Emerging Adulthood: Psychosocial
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Emerging Adulthood: Psychosocial

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Emerging Adulthood: Psychosocial Emerging Adulthood: Psychosocial Presentation Transcript

  • Emerging Adulthood:Psychosocial
    Demirchyan, Layla
    Ibrahim, Aiman
    Papazian, Christina
    Wharton, Amy
  • Personality Patterns
    Personality endures lifelong
    Nature and nurture both play major roles in the formation of a personality
    Origins are genetic; early childhood experiences shape the expression of genetic impulses
    New personality dimensions are particularly likely to appear in emerging adulthood
    Personality is far from static after childhood
  • Continuity and Change
    The personality patterns of adults of every age are affected by the norms of their culture and by their social context
    Emerging adults today make choices that are adventuresome breaks with their past
    Have not yet settled into a chosen family or lifestyle
    Therefore, not surprising that personalities may change
    Psychological research on personality traits of twins from ages 17 to 24 finds both genetic continuity and developmental improvements
    Longitudinal studies have shown that actual patterns of change are complex
    Plasticity is evident
    Personality is not fixed in emerging adults but is rather open to new experiences
    Major decisions—going to college, leaving home, becoming independent, or stopping drug abuse—have the potential to change the life course
    Does not mean total change is possible
  • Mental Health and Illness
    Emerging adults usually feel quite pleased with themselves
    Dealing with transitions successfully correlates with well-being (Schulenberg et al., 2005)
    The stresses of emerging adulthood might be thought to reduce self-esteem, but research has evidenced otherwise
    Allows young adults to be less self-centered and more caring of other people (N. Eisenberg et al., 2005; Padilla-Walker et al. 2008)
    Taking on one responsibility makes it easier to take on another (Sneed et al., 2007)
  • Mental Health and Illness (cont’d)
  • Tibetan Personality Test
    Put the following five animals in order by preference: cow, horse, tiger, sheep, and pig
    Write one word that describes each of the following items:dog, cat, rat, coffee, and sea
    Think of someone who you know, who also knows you, that is important to you which can relate to the following colors.  Do not use the same person twice: yellow, orange,red, white, and green
  • This will define your priorities in life:
        Cowsignifies career
         Tiger signifies pride
        Sheepsignifies love
        Horse signifies family
        Pigsignifies money
    Your description of :
    Dogimplies your personality
        Cat implies your partner's personality
        Ratimplies the personality of your enemies
        Coffeeis how you interpret sex
        Sea implies your own life
    Yellow: someone you'll never forget Orange: someone you consider a true friendRed: someone you really loveWhite: your twin soulGreen: someone you will remember for the rest of your life
    Your Answers…
  • Psychopathology
    Most emerging adults benefit from independence
    Some become overwhelmed by the many obstacles they face
    From ages 18 to 25, “young people are coming to grips with their lives” (Galambos et al., 2006, p. 360)
    Average well-being increases, but so does the incidence of psychopathology, or mental disorders
    Adults are more likely to have an episode of mental illness during emerging adulthood than during any later time
    Researchers agree that the late teens and early 20s are a sensitive period
    Diathesis-stress model is the view that psychological disorders, such as schizophrenia, are produced by the interaction of a genetic vulnerability (the diathesis) and stressful environmental factors and life events
    Some of the actions of emerging adults disrupt healthy emotions
    For instance, substance use disorder, or drug abuse
  • Specific Mental Disorders
    Each particular psychopathology has a developmental trajectory
    Substance use disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia are more likely to appear in emerging adulthood
    Mood disorders
    About one-quarter of mood disorders begin in adolescence, and another quarter being in young adulthood
    Before age 30, 15% of U.S. residents suffer from a mood disorder such as major depression
    Origins of major depression are biochemical, involving imbalances in neurotransmitters and hormones, but stresses can be triggers
    Anxiety disorders
    Occur in about one-fourth of all emerging adults in the United States
    Include PTSD, OCD, panic attacks, and eating disorders
    Influenced by age, cultural context, and economic pressure
    A new anxiety disorder in Japan called hikikomori, or “pull away,” may affect more than 100,000 young adults
    A person with hikikomori is intensely anxious about the social and academic pressures of life
    Pressures to succeed in all aspects can overwhelm young adults
    Schizophrenia
    About 1% of all adults experience at least one episode of schizophrenia
    Partly genetic
    A child who has a biological parent with schizophrenia has about 1 chance in 8 of developing the disorder
    Other factors beyond heredity increase the rate, including anoxia at birth, malnutrition while the brain is developing, and social pressure
    Developmentalists find an interest in the relationship among age, gender, and schizophrenia
    Almost never does a first episode occur before age 10 or after age 25
    Diagnosis is most common from ages 18 to 24
    Young males are particularly vulnerable
    Something in the bodies, minds, or social surroundings of young men are factors in the onset of schizophrenia
  • Identity and Intimacy
    Identity Achieved…
    The search for identity begins at puberty and continues on through emerging adulthood
    Erickson believed that, at each stage, the outcome of earlier crises provides the foundation of each new era
    Childhood experiences affects adult development
  • Identity and Intimacy (cont’d)
  • Ethnic Identity
    In the U.S. and Canada, about half of the 18- to 25-year-olds are either children of immigrants or are native-born adults
    Ethnicity is a significant aspect of identity
    Emerging adults have friends with more diverse backgrounds than any other age group
    It is particularly difficult for immigrants to forge an identity
    Ethnic identity may affect choices in language, manners, romance, employment, neighborhood, religion, clothing, and values
    Ethnic identity is always complex:
    It is reciprocal, both a personal choice and a response to others
    It depends on context, so it changes with time and circumstances
    It is multifaceted: Emerging adults choose to accept some attributes and reject others
    Changing contexts of life require ethnic identity to be reestablished at each phase
    In addition, combining past and future is a complex but crucial task
  • Vocational Identity
    Establishing a vocational identity is widely considered part of adulthood
    A correlation between college education and income has always been apparent
    Correlation is not perfect (1% of those in the top one-fifth income bracket are not high school graduates), but it is high
    Majority of emerging adults are employed while they are in college
    Whether in college or not, most young adults move from job to job
    Between ages 18 and 27, the average U.S. worker has eight jobs (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2006)
    Hiring and firing seem disconnected from the worker’s training or need for a steady job, especially for younger workers
  • Vocational Identity (cont’d)
  • Intimacy
    Erickson forcefully noted the reality that people need each other
    Erickson’s sixth psychosocial stage, intimacy versus isolation, particularly emphasizes that humans are social creatures
    All intimate relationships are common in many ways
    Intimacy progresses from attraction to close connection to ongoing commitment
    Erickson noted that each relationship demands some personal sacrifice
    People need “concrete affiliations and partnerships”
  • Friendships
    Friends are chosen for the very qualities that make them good companions:
    Trustworthy, reliable, understanding, loyal, affectionate, humorous
    They defend against stress and provide joy
    Traditionally, young men and women choose to be friends with their own sex and engage in sex-specific activities with them
    Males: shared activities
    Sports, cars, contests
    Females: intimate, emotional activities
    Self-disclosing talks about health, romances, and relatives
    Today’s common contexts of emerging adulthood all foster multiple acquaintances and friends of both sexes
  • Romance
    The Dimensions of Love…
    Robert Sternberg described 3 distinct aspects of love:
    Passion, intimacy, and commitment
    Passionis the connection between a couple; it’s the dominant aspect of love for young adults
    Characterized by excitement, ecstasy, and euphoria
    The entire body and mind, hormones, and neurons are activated
    Intimacy is established when couples know each other well enough to share secrets, as well as sex
    Commitmentis the one that takes time
    Occurs through decisions, caregiving, shared possessions and secrets
    Passion may fade, intimacy may grow, and commitment may develop
    This pattern may occur for all types of couples
    Contemporary Lovers…
    People who marry young are likely to get divorced because they rush and do not develop the three dimensions of love
    Establishing a non-sexual relationship that later leads to one is proven to be more successful than otherwise
    College students engage in what they call "hookups," purely sexual activity with no relationship
  • Romance (cont’d)
  • Romance (cont’d)
    Cohabitation…
    Cohabit means to live with an unrelated person—typically a romantic partner—to whom one is not married
    May share expenses and routines as well as a bed but not a belief in long-term commitments
    Domestic violence and excessive drinking are more likely to occur among young adults who cohabit than among those who marry
    Married couples are more likely to divorce if they have lived together before marriage
    Divorce is common (ending 45% of U.S. marriages) and difficult
  • Family Connections
    Families are “our most important individual support system.”
    All members of each family have linked lives
    The experiences and needs of family members at one stage of life are affected by those of members at other stages
    Parents continue to be crucial influences after age 18
    Fewer emerging adults today have established their own families, secured successful jobs, or achieved a definite understanding of their identity and goals
    In many aspects, parents of emerging adults are relatively well off
    Financially stable
    Lack thereof in some cases is a problem for emerging adults affected by it
    College is costly; living expenses are not cheap
    Worldwide, college graduation rates decrease as family income falls
    Health wise, most can expect to live for decades longer
    Reasoning as to why they want their adult children to be successful
  • Family Connections (cont’d)
    Most emerging adults, like humans of all ages, have strengths as well as liabilities
    Many survive risks, overcome substance abuse, combat loneliness, and deal with many of the challenges of life
    Most find liberation in postponing major life decisions—marriage, parenting, career success—until their identity is firmly established
    Then they are ready for the commitment and responsibility of adulthood…