poultry and livestock farmers.
    • To train intermediate manpower in Veterinary Laboratory Technology and Animal Health and Production Technology.
  • 6. Introduction
    • The early, rapid and sensitive diagnosis of infectious animal diseases is a high priority to ensure food security.
    • Most of the modern biotechnologies rely on nuclear inputs, either in their development or their implementation phase.
  • 7. Introduction
    • Nuclear, nuclear associated/related techniques, including ELISA, PCR and nucleic acid sequencing, ensure that these food security priorities are met.
    • Recently developed real time PCR tests for most TADs now enable specific identification of the organisms.
  • 8. Introduction
    • There is an advantage in providing diagnostic results at the pen side, to enable immediate decision on appropriate control measures.
    • Radiation inactivation is another technique that has enormous potential for producing vaccines against pathogens that have so far proved intractable and in finding methods to protect against infections.
  • 9. Introduction
    • The IAEA has produced and validated ELISA kits that are now in use for diagnostic purpose.
    • Rinderpest
    • FMD
    • ND
    • Brucellosis
    • Trypanosomosis
  • 10. Application
    • The use of isotope related techniques in disease management:
    • Diagnoses
    • Epidemiological studies
    • Sero-monitoring to verify vaccination coverage
    • Surveillance to monitor outbreaks
    • Epidemiological surveys to declare freedom of disease
  • 11. Application
    • Rinderpest is today eradicated worldwide through combinations of nuclear techniques (ELISA) and epidemiological surveys.
    • Nigeria was involved in this exercise for over 5-years leading to the declaration freedom from Rinderpest disease status for Nigeria early this year (May, 2010).
    • The Avian Influenza outbreak that struck Nigeria was controlled through targeted surveillance across the country including the use of nuclear techniques (ELISA and PCRs).
  • 12. Application
    • The Institute was keenly involved in national surveillance especially at the laboratory levels for the declaration of freedom from rinderpest.
    • Over 6000 samples were collected from both domestic animals and the wildlife and analyzed for antibodies to rinderpest.
    • Since the ASF outbreak in 1997, the Institute has applied ELISA and Immunoblotting as a routine tool in diagnoses and surveillance.
  • 13. Application
    • For AI, ND and other avian viruses similar techniques are in use for their diagnoses and control.
    • For FMD, both solid and liquid phase ELISA technique are in application for diagnoses.
    • Similarly, for PPR, both competitive and immunocapture ELISA.
  • 14. Indirect ELISA plate for ASF
  • 15. M LN PT C- C+
  • 16. Phylogenetic analysis of Asian and African strains of rinderpest based on sequence data derived from fusion protein gene
  • 17. Add title here
  • 18. Discussion
    • The development of nuclear techniques by several organizations has helped in the control and eradication of infectious animal diseases globally.
    • This has also contributed to the understanding of the epidemiology of many diseases.
    • Diseases like rinderpest that have posed threat to the livestock industry have been eradicated by the application of these techniques through prompt diagnoses and surveillance.
  • 19. Discussion
    • Using such techniques early and rapid diagnosis of TADs have helped to achieve success in disease control.
    • The rapid, sensitive and specific detection of disease nucleic acids using molecular technologies (RT-PCR, PCR sequencing) and use of isotopes to label or trace virus nucleic acid or proteins have come with tremendous success.
  • 20. Discussion
    • The application of these techniques in disease diagnoses and surveillance has achieved success in the control and eradication of many of the prevalent livestock diseases.
    • This has improve livestock production and food security. It has also empowered farmers economically.
    • The application of nuclear technique has come to stay in animal disease surveillance.
  • 21. THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!