The muslim-league


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The muslim-league

  1. 1. The Muslim LeagueChapter - 6
  2. 2. Growth of CommunalismQuestions AnswersWhen did Hindus andMuslims fight for first timeand who exploited them?Hindus and Muslim fought for the firsttime during First War ofIndependence in 1857. Bothcommunities were exploited byBritish.What made British to exploitHindus and Muslims? AndWhy?1. The Unity between Hindus andMuslims posed a danger to Britishimperialism; and2. The uprising of 1857 made Britishrealize that they had to divide thetwo communities in order toprolong their rule in India.Hence British exploited bothcommunities for fight.
  3. 3. Growth of CommunalismQuestions AnswersWhat method British adoptedto encourage twocommunities to fight?British tried to sow the seeds ofdisagreement between Hindus andMuslims; and encouraged them tofight.How British tackled risingtide of National Movementusing communalism?British named the NationalMovement as a movement forestablishing the ‘Hindu Kingdom’ inIndia and encouraged Muslim to settheir own political organizationHow and when MuslimLeague was formed?In 1906, the Muslim League wasformed due to British policy of‘Divide and Rule’
  4. 4. Questions AnswersHow British spreadcommunal hatred?British tried to spread communalhatred through - Press; Posters;Public Platform and Literature;(PPP-L)Why the number of Muslimseducated in WesternEducation system remainedsmall?The number of educated Muslim inwestern education system remainedsmall; because it was affordableonly to upper class Muslims, calledZamindars; but they wereconservative and hostile to moderneducation system.Factors promoting the formation of Muslim League
  5. 5. Questions AnswersWhy British discriminatedMuslims in the recruitment ofCivil and Military services?British government had consciouslydiscriminated Muslims; becausethey were holding Muslimsresponsible for Uprising of 1857.Hence, Muslims were not recruitedin Civil and Military services.Why Muslim Community didnot keep up with the moderntrends in social and culturalspheres?Muslim Community was proud oftheir own literature; hence did notadopt Western Education system.Therefore, Muslim community didnot keep up with the trends insocial and cultural spheres.Factors promoting the formation of Muslim League
  6. 6. Questions AnswersWhy more Hindus weregetting entry intoGovernment servicescompared to Muslims?As the Modern Education wasessential to get entry intoGovernment services; and moreHindus adopted Western system ofEducation compared to Muslims.Therefore more Hindus got entry inGovernment Services.Who was Sir Sayyid AhmedKhan?Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan was a greateducationist and social reformer;and considered Hindus andMuslims as ‘One Quam’. He foundedMohammedan Anglo-OrientalCollege in Aligarh.Factors promoting the formation of Muslim League
  7. 7. Questions AnswersHow Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khanchanged his ‘One Quam’views?Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan under theinfluence of the British Principal ofMohammedan Anglo-OrientalCollege changed his views of ‘oneQuam’ in 1880.Why Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khanbelieved that Hindus willdominate the Muslims in caseof withdrawal of British rule?Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan believedthat since the Hindus formedmajority of the Indian populationthey would dominate the Muslimsin case of withdrawal of BritishFactors promoting the formation of Muslim League
  8. 8. Questions AnswersWhich rules were consideredof Muslim period by BritishHistorians?The Turks; Afghans; and Mughalsrules, who followed Islam as theirreligion were considered MuslimRules by few British historians.In Hindu rule period, howwas the Muslim rulers wereconsidered?In Hindu period, the Muslim rulerswere considered as foreign invaderswho had settled in India,How British infusedcommunal feelings based onHistory of India?Some of the British Historianportrayed that Hindus consideredtheir ruler, Maharana Pratap Singhand Shivaji as national Heroes;whereas Mughal rulers, Aurangzeband Akbar as foreigners.Factors promoting the formation of Muslim League
  9. 9. Questions Answers‘Indian History wasmisinterpreted by someBritish Historians’ give twopointsFew British communal Historians –1. Ignored the notion of acomposite culture; and2. Failed to interpret that thediversity in India was class-wised and region-wise; but notreligion-wise.How British propagatedcommunal bias within thesociety?British propagated communal biasthrough Poetry; Dramas; Novels;Short Stories and News Papers, etc.Factors promoting the formation of Muslim League
  10. 10. Questions AnswersWhat events of Assertivenationalists annoyedMuslims?The event that annoyed Muslims were-1. Shivaji and Ganpati Festival started byTilak2. Concept of India as a Mother byAurobindo Ghosh3. Anti Partition agitation with dip inGangaWhy Indian educated youthstarted demandingreservations based on casteand religion?Indian Educated youth demandedreservation on the basis of caste, because –1. India lack modern industrialdevelopment; creating acuteunemployment among educated youth.2. This increased fierce competition amongthemselves to secure the few availablejobs .Factors promoting the formation of Muslim League
  11. 11. Questions AnswersWhy the MohammedanAnglo-Oriental Association(MAO) was formed?To counter the growing influence andpopularity of the Congress; Britishencouraged Muslims to form MAO.Write any two objectives ofthe Muslim LeagueObjectives of the Muslim League were1. To promote, among the Muslims ofIndia support for the Britishgovernment, and2. To remove any misconceptionsregarding the intention of thegovernment in relation to IndianMuslimsFactors promoting the formation of Muslim League
  12. 12. Q: Enlist the Factors promoting formation of the MuslimLeagueFactors promoting formation of Muslim League were –1. The loss of Sovereignty by Mughal Rulers.2. British Policy of Divide and Rule3. Relative Backwardness of the Muslim community inEducation; Trade & Industry4. Role of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan5. Erroneous in interpretation of History6. Rise of Assertive Nationalism7. Economic Backwardness of the Community.Factors promoting the formation of Muslim League
  13. 13. Q: With the reference to the formation of Muslim League,discuss – loss of Sovereignty of Mughal rulers.Loss of Sovereignty of Mughal ruler was one of the factors forformation of Muslim League; as –1. British established their supremacy in India after dethroningMughal rulers; making Muslims bitter enemies of British; and theyparticipated in Wahabi Movement to re-establish Mughal rule.2. The British government continuously discriminated against theMuslim; holding them responsible for uprising of 1857.3. After 1870, British changed their attitude and developeddisagreement between two communities; encouraged communaltension; & helped Muslim League to formFactors promoting the formation of Muslim League
  14. 14. Q: With the reference to the formation of Muslim League,discuss British Policy of Divide and Rule.The British Policy of Divide and Rule helped formation of MuslimLeague as –1. After the First War of Independence in 1857; British becameapprehensive about Safety & Stability of their empire in India2. British saw the unity between Hindus and Muslims as threatto their empire.3. Hence, to check the feeling of United Nationalism in India andto encourage Communal separation; British adopted Divideand Rule Policy in India.Factors promoting the formation of Muslim League
  15. 15. Q: Discuss the manner in which the Divide and Rule policy wasimplemented.The British used Policy of Divide and Rule to develop communal tension &separation between Hindu and Muslim –1. In 1871, Lord Mayo Government introduced Urdu as medium ofinstructions for Muslims in primary and secondary schools; &increased aid to schools run by Muslims.2. British treated Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs as separate communities &accepted their communal leaders as authentic representatives.3. British tried to spread communal hatred through the Press, Posters;Literature; and Public platform.4. Justified Bengal partition by convincing Muslims that it was done tocreate a New Muslim majority province.5. Used cast structure to exploit Brahmins against non-BrahminsFactors promoting the formation of Muslim League
  16. 16. Q: With the reference to the Divide and Rule policy discuss –Relative Backwardness of the Muslim community inEducation; Trade & IndustryRelative backwardness of the Muslims community in Education was oneof the points exploited by British under Divide and Rule Policy; because-1. Muslims were conservative & hostile to modern education;therefore very few Muslims were educated in Western educationsystem.2. Muslims were discriminated in the recruitment to civil and militaryservices;3. Muslims were relatively less involved in the growth of any organizedindustry.4. Muslims did not keep up with the modern trends in social andcultural sphere.Factors promoting the formation of Muslim League
  17. 17. Q: With the reference to the Divide and Rule policy discuss –Role of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan.1. Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan was a great educationist and social reformer;and considered Hindus and Muslims as ‘One Quam’.2. He founded Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental Collage’ (MAO), at Aligarh.3. Under the influence of the Principal of MAO Collage; he changed hisviews of ‘One Quam’ in 1880.4. He founded ‘United Indian Patriotic Association’ in 1888 to opposeCongress; which was supported by the Principal of MAO Collage; whoseidea was Anglo-Muslim unity is possible but unity of Hindu-Muslims isimpossible.5. He felt that having British rule was a “guarantee for the welfare andprogress of the Muslim.” Hence, asked educated Muslims to support theBritish, so that they would be rewarded by government jobs.Factors promoting the formation of Muslim League
  18. 18. Q: With the reference to the Divide and Rule policy discuss –wrong interpretation of Indian History.1. Some British and communal historians divided Indian history intothe Hindu and the Muslim periods.2. Hindu rulers like Maharana Pratap and Shivaji portrayed Muslimrulers, Akabar and Aurangzeb as foreigners.3. Some communal historians highlighted the myth that Indiansociety and culture was at great height in ancient time; butdeclined during medieval Mughal period.4. The British & communal historians ignored the notion of acomposite culture in India. They failed to interpret that thediversity was primarily class-wise and region-wise and notreligion-wise.Factors promoting the formation of Muslim League
  19. 19. Q: With reference to the Divide and Rule policy discuss –Rise of Assertive Nationalism.1. The speeches and actions of some of the assertivenationalists annoyed some sections of Indians.2. The propagation of Shivaji and Ganpati Festival by Tilak;the concept of India as a mother by Aurobindo Ghosh;and taking dip in Ganga to protest Partition of Bengal –were not accepted by some of the Muslims.Factors promoting the formation of Muslim League
  20. 20. Q: With the reference to the Divide and Rule policy discuss– Economic Backwardness of the society.1. Due to the British colonial policies, India lack modemindustrial development; which lead to acuteunemployment among the educated youth; and fiercecompetition among them.2. Hence; people started demanding reservations on thebasis of caste; creed and religion.3. British used this opportunity to push their divide andrule policy.Factors promoting the formation of Muslim League
  21. 21. Q: Enlist the Events leading to the formation of the MuslimLeague.1. The Hindi – Urdu Controversy.2. Formation of Mohammedan Anglo-OrientalAssociation.3. The Aligarh Politics4. Partition of Bengal5. Muslim deputation to the Viceroy, Lord MintoEvents leading to the formation of Muslim League
  22. 22. Q: What was the Hindi-Urdu controversy that led toformation of Muslim League? .1. In Uttar Pradesh Urdu was the court language; and allthe petitions to the court was submitted in Urdu.2. Some sections of the society objected this practice.3. In 1900, the Government instructed that petition can besubmitted in Hindi, Devnagri script; and Court summonofficial announcements in Hindi and Urdu.4. Muslims oppose this summons & agitated against it.Events leading to the formation of Muslim League
  23. 23. Q: What were the objectives of Muslim League? .The Aims and Objectives of the Muslim League were –1. To promote, among the Muslims of India, support for theBritish government, and to remove any misconceptionsregarding the intention of the government in relation to IndianMuslims.2. To protect and advance the political rights and interests of theMuslims and to represent their needs and aspirations to thegovernment in mild and moderate language.3. To prevent the rise of feelings of hostility between theMuslims of India and other communities.Aims and Objectives of the Muslim League
  24. 24. Questions Answers“Policies of Muslim League tosome extend weakenednationalist sentiment -explainFormation and Policies of MuslimLeague weakened Nationalistsmovement as –1. British welcomed formation ofMuslim League and supported theLeague to provide an opposition toCongress.2. British supported the objective thatMuslim interests were differentfrom those of Hindus.How British created riftbetween Congress andMuslim LeagueTo please Muslims the demand ofseparate electorate was intentionallyincorporated in Morley-MintoReforms in 1906; to create riftbetween League and Congress.Impact of Muslim League on National Movement
  25. 25. Questions AnswersName the Muslim Scholarsinfluenced by Deoband school ofMuslim studies and inspired byNationalist sentiment?Muslim Scholars influenced by Deobandschool of Muslim studies and inspiredby Nationalist sentiment were –1. Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad2. Habibur Rahman3. Hakim Ajmal Khan4. Mazhar-ul-HaqHow Congress supportedLeague?The Congress cooperated withMuslim League in Khilafat Movement ;and this issue was included as one ofthe demands of the Non-CooperationMovement.Impact of Muslim League on National Movement
  26. 26. Questions Answers‘The Partition of the Country oncommunal lines’ – explain• The communal divide continued.• The League raised first its demandfor separate Pakistan in 1930 .• In 1940 sessions of League at Lahore.Mohammad Ali Jinnah put forwardhis two-nation theory.• Thus despite a sever opposition fromGandhiji, the country drifted towardspartition.Impact of Muslim League on National Movement
  27. 27. Q: With reference to the Impact of Muslim League,describe the League’s Role in the beginning.1. The League had separate entity; and initially stood apart formthe National Movement.2. League sort greater representations of Muslims in all theservices; including representations in Assemblies.3. Political Activities of League were directed not so muchagainst foreign rules; but were against Congress.4. The top leaders of Muslim League did not fight for thegrievances of mass Muslims.Impact of Muslim League on National Movement
  28. 28. Q: Describe the reasons for the Phase of Rapprochement withinthe Muslim League.Some of the new leaders of Muslim League realized the rapprochementwith congress was desirable; because of –1. Britain’s hostility to Turkey in the Turko-Italian War; and Balkanwars made large sections of Muslim critical on British Policies2. The annulment of Partition of Bengal in 1911, was seen asdetrimental to the interests of Muslims in India.3. The younger Muslim leaders disliked the loyalist politics of theAligarh group and the leadership of big Nawabs and Zamindars.4. Some young scholars influenced by Deoband School of Muslimstudies were inspired by Nationalist sentiments.Impact of Muslim League on National Movement
  29. 29. Best of Luck!